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*Note* This scheduling program was not designed by folks who do a lot with APA Style and unfortunately it defaults to listing authors in alphabetical order. We cannot fix this for this online schedule, but the author orders are posted in the order submitted in the printed program available via pdf here.

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Thursday, March 5
 

8:00am

Sacrificial Advocates: A Restorative Justice Experience to reflect upon our conditions, gather our resources, reaffirm our strength, and choose our responses
This workshop is developed as a restorative justice experience for women who have experienced the stress of being an advocate for social justice while holding a “marginalized” status. This workshop is a space to reflect upon our conditions, gather our resources, reaffirm our goals and strength, and choose our responses.


Thursday March 5, 2015 8:00am - 12:00pm
Oregon

8:00am

Supervision Frameworks: Addressing Diversity, Intersectionality, and Social Justice
This workshop addresses supervision and diversity, particularly the intersections of gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and disability. Four experienced supervisors will offer best practices, processes, case examples, and exercises for supervising diverse students and addressing their diverse clients within a framework of multiple identities. The first presenter will provide feminist/multicultural models of supervision that facilitate supervisees’ expanding knowledge and reducing resistance to self-reflection and dialogue. Topics include: power, privilege, identity development, and under- or over-identification with members of diverse groups. The models are grounded in feminist, The second presenter will explore multicultural considerations and the complexity of issues, such as “cookbook” cultural interventions, socialization into politically correct thinking, and fear of exposure of “not knowing.” These issues complicate the dialogue between supervisor, trainee, and client. A framework for transforming this dialogue toward a more reflective multicultural metapsychology will be advanced. Presenter #3 will address the changing face of supervision for LGBT supervisees and clients. New issues have surfaced as the availability of information about LGBT issues and the sophistication of current supervisees have increased. Topics will include: shifting from a focus on homophobia/heterocentrism to new realities in the lives of LGBT individuals; providing multiple ways to assess supervisees’ competencies with LGBT people and communities; strategies for helping supervisees determine the role of LGBT issues in case formulation; and addressing obstacles to effective interventions and relationships. The fourth presenter will address ways to supervise individuals with disabilities. She will delineate manifestations of both “concrete” barriers, such as physical access, absence of sign language interpreting or Braille materials, and contextual/ psychological barriers such as isolation, prejudice and discrimination. She will describe ways for supervisors to maximize the probability of success for the supervisor, the supervisee, the client, and the agency. Both commonalities across disabilities and specific issues and accommodations for categories of disabilities will be addressed


Thursday March 5, 2015 8:00am - 12:00pm
Crystal

8:00am

Teaching Cultural Competence in Mental Health Training Programs
This workshop offers participants the opportunity to acquire substantive information and skill enhancement in the construction and instruction of the courses that seek to develop cultural competence in mental health training programs. The presenter will examine the pedagogical components that are deemed necessary for training clinicians to be competent in the delivery of psychological services to members of culturally diverse groups. Such groups include but are not exclusive to, women, people of color, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered men and women, people with disabilities, members of diverse religious groups and socioeconomic statuses, immigrants, particularly dynamics that apply to individuals who have multiple identities along these axes. The workshop will also identify challenges that instructors frequently encounter and strategies for negotiating those challenges.


Thursday March 5, 2015 8:00am - 12:00pm
Washington

8:00am

White Women Unlearning Racism
This 4-hour workshop provides in-depth preparation for the AWP IMP-sponsored session during regular conference hours. The workshop, facilitated by White Women in addition to a Woman of Color, uses a combination of psychoeducational and experiential approaches to raise critical awareness around White Women’s privilege. The first step in unlearning racism is to acknowledge that as White Women, we have all internalized racist messages to some degree. Through dialogue, our agenda as facilitators is to help each participant identify where you are in the process of unlearning and challenging racism as White Women. We will also discuss what it means to be White and explore examples of White privilege, distinguish between overt and covert racism, identify the process of racial tokenism, discuss principles of anti-racist action and advocacy, and provide strategies for overcoming racism within our communities and ourselves. As facilitators, we will encourage personal racial self-analysis and awareness with a critical consciousness through multimedia material, handouts, and opportunities for small and large group work. We are aware that White Women attending this workshop may be at different stages in unlearning racism, and recognize this material is inherently intense and oftentimes uncomfortable. Thus, we encourage self-care throughout.


Thursday March 5, 2015 8:00am - 12:00pm
Gold Rush B

8:00am

Women of Color Institute: Eradicating Myopic Thinking: The Root of Unconscious Bias - The Core of Racism
The focus of this session is unconscious bias and the racial micro-aggressions in which it often results. Within that context, workshop discussions will focus on the root cause of unconscious bias, its impact on recipients, and some very specific, effective strategies for eradicating it. This is a very interactive session.


Thursday March 5, 2015 8:00am - 12:00pm
Gold Rush A

8:00am

Beyond Violence: A Prevention Program for Women Involved in the Criminal Justice System
This training provides an introduction to a new evidence-based, manualized curriculum for women in jails, prisons, community corrections, and the larger community. This trauma-informed curriculum is aimed at reducing aggression, regulating anger and helping women to develop ways of living that are incompatible with violence. It uses the Social-Ecological Model to understand and contextualize violence. This four-level model of violence prevention considers the complex interplay between individual, relationship, community, and societal factors. It addresses the factors that put people at risk for experiencing and/or perpetuating violence, and incorporates women’s experiences as victims and perpetrators of violence. This model of violence prevention is used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), World Health Organization (WHO), and was used in the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) research on women in prison. This is the first evidence-based curriculum on this topic and is suitable for use in community corrections, as well as institutional settings. The curriculum consists of 20 sessions (2 hours per session) and incorporates a variety of evidence-based therapeutic strategies (i.e., psycho-education, role playing, mindfulness activities, cognitive-behavioral restructuring, and grounding skills for trauma). Two versions of this curriculum will be shared during the session: Beyond Violence: A Prevention Program for Criminal-Justice Involved Women and Beyond Anger and Violence: A Program for Women which is designed for women in community-based settings. During this training session, attendees will participate in some of the interactive exercises, such as calming and grounding exercises, cognitive-behavioral techniques, and role playing activities. All activities will be voluntary and will vary in individual and small-group format. Attendees will also view portions of a film entitled What I Want My Words to Do to You that is used in the curriculum and displays both women’s stories of their experiences with violence and core components of the intervention.

Speakers
SC

Stephanie Covington

Center for Gender and Justice
GF

Gina Fedock

Michigan State University


Thursday March 5, 2015 8:00am - 5:00pm
Nevada

1:00pm

Empowering Women with Chronic Illness and Disability: Best Practices for Psychological and Mind/body Interventions
Autoimmune disorders affect more women than men, and carry multiple sequelae common in chronic illness or disability (CID). This workshop focuses on the psychologist’s role in empowering women with CID to self-manage and advocate. We cover the psychological challenges, psychological and mind/body interventions for symptoms, trauma resolution, developing a wellness plan and working with medical professionals.


Thursday March 5, 2015 1:00pm - 5:00pm
California

1:00pm

Implicit Attitudes: A Research-based model for understanding and interrupting subtle forms of bias and oppression
This workshop provides an introduction to implicit attitudes, a framework for thinking about issues around diversity that bypasses shame and blame while offering a vehicle for taking responsibility for creating real change. The research on implicit attitudes suggests one important empirically based avenue for understanding how, despite so much laudable institutional change, different forms of oppression continue to present members of target (and non-target) groups with constraints and challenges. The implicit attitudes framework allows us to label some of the more subtle forms in which oppression occur and provides clear implications for intervention. This workshop will demonstrate applications of this model to such areas as diversity training, psychotherapy/counseling, academic skills development, group therapy, work with members of targeted groups and groups of allies, and varied teaching, outreach and consultation interventions. This workshop will begin with a thorough exploration of the implicit attitudes model and how it can be used to understand subtler dynamics in issues of oppression. We will create a community of participants who will focus on developing a working understanding of the model, with attention to the dynamics of sexism, racism, homophobia/heterosexism, ableism, classism, genderism, anti-immigrant bias, and religious bias. We will be sharing real life examples of applying the implicit attitudes model in an array of settings looking at both successes and challenges. Participants will take part in interactive and experiential activities to allow for practice with labeling, explaining, and interrupting these attitudes and addressing them at personal, interpersonal, institutional, and climate levels. Participants will leave with clear action steps of how the implicit attitudes model can be used in their own personal and professional work.


Thursday March 5, 2015 1:00pm - 5:00pm
Oregon

1:00pm

The Pedagogy of Privilege and Oppression: Classroom Techniques and Strategies to Build student Critical Consciousness
Many feminist scholars strive to create safe classroom environments that deepen students’ awareness, and raise critical consciousness about the ways societies disperse social power within hierarchies across the world. In order to support a community of teaching pedagogy that promotes this awareness, the purpose of this workshop is to share specific tools and techniques that have found to be successful in classrooms when discussing issues such as identity, inequality, social power, oppression, and privilege. This interactive workshop aims to introduce attendees to four teaching tools focused on raising the critical consciousness of undergraduate and graduate students in classrooms. These activities may also be adapted for use with community groups or in workplace settings. Workshop attendees will have an opportunity to participate in each simulated activity. Each experiential learning activity will begin with an exercise that either requires participants to become aware of their power and privilege or simulates a real world experience that replicates systems of privilege and oppression. This will be followed with a facilitated discussion about how the participant’s social identity is implicated within systems of social power; this discussion will model practices that can be used in classrooms and other group settings. The workshop will conclude with a facilitated conversation about the heightened awareness that came as a result of participation in the exercises. Facilitators will provide attendees with materials on how to run the activities, and suggestions about how to use them in different classrooms.

Speakers
NB

Nicole Buchanan

Michigan State University
ZH

Zaje Harrell

Public Policy Associates
IS

Isis Settles

Michigan State University


Thursday March 5, 2015 1:00pm - 5:00pm
Crystal

1:00pm

Trauma Recovery Networks - Feminism, EMDR Therapy, and Disaster Response - Healing Our Communities
This workshop is for researchers, clinicians (not necessarily trained in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing), and activists interested in how disaster response, based in EMDR Therapy, can increase community resilience by healing trauma and providing treatment to underserved populations. The Boston Area TRN (Trauma Recovery Network), a local chapter in the EMDR therapy community’s Humanitarian Assistance Programs, consists of licensed clinicians who provide pro-bono EMDR to people affected by community disasters. TRNs were born out of the EMDR community’s response to the Oklahoma City bombing, and have responded to world-wide events such as natural disasters (tornados, hurricanes, fires, earthquakes and tsunamis), and violent acts (9/11, the Newtown shooting, the Boston Marathon Bombing, ongoing conflicts in Israel and Palestine, the Syrian refugees in Turkey, and others). We will review basic concepts within disaster mental health, community psychology, and EMDR therapy, and issues with conducting research in disaster mental health (Norris et al, 2006; Pfefferbaum, et al, 2012; Weine et al 2002; Call et al, 2012). We will discuss the use of EMDR as an effective intervention for disasters, and options for Early EMDR Intervention (EEI) (Shapiro and Laub, 2008; Laidlaw-Chasse and Miller, 2013). We will explore several of the issues involved in building and launching a TRN (Gelbach, 2008; Colelli et al, 2013). Using specific experiences of the Boston Area TRN’s response to the Boston Marathon bombing and chronic community violence, we will examine strategies for providing services to traditionally underserved communities, and how concepts can be redefined in non-traditional ways in the service of community change. Throughout the presentation will be attention to principles of feminism – what we as feminists know about the costs of trauma in the personal/private and public spheres – illustrated by case examples that show how disaster response interventions can improve lives from a feminist perspective.


Thursday March 5, 2015 1:00pm - 5:00pm
Washington

1:00pm

1:00pm

“Calling In” vs. “Calling Out”: Intentional Relational Practices in Our Restorative and Social Justice Work
Confronting our areas of ignorance and making mistakes is inevitable and necessary for our growth in activism work. At the same time, many of us have witnessed the “call out culture” of social justice spaces, in which members of our communities are silenced, superficially told to “check their privilege,” or shunned when they have unknowingly enacted a microaggression. As feminist scholars and therapists, we are inspired by writer Ngọc Loan Trần’s practice of “Calling In” – a compassionate, connecting way of inviting people to reflect on the relational and community effects of their words and actions - as a transformational response to microaggressions that occur within activist spaces. Aligned with principles of restorative justice, the focus of calling in is addressing and healing the impact of hurtful acts within a community, rather than on punishing an “offender.” We propose that calling each other in, instead of simply calling out, can facilitate repair and reconnection following a microaggression, promote greater openness and creativity in activist communities, and contribute to building sustainable social justice movements. This experiential workshop will offer participants opportunities to explore ways to be effective allies, activists, and restorative justice workers when working in multiracial coalitions and restorative justice movements. Participants will critically analyze power dynamics and the impact of “call out culture” in social and restorative justice work and communities. Through our explorations, we will learn principles of Ngoc Loan Tran’s practice of “Calling In” and discover ways to create more relational and healing spaces within social change movements. Participants will be invited to apply principles of “Calling In” in pairs and small groups throughout the workshop.


Thursday March 5, 2015 1:00pm - 5:00pm
Gold Rush B

5:30pm

Opening Reception
Thursday March 5, 2015 5:30pm - 7:30pm
Emerald Foyer

6:00pm

 
Friday, March 6
 

8:30am

Angela Davis - Key Note Speaker

Friday March 6, 2015 8:30am - 10:25am
Emerald

10:45am

Size Acceptance Caucus Networking Meeting
Annual business meeting/get-together of the Size Acceptance Caucus.

Speakers
LC

Leslie C. Bautista

University of Minnesota


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Caucus Suite

10:45am

Assisted Reproductive Technologies and Reproductive Justice: Re-tracing boundaries of access and identity
This symposium utilizes a reproductive justice framework to present current research on Assisted Reproductive Technologies. This framework extends reproductive-rights beyond individual choice to address inequalities imbricated in reproductive medicine. Research topics include access-to-care, third-party and selective-reproductive technologies in neoliberal and postcolonial contexts. Implications for practice, policy, and activism are discussed. Presenters discuss intersecting issues of neoliberalism, colonialism, stratified reproduction, and commodification.

Title I:  Stratified Reproduction in the U.S.: Racial and Sexual Minority Issues

Bernadette V. Blanchfield, Ph.D. Pre-Candidate, Developmental Psychology, University of Virginia

 

Additional author: Charlotte J. Patterson, Professor of Psychology, Director, Women Gender & Sexuality Program

 

This talk presents two studies that compared rates at which women in the U.S. reported receiving medical help to become pregnant as a function of race and sexual orientation, using data from two cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth (2002 wave in Study 1; 2006-2010 wave in Study 2). Working within a framework of stratified reproduction, we investigated how income and insurance coverage disparities mediated differences in receipt of fertility assistance between groups. In both studies, heterosexual White women reported receiving assistance at double the rates of women who identified as non-White, sexual minority (i.e., lesbian or bisexual), or both. Insurance and income discrepancies accounted for all differences between sexual minority and heterosexual women’s receipt of pregnancy help in Study 1, but insurance coverage alone explained differences in Study 2. Mediation analyses indicated income and insurance coverage only partially explained differences between White and non-White groups. Although socioeconomic factors did not explain all differences based on racial group membership, the results indicate that lack of insurance coverage seems to limit access to reproductive healthcare among sexual minority women. Implications of these disparities are discussed.

 

Title II: “It’s not fair, but that’s the way the world works”: Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) for BRCA and Healthcare Neoliberalisms

Emily Breitkopf, M.A., Ph.D. Candidate, New School for Social Research 

 

Additional authors:

Richard Knight, MA Candidate, New School for Social Research

 

Individuals with hereditary cancer risk due to a BRCA-mutation have a 50% chance that BRCA-related risk will be transmitted to their children. Reproductive concerns are often prominent among BRCA-mutation carriers. Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is a controversial ART that enables couples to select preferred embryos. In the U.S., PGD for BRCA is an available, albeit expensive, option for individuals/couples who can afford its use. This paper presents results from a qualitative study of 39 (x-female, X-male) reproductive-age BRCA-mutation carriers, highlighting participants’ attitudes and concerns about access to PGD for BRCA. Participants were predominantly White, affluent, and heterosexual. Analyzed through a post-structuralist discourse-analytic framework, we examine the discursive dilemmas participants face as they consider systems of stratification that make PGD available to some and not others. We trace converging discourses throughout the analysis and consider the implications of PGD within the U.S. neoliberal health-care context.

 

Title III:  Reproductive Hierarchies: Transnational Reproduction and the Reification of Colonial Spaces

 

Presenter:

Professor Michele Goodwin, Chancellor's Chair

University of California, Irvine School of Law

 

Race exploitation and poverty are key, tolerated components of assisted reproductive technology (ART) domestically and abroad. According to a study conducted by the Center for Social Research in India, “[a]dvances in assisted reproductive techniques such as donor insemination and, embryo transfer methods, have revolutionized the reproductive environment, resulting in ‘surrogacy’, as the most desirable option.” Scholars and policy makers frequently observe that “[t]he system of surrogacy has given hope to many infertile couples, who long to have a child of their own” and has expanded reproductive options for gay men, lesbian women, and single persons intending to parent. However, the attention to the advancements in reproductive technologies and the communities they benefit may obscure externalities worth studying. Desperately missing from ART scholarship are more nuanced analytics that feature race and sex in international surrogacy, particularly its commodification of racialized bodies.  This project takes up that issue.

 



Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Oregon

10:45am

Incarcerated Women’s Pathways to and Experiences within the Criminal Justice System

This invited symposium presents three mixed-method empirical studies examining incarcerated women’s experiences within the criminal justice system. We will explore women’s pathways to incarceration, mental health outcomes associated with a trauma-informed, gender-specific curriculum for women serving life sentences, and feminist principles in mentoring relationships among community and incarcerated women. 

Presentation I.  Exploring Women’s Pathways to the Criminal Justice System 

Shannon Lynch, Ph.D., Idaho State University,  Dana DeHart, PhD, University of South Carolina, Joanne Belknap, Ph.D., Chris DeCou, BS, Idaho State University 

In response to increasing rates of incarceration of women, researchers have studied gender differences in pathways to the justice system. In particular, women and girls report more experiences of intimate interpersonal violence and greater mental health difficulties than male offenders. Women are also more likely to describe use of substances associated with their offenses. As part of a mixed-methods, multisite study of women’s pathways to jail, a subset (N=115) of participants from a sample of 491 randomly selected women in jails in four regions of the U.S. completed extensive life history calendar interviews.  Our multi-disciplinary research team reviewed these in-depth interviews and created case summaries highlighting onset and extent of interpersonal violence and adversity, types of perpetrator(s), onset and extent of substance use, path into criminal offending, and onset and extent of mental health concerns. We will use these profile summaries to explore intersections of trauma, mental health and substance use in the women’s narratives, to elucidate potential targets for prevention and intervention, and to identify common paths to the justice system. These findings have the potential to inform the development and implementation of prevention efforts with at-risk community populations and gender responsive programming within the corrections system. 

Presentation II.  “I’m Learning How to Live”: Short term and Follow-up Outcomes of a New Intervention with Incarcerated Women with Life Sentences

Gina Fedock, MSW, Doctoral Candidate 

Michigan State University
Incarcerated women with life sentences are a small, but growing sub-population of adults in prison. Strikingly, women with life sentences are often excluded from treatment programming within prisons, given that such programming is reserved for women with shorter sentences or those preparing for re-entry into the community. They have not even been considered a target population for intervention, as they are rarely, if ever, included in samples for new intervention development and testing. This study examines mental health outcomes for a pilot of a new trauma-informed and gender-specific intervention entitled Beyond Violence with a sample of 26 incarcerated women with life sentences in a state prison. Surveys including measures of depression, anxiety, PTSD, serious mental illness, and forms of anger expression were administered at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and three months following completion. Focus groups occurred with the groups at post-intervention, and individual semi-structured interviews were conducted at the follow-up time point. Results will be shared in regards to the changes in mental health and anger measures over time, as well as the themes of the focus groups and interviews. Lastly, a discussion of future practice and research implications for work focused on incarcerated women with life sentences will be included.

 Presentation III. Growth-fostering Relationships and Transforming Self-perceptions: Feminist Principles in the Mentoring of Women in Prison and Beyond

 

Dawn M. Salgado, PhD

Pacific University

 Previous research examining women’s services and programming while incarcerated have generally been found to be underfunded, inadequate, or inconsistent with empirically-based needs of the population. As new interventions rely on incorporating strength-based, gender-responsive, and restorative justice approaches into their programmatic structure and theory, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting interventions for incarcerated women can be effective at increasing health and well-being, creating opportunities for successful reintegration, and interrupting the cycle of re-incarceration. The current mixed method study examines experiences of community mentors and incarcerated women (N = 29) as they discuss relational and programmatic features associated with their involvement. Results will highlight feminist-based practices and principles typified in these relationships focusing on connection and similarities, empathy and acceptance, and empowerment and effectiveness. In addition, the presentation will discuss incarcerated women’s transformative experiences and the ability of the program to provide a seamless set of services, beginning in prison and extending after release.  This information is directly applicable to the development and implementation of cost-effective strategies to holistically serve incarcerated women. 



Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Gold Rush B

10:45am

Film Festival - Reflections Unheard: Black Women in Civil Rights A film by Nevline Nnaji

Where do black women activists fit into the epochal struggles for equality and liberation during the 1960s and ‘70s? This feature-length documentary unearths the story of black women’s political marginalization—between the male-dominated Black Power movement and second wave feminism, which was largely white and middle class—showing how each failed to recognize black women’s overlapping racial and gender identities.

Women Make Movies (c)

Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Arizona

10:45am

Angela Davis Book Signing
Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Emerald

10:45am

A feminist exploration of facilitator and participant responses to a course in mindful eating
Mindfulness practices have made their way into mainstream, empirically supported approaches to pain, depression, substance use, and anxiety, following an enormous amount of research by Jon Kabat-Zinn (2013) and others, and some (e.g., Kristeller & Wolever, 2011) have begun studying mindfulness for eating-related issues. Mindful eating is an approach to food that does not focus on weight but rather proposes that thorough meditative practices that encourage acceptance, as well as awareness regarding hunger, satiety, and emotions, people will learn to eat from internally-derived wisdom that ultimately is sustainable and satisfying (Chozen Bays, 2009). It has been included in size acceptance, non-deprivation models used with women struggling with food and weight (Abakoui & Simmons, 2013). Even as many women know that the food and diet industries promote an indulgence/deprivation mentality, that diets rarely work for long, and that health is not necessarily dependent on weight, they may still feel caught in a painful cycle of over-eating, deprivation, and self-recrimination. Many clients seek therapy for help with weight even when they do not have an eating disorder; therapists who reject a diet approach can find themselves in a dilemma about how to help. Furthermore, given that many clinicians and clients are socialized in mainstream culture’s thin idealization, biases can arise even in the context of a non-diet approach. This presentation uses a feminist lens regarding size acceptance and “health at any size” (e.g., Abakoui & Simmons, 2013) to bring awareness to some of the potential benefits and pitfalls of a mindfulness approach to food and body. Using our experiences providing an 8-week course in mindful eating, as well as the data from participants, we hope to further awareness and debate regarding issues of bias and treatment with women struggling with their bodies and weight.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Nevada

10:45am

Acts of Political Warfare: Black Women’s Mental Health & Well-Being
Health disparities among African American females persists for several health outcomes, particularly around mental health and well-being. The race paradox in mental health further problematizes this issue of measurement, resilience mechanisms and coping strategies (Mouzon, 2013). Researchers have suggested Black females’ interactions with social structures have contributed to these phenomena (Abdou et al, 2014; Deguzman & Kulbok, 2012; Douglas, 1992; Kothari et al, 2014; Williams, 2002). Research that employs theoretical and empirical work from the humanities, social sciences and public health to explain mechanisms of psychosocial and environmental stressors contributing to health inequality, is integral to advancing Black women’s health. Because Black women have been forced to prioritize either their gender or race in the ongoing quest for social equality in the United States, and historically have had minimal agency over their bodies, an intersectional feminist approach towards mental health research represents an interpretive framework in which to better understand Black women’s health with respect to race, class, gender, citizenship and geography. Audre Lorde’s seminal quote on the necessity of self-care as an act of political warfare for Black women living in America (1988) is the motivation for this presentation. This interactive presentation will a) briefly describe the mechanism in which Black women engage in the health industrial complex, including health and body politics, as well as how the amelioration of Black midwives/nurses in Black communities’ have contributed to Black women’s poor health today; and b) interrogate intersectional perspectives to discuss Black women’s agency in organizing around health, or acts of political warfare. This approach acknowledges the complete health and well-being of Black women, not merely their reproductive health, which has traditionally been the focus.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Monterey/Carmel

10:45am

African American Girls’ Reflections on Mentoring Relationships at a Girl Serving Agency
At-risk, female adolescents are negatively impacted (e.g., personally, vocationally, and academically) by environments that do not foster their unique needs (Blumer & Werner-Wilson, 2010; Bulanda & McCrea, 2013). Research shows that girls can benefit from programs that teach leadership, relationship, and social engagement skills and include a component that allows girls to be a part of a mentoring relationship (Bulanda & McCrea, 2013; Deutsch, Wiggins, Henneberger, & Lawrence, 2013; Hirsch et al., 2000). Although some research has been conducted on the mentoring relationship, more research is needed that focuses on how the mentoring relationship is perceived by the participants as well as the span of the relationship (Deutsch, Wiggins, Henneberger, & Lawrence, 2013), particularly among African American/Black girls. Method Nine African American/Black adolescent females were interviewed to examine how client and staff mentoring relationships are formed and maintained as well as the extent to which they engaged in conversations about gender, ethnicity, and social justice with the staff at the agency. Results The responses to the open ended questions were analyzed by a team of researchers using grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006, 2014). The themes that emerged from the data include 1) reason for attendance, 2) quality of relationships with staff, 3) behaviors of a mentor, 4) qualities of a mentor, 5) factors that support the development of trust, 6) conversations about gender, 7) conversations about race/ethnicity, 8) conversations about social class and 9) whether the girls are mentors. Frequencies of the individual categories and quotes from the girls will be reported. Discussion We will present our findings in light of the importance of mentoring relationships and the ways in which our study fills gaps in the literature regarding the experiences of African American girls. We will also discuss ways in which researchers and clinicians can apply our findings to their own work.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Monterey/Carmel

10:45am

Does awareness breed contempt?: Self-consciousness, social comparison, and mindfulness as mediators between self-discrepancies and body satisfaction
A vast majority of girls/women are dissatisfied with their bodies, which can lead to serious physical and psychological issues (Holmqvist & Frisen, 2010; Myers & Crowther, 2009). Body satisfaction is an affective response to the cognitive evaluation of the difference between women’s perceived body shape and their ideals (i.e. body image discrepancy) (Cafri, van den Berg, & Brannick, 2010). However, a woman’s awareness that her body does not conform to an ideal does not necessarily mean that she will dislike herself. Several cognitive factors may intercede in this process. Public self-consciousness reflects excessive, focused attention and concern about being evaluated by others, particularly with regards to appearance (Theron, Nel, & Lubbe, 1991). Social comparison is a reflexive, evaluative process that is inherently related to perceived body discrepancies and predicts body dissatisfaction (e.g., McIntyre & Eisenstadt, 2011). Mindfulness, which includes an awareness of internal states without judgment, is negatively related to social comparison (Langer, Pirson, & Delizonna, 2010) and may have a protective effect on body satisfaction (e.g., Fink, Foran, Sweeney, & O’Hea, 2009). Therefore, the goal of the current study was to examine these factors as possible mediators between body discrepancies and body satisfaction. Female college students (N = 469) completed a battery of measures couched within a study of “marketing strategies and consumer behavior.” SEM analyses showed that social comparison, self-consciousness, and two of the five mindfulness dimensions (“describing inner experiences,” “non-judgment of experiences or reactions”) were significant mediators between the cognitive assessment of self-discrepancy and the affective consequence of body satisfaction (model R2 = .44) in predicted directions. Results are discussed in terms of the implications for understanding these social-cognitive processes that can most significantly and directly affect body satisfaction.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Nevada

10:45am

Listening to African American women’s experiences of trauma and community
This study aims to further understand the experiences of urban African American women who have experienced trauma in their lives. Prior research suggests that city dwelling non-Whites are more likely to experience violent traumas (e.g., Breslau, et al., 1998), and symptom severity and coping strategies may differ among women of various racial backgrounds (e.g., Ford, 2011). Other studies have addressed the importance of the neighborhood environment for mental health outcomes among African American individuals (e.g., Gapen, et al., 2011). As part of an undergraduate community-engagement course, interviews were conducted with African American residents of a low-income inner-city neighborhood. Teams of students and the course instructor conducted these interviews in response to a request from the community to learn about residents’ experiences of trauma and recovery. Prior to analysis, excerpts of the interviews were shared with the community anonymously in a public reading. A total of 11 interviews were conducted with African American women who are residents of an inner-city community. The semi-structured interviews began with an open prompt inviting interviewees to describe meaningful experiences in their lives; these experiences frequently included multiple traumas. At this stage in the project, all interviews have been conducted and transcribed. The Listening Guide (Gilligan, Spencer, Weinberg, & Bertsch, 2006) will be used to analyze these interviews. Preliminary analysis suggests that the major themes of trauma, resilience, and the importance of community will be highlighted. This project will add to the current literature by utilizing a qualitative framework in order to underscore the role of community in African American women’s stories of trauma and resilience. The Listening Guide is an ideal method for this study, as it will allow us to be more attuned to the complex and nuanced ways in which these women experienced trauma in the context of their community. References: Breslau, N., Kessler, R.C., Chilcoat, H.D., Schultz, L.R., Davis, G.C., & Andreski, P. (1998). Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in the community. JAMA Psychiatry, 55(7), 626-632. Ford, J.D. (2011). Ethnoracial and educational differences in victimization history, trauma-related symptoms, and coping style. Psychological trauma: Theory, research, practice, and policy, 4(2), 177-185. Gapan, M., Cross, D. Ortigo, K., Graham, A., Johnson, E., Evces, M., Ressler, K.J., & Bradley, B. (2011). Perceived neighborhood disorder, community cohesion, and PTSD symptoms among low-income African Americans in an urban health setting. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 82(1), 31-37. Gilligan, C., Spencer, R., Weinberg, M. K., & Bertsch, T. (2003). On the Listening Guide: A voice-centered relational model. In P.M. Camic, J.E. Rhodes, & L. Yardley (Eds.). Qualitative research in psychology: Expanding perspectives in methodology and design (pp. 157-172). Washington, D.C.: American Psychology Association.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Monterey/Carmel

10:45am

Loving “real” women: The effects of viewing thin vs. “plus-sized” models on body satisfaction and anti-fat bias
Mass media reinforce the cultural message of an unrealistically thin body ideal for women (e.g., Tiggemann & Polivy, 2010), which negatively affects their body image (e.g., Grabe, Ward, & Hyde, 2008). Williamson (1996) argued that visual cues activate body-relevant schemas, affecting evaluations. However, not all women are affected equally because meaning is derived from how they perceive and interpret such messages based upon situation-specific judgments (Bessenoff, 2006; Paquette & Raine, 2004) and internalized beliefs/attitudes (e.g., social comparisons: Tiggemann & Polivy, 2010; thin ideal internalization, Dittmar & Howard, 2004). Women experience decreases in body satisfaction after viewing idealized images (Groesz, Levine, & Murnen, 2002) and anti-fat bias is related to media portrayals of women (Lin & Reid, 2009). However, these findings are less consistent when viewing overweight models, and anti-fat bias changes were never experimentally tested. Furthermore, researchers typically use models rated as “extremely” thin or obese and women only rate the models on appearance. No one has accounted for the potential confound between the models’ thinness and attractiveness. It is critical to examine the effects of observing media images, as well as cognitive processes and beliefs that could explain effects. This is the first experimental study to assess all of these variables and to evaluate their predictive value of changes in satisfaction and anti-fat bias after media exposure. Presenting women with images of “thin” OR “overweight” models and having them rate models on appearance OR non-appearance factors, we addressed the distinction between thinness and attractiveness (i.e. models rated as equally sexy and attractive). Additionally, viewing thin models reduced body satisfaction, while viewing overweight models increased body satisfaction and reduced anti-fat biases. Only body image discrepancy predicted changes after media exposure, however, long-standing beliefs predict pre-existing body satisfaction and anti-fat attitudes.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Nevada

10:45am

Narratives of Bisexual Adults: Retrospective Experiences as Youth and Involvement in Queer Spaces
Growing concern for the academic, social, and psychological well-being of bisexual youth has provoked a great deal of inquiry and assessment. In comparison to other sexual minority youth, bisexual youth are confronted with a unique set of challenges and stigmas in response to their sexuality. Additionally, it has been reported that they are less likely to participate in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer/Questioning (LGBTQ) organizations and spaces, such as Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs, Andre et al., 2014). However, researchers have concluded that GSA’s and similar LGBTQ spaces play a beneficial role in the development and well-being of LGBTQ youth, likely because of the supportive adults advising student groups (Heck, Flentje, & Cohcran, 2013; Kosciw et al., 2013). The purpose of the present study is to investigate how individuals who participated in a GSA during their adolescence report retrospectively on their self-esteem, identity development, and coming out experiences as youth, in addition to whether they continue their involvement in queer spaces and activism as young adults. Data will be drawn from interviews with young adults (ages 18-24), who identify as bisexual, queer, or pansexual, in order to collect a retrospective account of their involvement in GSAs or a similar organization as adolescents. Those who did not participate in such spaces will also be included as our control group. A second goal of this study is to capture participants’ narratives around stigmatization and stereotyping as youth, with an emphasis on how their experiences might have differed from their sexual minority counterparts (gay and lesbian youth). Analyses of the narratives, in turn, provide a rich account of the lived experiences of bisexual young adults and their relationship to queer spaces such as GSAs and their lesbian and gay peers.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Washington

10:45am

Rape resistance: A critical piece of women’s empowerment and holistic rape prevention
In this talk, I argue that, contrary to some arguments, rape resistance is not mutually exclusive or contradictory to other forms of prevention of rape, including bystander intervention and should be part of a restorative justice approach. While community responsibility is important, this does not and should not be artificially set up as opposed to individual empowerment (see Gavey, 2007). Feminist self-defense in particular has been shown to help women to not only avoid rape but to have better self-efficacy and psychological functioning (see Brecklin, 2008; Gidycz & Dardis, 2013 for reviews). While longitudinal studies are needed, funding is lacking in this area of research, which has been true for years, despite some evidence that self-defense is linked to a better ability to effectively resist subsequent assaults (Brecklin & Ullman, 2005). In an ecological model of prevention and response to sexual assault, many strategies and tools are needed to help us respond to sexual assault in terms of risk, recovery, and prevention. What the elements of a holistic strategy may be up for discussion, but should be based on empirical research. This presentation articulates some of the reasons for including rape resistance as one piece of secondary prevention efforts, which is still critically important in a world where sexual assault continues at high rates. The important role of addressing diversity including: race, class, sexual orientation, and disability are also discussed in broadening the paradigm for feminist research, prevention, and clinical practice in this area.

Speakers
SU

Sarah Ullman

University of Illinois at Chicago


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Washington

10:45am

Repairing Relationships With Our Bodies: Reducing Risks After Exposure to Weight-based Stigma
Weight-related stigma and discrimination is extremely prevalent in the United States, most commonly reported by young adults and women. The Binge Eating Disorder Association (BEDA) suggests that following weight-related stigma, people often devalue their social identity. Individuals may be stigmatized by peers, family members, coworkers, strangers, doctors and other health care providers. Research indicates that exposure to weight stigma results in stress, avoidance of physical activity, binge eating, obesity, emotional eating and weight loss. It is possible that claims of weight loss actually measure dietary restraint in those stigmatized. As such, it is likely that those who rely on maladaptive methods of weight control (i.e. dietary restraint), have not accessed proper nutritional information; therefore cannot properly implement a balanced diet into their lives. Furthermore, individuals who binge eat, emotionally eat or actively restrain report performing these behaviors in solitude, as well as higher levels of loneliness. It is evident that prevention programs must be designed to rebuild society to reduce weight-related stigma prevalence and potential negative outcomes. As a preliminary investigation to address disordered eating risk factors that follow weight-based stigma, a cross sectional analysis is in process, in which stress, social isolation and nutritional knowledge are the mediating (intervening) variables. Undergraduate women (N=200-250, ages 18-30) from Utah State University are included in the study. Following the analysis review, I discuss an engaging prevention program that incorporates weight stigma reduction advocacy, with respect to the mediating variables. The program will be specifically designed to target incoming college students. The intervention will help rebuild university culture and assist students in developing close connections with peers to prevent social isolation. Students will also learn strategies to cope with stress and how to successfully implement nutrition education. The program aims to prevent disordered eating behaviors in response to weight-based stigma among college students.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Washington

10:45am

Understanding Context: Benefit of Female Empowerment Group in Community Corrections
We will present on the benefit of implementing a female empowerment group within the context of a juvenile correctional facility. According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP, 2010), the number of incarcerated juveniles has been on an incline from 2000 to 2010. More specifically, the number of incarcerated girls has increased faster than the number of incarcerated boys. Though girls make up less than 7% of the inmate population in Ohio’s Department of Youth Services correctional facilities, 94% of the girls in the correctional facilities are on the mental health caseload compared to 47% of boys leading to the need for more gender-specific programs aimed at addressing socio-emotional and psychological concerns and reducing the rate of recidivism for girls (Ohio DYS, 2012). The relationship between a local juvenile corrections facility and Wright State University’s School of Professional Psychology created the opportunity for clinical practicum for students. Through working with the youth, a need was identified to address the socio-emotional and psychological concerns of the girls including self-efficacy and empowerment. Based on a literature review, the “Girls Only” Toolkit from The Boys & Girls Club of San Diego was chosen and adapted to meet the needs of the forensic population. The group was designed to help the girls recognize, value, and use their abilities to understand environmental influences, self-nurture, and make pro-social changes in themselves and the world to avoid further involvement with the juvenile justice system. Each month, outcome measures were used to inform effectiveness and potential continued use of the group. This presentation will focus on increasing participants’ knowledge of implementing the empowerment group in a juvenile corrections facility and the benefits of such treatment services.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Washington

10:45am

“I feel so fat”: The relationship between close friend’s negative body talk and women’s body image
Short Abstract: Our study examined how close female friends’ negative body talk was related to women’s body image. We found that female friend negative’s negative body talk was related to women’s body ideals and women’s own negative body talk. These relationships differed for thin and overweight women. Long Abstract: Our study examined how hearing close female friends talk negatively about their bodies was related to negative body talk and body ideals in thin and overweight women. Research has found that women frequently engage in negative body talk and that this type of conversation increases women’s body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness (Arroyo & Harwood 2012). These studies have typically operationalized negative body talk by having a confederate engage in negative talk in front of participants (Salk & Engeln-Maddox 2012). However, no studies have examined the degree to which women are exposed to negative body talk from their close female friends. Additionally, little research has examined whether the impact of negative body talk differs for thin versus heavy women. Results indicated that women perceive their close friends as engaging in negative body talk much more frequently then they themselves engaged in this talk (M = 2.70, SD = .92 vs. M = 3.70, SD = .92; t(142) = 11.05, p < .000). In addition, the more women heard their close female friends engage in negative body talk, the more likely they were to do so themselves (r = .31, p < .000), but that the relationship was much stronger for thin women (r=.46) than heavy women (r =.15; z = 3.24, p = .001). Results also indicated that the more heavy women heard close female friends fat talk, the thinner they rated their ideal size (r = .39), but this effect was not found for thin women (r = .15, z =2.44, p =.015). The results indicate that women report frequently hearing close friends talk negatively about their bodies and that this type of conversation is related to different outcomes in thin versus overweight women. References Arroyo, A., & Harwood, J. (2012). Exploring the causes and consequences of engaging in fat talk. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 40(2), 167-187. Salk, R.H., & Engeln-Maddox, R. (2012). Fat talk among college women is both contagious and harmful. Sex Roles, 66(9-10), 636-645.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Nevada

10:45am

Academic Delay of Gratification in Female College Students: Implications for Academic Functioning
Delay of gratification, the ability to forego an immediate reward in favor of a more rewarding but delayed outcome, has been associated with cognitive, emotional, and behavioral competencies later in life. The ability to delay gratification in an academic setting is a key component of self-regulated learning and has implications for future academic success and achievement (e.g., higher final course grade). It has been suggested that women tend to use more self-regulatory strategies than men, including the ability to delay gratification in an academic setting. However, research on academic delay of gratification (ADOG) is limited, particularly as it relates to other variables of academic functioning (i.e., grade point average [GPA] and academic satisfaction). The present study investigated the association between ADOG and academic functioning in female college students. We hypothesized that there would be significant positive relationships between ADOG, academic satisfaction, and GPA. Furthermore, we hypothesized that ADOG would predict academic satisfaction in female college students after controlling for the effect of covariates. The sample consisted of 99 female college students enrolled at a liberal arts college in Massachusetts. The mean age of participants was 19.0 years (SD=1.4). Bivariate correlations demonstrated a strong positive association between ADOG and academic satisfaction, and between academic satisfaction and GPA. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the contribution of ADOG to female students’ level of satisfaction with their academic career after accounting for covariates. The model was significant, with ADOG positively predicting academic satisfaction (R2= .09, p < .05) after accounting for the effects of academic major and year in college. Our findings suggest that ADOG may play a key role in women’s academic functioning, which may have implications for women’s academic achievement. Future research would benefit from examining ADOG specifically in gender traditional versus nontraditional fields of study.

Speakers
EB

Elizabeth Baxter

Emmanuel College
HM

Helen MacDonald

Emmanuel College


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

An Intervention to Reduce Fat Stigma in American College Students
Fat stigma is a problem in American culture that takes a heavy psychological toll on people of all sizes. This poster presents an attempt to reduce fat stigma among American college students using an intervention method that combined education about fat myths and exposure to/re-humanization of fat individuals.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

And Girls too: The presence, issues and reintegration of female child soldiers
The United Nations estimates that over 300,000 children (approximately 40% girls) under the age of 18 are involved in political and social conflicts worldwide (Werner, 2012). This figure includes child soldiers who are defined as boys and girls that are kidnapped and/or manipulated into serving roles as combatants, messengers, porters, cooks, or sexual slaves (Shaw, 2003). Although girls maintain various roles in these contentions, representations of child soldiering have almost exclusively been male. Hence the integrated ideological consideration for factors that affect former child soldiers who are girls is limited. Girl child soldiers are targeted in tactics of war, they are more vulnerable to sexual violence and disease than their male counterparts, and they are often forced to carry and bear offspring of their aggressors. Consequently, demobilized female survivors are more likely to suffer from PTSD, depression, and other anxiety disorders (Kohrt et al., 2008). Additionally, they are less likely to be accepted back into their communities due to their disadvantaged status as female, ex-child solider, potential unwed mother and former concubine. These fundamental socio-political and cultural gender norms thus exacerbate the victimization of demobilized girls. This poster presentation will highlight the most marginalized of invisible soldiers. Presenters will review gender differences regarding psychological ramifications and reintegration experiences of child soldiers. Furthermore, the poster presentation will assess the intergenerational effects of girl child soldiering and discuss the implications for counseling psychology. Restoring justice to this population of female survivors begins with acknowledging their existence. Urgency in recognizing the vulnerability and resilience of female child soldiers is a foundational step towards identifying their culturally relevant and policy-related needs. This presentation will fundamentally address the question, "What about girls?" thereby challenging the biased tendency for girls and women to be immensely affected by injustices and the last consulted for restoration.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Barriers to Success: An Examination of the Relationship Between Stereotype Threat and the Impostor Phenomenon Based on Women’s Solo Status
Based on previous research that identifies stereotype threat and the impostor phenomenon as being primarily experienced by women, I proposed that similar underlying processes (i.e., being a solo woman in a male-dominated work environment) may account for a positive relationship between stereotype threat and impostorism in professional women. I hypothesized that stereotype threat would act as a predictor for the impostor phenomenon within a sample of professional, solo women (Hypothesis 1) and that women who perceive themselves as being highly distinctive in their workplace would have higher impostorism scores than women who do not perceive themselves as being highly distinctive (Hypothesis 2). Data were collected via an online questionnaire from 76 women. The majority of participants identified their race/ethnicity as White (N=44), were 45 years of age or older (N=41), had some college education (N=56), and have experienced being a solo at work (N=52). Participants were randomly assigned to read a vignette about women who either coped well (control condition) or did not cope well (prime condition) with having a solo status in a male-dominated workplace. Participants then completed self-report items that measured levels of impostorism, job satisfaction, gender distinctiveness, and visibility (i.e., solo status). Results provided partial support for Hypothesis 1. Women with relatively low perceptions of their past solo status were likely to report higher levels of impostorism upon being primed with stereotype (compared to women in the control condition). However, women with relatively high perceptions of their past solo status were more likely to earn higher impostorism scores when they were in the control condition than in the prime condition. The results point to the potential need for experts to consider the influence degree of perceived solo status has on women’s interpretation of messages and situations that are potentially threatening to their social identity.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Child Sexual Victimization as a Predictor of Sexual Assertiveness and Relationship Quality among At-Risk Females
A growing body of literature suggests that child sexual victimization can be detrimental to women’s sexual health and well-being(Lemieux et al., 2008). Previous research has shown that women with a history of child sexual victimization are at higher risk for engaging in risky sexual behavior and may suffer from mental and emotional disorders (Hillis et al., 2001, Gookind et al., 2006). Women who have been sexually victimized may exhibit low sexual assertiveness or experience difficulties in intimate relationships (Livingston et al., 2007). Although studies have examined the impact child sexual victimization has on sexual assertiveness and quality of intimate relationships, few studies have examined the underlying mechanisms of this relationship. Furthermore, limited literature has investigated these factors among adolescent females involved in social service settings, who are an underserved population (Brady & Caraway, 2002). The purpose of this study is to investigate whether child sexual victimization predicts sexual assertiveness and relationship quality. Additionally, the current study seeks to examine whether PTSD and Depression mediate this relationship. Participants will consist of 130 adolescent females between 13-18 years old, from three different types of social service settings (community mental health agencies, juvenile justice programs, and residential agencies). The racial/ethnic composition is 33.6% White, 25.8% Black, 25.8% Hispanic, and 15% other. The predictor and outcome variables will be assessed using the Child Sexual Victimization Scale, Sexual Assertiveness Scale, (Morokoff et al., 1997), and Relationship Quality measure (Borneskog et al., 2012). Mental health symptoms will be measured using the PTSD Screen (Lang & Stein, 2005) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (Melchoir et al., 1993). Hierarchical regression analyses will be conducted in order to determine whether child sexual victimization predicts sexual assertiveness and relationship quality and if mental health symptoms mediate this relationship. Results and implications will be further discussed.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Gender Stereotyped Traits of Female and Male Characters in Children’s Popular Culture: A Content Analysis Study
Although societal roles for women and men have changed since the second wave of the women’s movement, gender stereotypes are still commonly portrayed in the media. A likely reason for the persistence of stereotypes is that the basic structure of society remains patriarchal, and heterosexual interdependence motivates people to fulfill stereotyped roles associated with heterosexual success. Further, it has been argued that there is a backlash against women’s accomplishments in the workplace, resulting in increased emphasis on gender stereotypes that support the power imbalance between males and females. It has been argued that the status of girls and women has been lowered further through increased portrayals of females as sexual objects. In the present study we conducted a content analysis of products in popular culture available to children that depict male and female characters including Halloween costumes, dolls and action figures, and Valentine cards (N = 490). We found that female characters were more likely to be depicted with submissiveness characteristics (e.g., decorative clothing), and male characters with dominance characteristics (e.g., functional clothing). An unrealistic body ideal was fairly commonly represented for both female and male characters in that slightly more than half of female characters were noticeably thin, and almost one half of male characters were noticeably muscular. In females the ideal body type was associated with submissiveness characteristics and sexualization, supporting the idea that the sexual objectification of females is associated with low power. In contrast, for male characters a muscular body was associated with some dominance characteristics, but no submissiveness characteristics supporting the idea that the idealized male body is not associated with low power. Thus, the children’s products examined in this study were found to be gender stereotyped to a fairly high degree, with characteristics that represent a power imbalance between the genders.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Life after Basketball: An Exploratory Study of the Impact of College Sport Participation after Graduation
The positive effects of sport participation are widely accepted. As athletes extend beyond recreational sport and into competitive sport, the effects of sport participation are less known. As athletes advance, the competitiveness and pressure escalate. The collegiate level is particularly conducive to increased athletic stress (Lu, Hsu, Chan, Cheen, & Kao, 2012). Accordingly, college sport participation is known to have juxtaposing effects on athletes (Chen, Snyder, & Magner, 2010). What is known about the direct and post-graduation effects of college varsity sport participation on the student athletes is based on data from male student athletes. There is not comparable literature on college women athletes. In this exploratory study, varsity basketball alumni of Western Washington University’s women’s basketball team provide their perceptions of their college sport experience and its impact on their lives. The study included 25 participants who responded to an emailed request to participate in the online study. The researcher used D’Zurilla, Nezu and Maydeu-Olivares’ Social Problem-Solving Inventory – Revised: Short Form to measure the participants’ social problem-solving tendencies in relation to their college sport experience (2002). Data analysis indicated that number of years as a starting member of the team is positively correlated with both self-confidence and individual skill acquisition. Additionally, participants who primarily played the shooting guard position are distinct from the respondents identifying with other positions. Qualitative data regarding the participants’ open-ended descriptions of their college sport experience, e.g., pros and cons, life skills acquired, will be discussed as well.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Race-Related stress and its relationship to obesity risk behaviors for emerging adult Black American women
More than half (52.9%) of Black American women (BAW) over age twenty are labeled obese, compared with 37% of Black men and only 33% of White women. BAW’s sociocultural experience has been shown to be a critical social determinant of health. A facet of this sociocultural experience is racial microaggressions, which are small actions that communicate hostilities or disregard toward a person as a result of their ethnic identity. While microaggressions are often not overtly racist, they frequently result in higher sensitivity and increased internalizing responses in BAW. This internalization produces race-related stress. However, there has been limited research that directly examines how the internalization of that experience is linked to both maladaptive and health-promoting behaviors among BAW. This study examined how race-related stress is related to maladaptive health behaviors in emerging adult BAW. Specifically, is race-related stress a significant an independent predictor of exercise behavior and emotionally-driven eating habits? One hundred and seventy-nine BAW who identified as current college students or recent graduates (ages 18–25, m = 21) completed an anonymous online survey. A 3-step hierarchical linear regression with an R² = 0.31 found that emotional eating is a function of race-related stress (B=.241, p =.015 ) in addition to body anxiety (B=.27, p =.001 ) and depressive symptomology (B=.27, p =.004 ). Further, race-related stress is the only psychosocial variable related to health-promoting behaviors. Higher reported levels of race-related stress are associated with greater frequencies in swimming (r=.16), yoga (r=.19), and exercise machine use (r=.223). The ongoing experience of racial inequities and the resulting oppressive structures BAW must navigate through can be internalized and related to psychosocial well-being and physical health. The implications of these findings will be discussed with regard to targeted interventions to reduce health disparities.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Real World of High Risk Teen Girls: The Role of Family Support in DBT
The goal of this project is to help a group of licensed mental health counselors in our community evaluate their implementation of DBT with two high risk groups: adolescents and young adults. Our two primary research questions are 1) Is open group DBT an effective vehicle for symptom reduction and relationship improvement in high risk adolescents and young adults? and 2) Do participants improve existing relationships and/or develop new positive relationships? Since social support is important in preventing relapse, the additional focus on relationships seems critical to a comprehensive evaluation of open group DBT on adolescent functioning. Additionally, this study evaluates client gains in real world counseling. Participants complete questionnaires at the start of counseling, the last counseling session, and again three months later. Data collection is ongoing, with pre-test data available for xx participants and post-treatment data for xx participants. Descriptive analyses indicate that at post-test, participants reported increased family support, decreased negative family interactions, and overall more total social support. No changes were observed in terms of friend social support or negative interactions. Notably, suicidality seems to decrease after treatment. Treatment was especially effective in reducing suicidal intentions in the immediate future and decreasing suicidal attitudes and risk. These preliminary analyses suggest that open group DBT may be an effective vehicle for reducing suicidality and improving social support, particularly within the family, in teens and young adults. Furthermore, the open group format encourages more self-determination in choosing to attend the group session or not, which may encourage a greater sense of self agency in teen girls.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

The Super Girl Dichotomy: Strength and Sadness in Black Girlhood
An overwhelming number of negative images and stereotypical perceptions of Black girls and women plague today’s society, illustrating historical patterns of existing racism and sexism imbedded in the general culture (Evans-Winter & Esposito, 2010; hooks, 1981). In this paper we acknowledge how Black girls are often subsumed into the category of ‘Black’, with an emphasis on the experiences of Black boys and are therefore left with no specific or autonomous recognition. As such, their particular conditions are silenced and ignored. While we aim to compliment the on-going research and movements to improve educational outcomes for boys and men of color, we highlight historical and current social conditions that negatively impact school-age Black girls, such as harsh disciplinary practices and experiences of sexual objectification and violence. As Black female scholars (faculty and students) in education and psychology, we feel both personal passion and responsibility to acknowledge that Black girls suffer both similarly and differently than Black boys and therefore must be given specific voice. We also discuss how White privilege and patriarchal male privilege are part of this obfuscation of the needs of Black girls. Utilizing an intersectional approach, critical race feminism, and Black feminist literature, we shed light on gender and race simultaneously, while seeking to dismantle faulty perceptions that Black girls and women carry inherent strength without substantial sadness. “The Super Girl Dichotomy,” provides a metaphor that illustrates dual social features resulting in experiences of both strength and sadness in identity development, self-understanding, and educational endeavors. Presenting a new conceptual framework relevant to sadness in Black girlhood, we address how dangerous myths linking a non-feminine form of strength with an emasculated illustration of high self-esteem (Buckley & Carter, 2005; Fordham, 1993; 1996) can have a damaging impact on educational experiences, identity development, and sense of self in Black girlhood. In responding directly to a recent call to action for educational equity (Austin, 1995; Evans-Winter & Esposito, 2010; Sharp, 2014), we provide links between historical and current social conditions and offer specific recommendations for future girl empowerment programming and evidence-based intervention development that can aide in liberating Black girls.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

'Black Men Teaching': Recruiting African-American Males into Education
Research indicates that less than two percent of K-12 educators are African American males (National Center for Education Statistic, 2010). In order to recruit African American men into teaching, the project, “Black Men Teaching” targets African American youth, especially from low-income neighborhoods, in hopes of inspiring them to become educators. This facilitated discussion is designed to bring together advocates of underserved, minority populations in hope of formulating new ideas to resolve this dilemma. The lack of Black men in education is problematic. One of the main reasons for the dismally low number of African-American male teachers is that African-American males hold negative views toward teaching as a career. Teaching is often viewed as a woman's profession and as a low-paying field (Smith, 2004). Black youth have had little exposure to positive role models in the educational setting. Without these role models, African American children lack the guidance needed to pursue a career in education. In addition, White children are disadvantaged. Stereotypes exists about Black men; Caucasian children would benefit from exposure to positive Black male role models in order to debunk these beliefs and create a society with less prejudice. Black youth from low-income communities are faced with the realities of oppression every day, causing them to make choices that may lead them to incarceration or even worse, death. By targeting these communities with an advocacy program such as “Black Men Teaching”, I believe we can help these children create promising futures. My goal for this facilitated discussion is to bring together professionals who are working in a similar area or have an interest in advocating for underserved, minority groups. I hope to create a space where we can discuss and develop new ways to recruit Black youth into education. In addition, this space can be used to discuss forms of oppression and barriers Black youth face, and ways to combat these problems.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Gold Rush A

10:45am

'Your client said what!?” Supervisor-supervisee responses to client micro-aggressions
One of the noteworthy accomplishments of Feminist Therapy (FT) has been to highlight issues of power in the therapeutic relationship. Brown (n.d.) described FT as "a politically informed model that always observes human experience within the framework of societal and cultural realities, and the dynamics of power informing those realities." Historically, this perspective was essential as the therapist was a White, heterosexual, man and the client was a White woman. While White women continue to be the majority of therapy clients, the field of psychology is becoming more diverse. Minority students are increasingly recruited for psychology programs to become professors, therapists, and counselors. These students often bring a keen awareness and first-hand knowledge of issues of power to the counseling relationship. Many minority students experience "-isms" (e.g. racism, sexism) in their personal lives and training programs. As new therapists, they are often told that they have power, especially over the client, and cautioned about its misuse. However, when their clients, often white and female, engage in behaviors that recreate "-isms", minority therapists are often left feeling powerless and helpless. These difficulties are further exacerbated by supervisors who are unprepared to respond to supervisees’ experiences. They may blame/invalidate students for unsuccessful therapeutic work or not know how to help the therapist respond to the client. In this session we will share perspectives from supervisees and a supervisor on how “isms” impact the therapeutic process and the relationship. It is hoped that through engaging in this dialog, students and supervisors alike may learn strategies of empowerment in an inherently dis-empowering situation. Part of this process involves deconstructing the hurtful interaction taking place in the room between therapist and client. An equally important part of the process involves restorative justice, the act of healing these wounds in a safe, responsive supervisor-supervisee relationship.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Gold Rush A

10:45am

A Feminist-Multicultural Approach to Restoring Training Experiences for Women of Color Psychology Graduate Students
Feminist and multicultural perspectives in training and supervision can serve women of color graduate students in their professional identity development and promote their success in graduate programs. Presenters will facilitate a collaborative discussion with participants around approaches that can improve the training experiences of women of color while also strengthening systemic commitment to cultural competency.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Gold Rush A

10:45am

Building Restorative Justice in the Education Continuum and Latin@ Leadership
This structured discussion has a two-pronged focus: the broad implementation of restorative justice practices and principles across the educational spectrum and the seeming paucity of Latin@ facilitators in the restorative justice movement in Oakland. In focusing on broad implementation of restorative justice in education, the presenters seek to destabilize the silo-zation of restorative justice wisdom within and among educators and community organizers. Through this process the presenters hope to stimulate and engage in a richer and deeper cross-disciplinary discussion with the hope of creating connection between different arms and geographical locations of restorative justice practitioners. The second prong of the structured discussion is meant to highlight the apparent lack of Latin@ practitioners in the local restorative justice movement. In contrast to the African-American community which has embraced and, in many cases, led this justice movement, Latin@s seem to lag behind in adopting RJ practices and principles. This is a potentially important oversight given the high rate of Latin@s in the justice system and the long history of cultural, communal and individual trauma with in the Latin@ community. The presenters see restorative justice as a healing and transformative practice with great potential in the Latin@ community. The presenters are curious about the rate of the Latin@ community’s engagement with restorative justice across the country, and would like to know how to better engage with Latin@ community in Oakland. Future trajectories of this discussion include, but are not limited to, creating a community conference that bring all arms of restorative justice to together to discuss practices and principles, bringing existing Latin@ facilitators together to create solidarity, and training Latin@ facilitators to heal their respective communities. The dialogue will be held in circle and use the world cafe method to deepen the dialogue with the participants. All levels of participation are most welcome.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Gold Rush A

10:45am

Learning in the Context of Community: Peer Educators Engage in Social Action and Restorative Justice Work
Peer education is an approach to psychoeducational learning through which students learn from and interact with their peers rather than faculty or staff. Peer educators may solidify their own learning through facilitating workshops and presentations with their peers on topics related to health and mental health (Boud, Cohen, & Sampson, 2011). Additionally, Williams reported, “Learning done in the context of community creates rich opportunities for complex interactions with students different from one another” (Williams, 2011). Interactive learning “in the context of community” lends itself well to focusing a peer education program on the intersections of mental health and social and restorative justice. Although students involved in social and restorative justice based peer education programs have reported profound and transformative learning experiences in terms of insights about others as well as themselves, these programs are rare on college campuses (Voorhees & Petkas, 2011). The Multicultural Immersion Program (MIP) at UC-Davis is celebrating its 18th year as a peer education program sponsored by the Counseling Center that focuses on social and restorative justice work and the intersections of mental health and oppression. This structured discussion will feature past and current MIP peer educators along with their Counseling Center staff coordinators, who will discuss the evolution of their feminist, social and restorative justice work on campus. In the first part of this discussion facilitators will share their experiences in the MIP program, the development of their multicultural dialogue skills through their collaborations with community partners on campus, and the impact the program has had on them both personally and professionally. The facilitators will then engage the participants in discussion and in generating ideas for bringing peer-led social and restorative justice programming to campuses and organizations in which participants are involved.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Gold Rush A

10:45am

Masculinity collaborating with feminism to promote gender equality.
Feminism can be defined as the promotion of equality among genders (Walby, 2011). In practice, feminism often focuses on women’s experiences. One question that remains is: How does masculinity intertwine with those of femininity in order to promote equality among genders? Instead of looking at the differences between masculinity and femininity, a better approach could be to look at both gender ideas to achieve a higher level of equality. Is there a way to promote the positive aspects of masculinity and femininity simultaneously? Many times there can be a negative view on masculinity based on aggression, discrimination, and societal double standards. These negative issues of masculinity have often been paired with the discrimination of females within our society (Barbeluscu & Bidwell, 2013). It could be easy to think that there may be negative feelings attached to masculinity. Understanding each others’ perspectives on gender and their roles could help bring about restorative justice on equality between genders. In this structured discussion, we will be talking about masculinity and how it relates to equality. Thus, the conversation will be on the promotion of positive masculinity and the ways it could have positive impact on equality. We will explore different ways of promoting masculinity through the thoughts and feelings of the survivors, offenders, and community members. By promoting femininity and masculinity as one, it is our hope that this will unite both concepts together in order to diminish gender-based segregation. Throughout history, societal behaviors have been passive and at times accepting of inequalities placed upon the female gender. By working together, we would no longer be segregating genders, but uniting them and moving forward to promote equality.

Speakers
EA

Ernesto Alonso

CSU San Bernardino
MB

Manijeh Badiee

CSU San Bernardino
BS

Bryan Sanchez

CSU San Bernardino


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Gold Rush A

10:45am

Moving from White to Multi: The Process of Creating a Diverse Training Agency
Women’s Therapy Center (WTC) is a feminist psychodynamic social justice oriented training clinic. Our faculty wants to talk with people from other training agencies about creating more racial/ethnic diversity among faculty, supervisors and trainees. We have created a diverse training cohort, and hope to learn more about attracting faculty and supervisors. WTC was founded in 1978 as a place for experienced women therapists to train beginning therapists in work with female clients. Although WTC has always had small numbers of women of color affiliated with our training programs, our organization has historically been predominantly White. Our agency has served a diverse client population for many years. We have successfully turned a corner over the past six years, so that people of European descent are no longer the majority of people training with us. This was not an easy thing to achieve. There were many conversations and many mistakes. We made changes to our admissions criteria that expanded access to us, and we changed our curriculum to be more inclusive. We had many diversity trainings aimed at both students and faculty. We have stopped seeing people of color as the only carriers of culture, and begun to recognize the culture of Whiteness that our organization embodied. Having an all-volunteer faculty and supervisory staff added to our challenges for diversifying. In our early years, we were most interested in the way that sexism, within the gender binary, shaped women’s lives. We now include an understanding of the ways that all social location shapes our internal and external lives. Although we continue to be predominantly a women’s organization, our understanding of gender has expanded and we now serve and train transgender/genderqueer people as well as women. We hope our conversation can also include the complexity of this shift.

Speakers
JA

Jane Ariel

Women's Therapy Center
EJ

Elsa Johnson

Women's Therapy Center
JL

Janet Linder

Women's Therapy Center
EM

Elena Moser

Women's Therapy Center
LS

Lili Shidlovski

Women's Therapy Center


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Gold Rush A

10:45am

The Costs and Benefits of Addressing Microaggressions in Academic Spaces
This discussion will focus on the all-too-common yet aversive experiences marginalized group members endure in academic spaces. Specifically, this discussion will tackle the ways in which experiences of microaggressions, prejudice, and discrimination create inner turmoil, distractions, and strain for their recipients as students, mentors, counselors, instructors, researchers, and faculty (e.g., Gomez, Khurshid, Freitag & Lachuk, 2011; Minikel-Lacocque, 2013). In an oppressive society, the burden of proof is assigned to targets of discrimination to address such comments and behaviors and consider the potential costs and benefits associated with confronting colleagues, peers, and students (e.g., Rollock, 2012). In addition to giving way to internalized feelings of doubt, guilt, and apprehension, power dynamics further complicate the process of determining the worthiness of identifying and confronting issues of injustice in a professional setting. The experience of marginalized group members in higher education has been well documented in the literature (e.g., Turner, 2002). Although universities push diversity initiatives, informal interpersonal interactions can lack respect of diverse experiences and celebration of inclusivity. Despite a safe and welcoming social climate being amenable to productivity, connectedness, and overall satisfaction, many reports indicate an unfortunate narrative of alienation and self-doubt for marginalized group members (Constantine, Smith, Redington, & Owens, 2008). These authors found that those who try to navigate these experiences often feel they must “choose [their] battles carefully.” This discussion will expand on the decision making process for having to address discrimination, and highlight the diverse positions we take in order to survive in academic spaces. We hope to learn from participants ways in which they have navigated (successfully and unsuccessfully) difficult dialogues, discuss the potential impact on our professional development, and seek informal advice from one another on self-care, acts of resistance, acts of silence, etc. amidst adverse academic cultures.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Gold Rush A

10:45am

Promising Practices in Working with Latinas: Innovation, Community, and Technology
When providing psychological services to Latinas, clinicians must be prepared to address a broad range of identities and experiences. Latinas are not a monolithic group and mental health practitioners need to deliver interventions that are responsive to a multiplicity of factors including nationality, geographic location, social class, immigration status, level of acculturation, education, and exposure to discrimination and exploitation. It is paramount that psychologists turn their attention to intragroup differences among Latinas in order to respond effectively to the needs of the many subgroups represented in this population. In this symposium, the presenters will share their experiences and the results of their research studies on culturally responsive practice with Latinas, both in the U.S. and internationally. Throughout the program, implications for research, feminist clinical practice, training, and social justice will be explored. The first presentation will discuss how the experiences of clinicians in New Mexico and Texas may translate into promising practices in the provision of psychological services to undocumented immigrant women from Mexico across the U.S. The next presentation will highlight the role of technology in a multi-year international Participatory Action Research collaboration between U.S.-based researchers and members of Fundación Ana Margarita in Medellín, Colombia who are also survivors of commercial sexual exploitation. The final presentation will introduce a new protocol for a support group for first-year Latina undergraduates focusing on positive identity development, effective methods for handling the transition to college life, the experience of discrimination, and the development of coping strategies to address academic concerns.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
California

12:00pm

New Members Lunch
Friday March 6, 2015 12:00pm - 12:45pm
Crystal

1:05pm

Jewish Women's Caucus Award For Scholarship - 2014 Award Recipient-- Hope into Practice, Jewish women choosing justice despite our fears
Interactive presentation from my book's themes, linking personal healing with activism for world-changing. Anchored in Jewish ethical tradition, I'll share women's courageous (and hilarious) stories, including a fair-minded perspective on Israel-Palestine -- inviting us to face our fears, but not act on them. For anyone who cares about human liberation.

Speakers
PR

Penny Rosenwasser

City College of San Francisco


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
California

1:05pm

1:05pm

Film Festival - The Grey Area: Feminism Behind Bars A film by Noga Ashkenazi

Through a series of captivating class discussions, headed by students from Grinnell College, a small group of female inmates at a maximum women’s security prison in Mitchellville, Iowa, share their diverse experiences with motherhood, drug addiction, sexual abuse, murder, and life in prison. The women, along with their teachers, explore the "grey area" that is often invisible within the prison walls and delve into issues of race, class, sexuality and gender.

Women Make Movies (c)

Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Arizona

1:05pm

A pilot intervention to promote psychosocial health and empowerment among female commercial sex workers in Kathmandu, Nepal: Program feasibility and impact on peer educators
Female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) in Kathmandu are vulnerable to an array of occupational risks, including various reproductive and sexual health hazards, unsafe and unstable working conditions, and numerous forms of violence, harassment and exploitation (National Centre for AIDS and STD Control, 2011). These challenging circumstances compromise the psychosocial health and empowerment of FCSWs, which in turn affects their ability to protect themselves from future harms. Peer education programs have been established as an effective method for reaching FCSWs (Medley, Kennedy, O’Reilly, & Sweat, 2009), but have not yet been tested as a means to promote psychosocial health. The present study piloted a brief peer education intervention in collaboration with a non-governmental organization (NGO) to empower and promote the psychosocial health of FCSWs in Kathmandu, Nepal. Ten women were trained as peer educators and, through formal and informal teaching opportunities, reached over 140 FCSWs with psychosocial health messages. Pre, post, and follow-up surveys were administered to the peer educators to assess the potential impact of the program on empowerment, psychosocial health, and peer education efficacy. Additionally, exit interviews were conducted with the peer educators to collect in-depth feedback regarding their training and teaching experiences. Two NGO field staff observed and commented on peer educator teaching competency and were also interviewed about the program. According to preliminary survey results, the peer educators reported an increase in three forms of empowerment—within, with others, and over resources, decreased shame and burnout, and increased happiness and efficacy to teach, communicate, lead and help others. NGO staff observed increased teaching competency across time. Exit interviews suggested additional program impacts, including increased self-realization and self-care and positive dispositional and relationship changes. Overall, findings suggest that peer education methods are a feasible and promising means to enhance the psychosocial health and empowerment of FCSWs.


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Experiences of Microaggressions in the Lives of Student Women of Color
This paper presents findings from a qualitative study focused on microaggressions sustained by underrepresented women on a college campus. Microagressions are described as “brief, everyday exchanges that send denigrating messages to certain individuals because of their group membership” (Sue et al., 2007). Previous research on microaggressions has been conducted using primarily samples of student of color in larger university settings. In the current study, researchers aimed to investigate the nature and extent of microaggressions experiences shared by women of color in a small liberal arts college environment, an exclusive population that researchers have not yet targeted. Based on previous literature, the investigators expected to find that the majority of participants would share detailed accounts regarding their experiences of certain types of microaggressions. The researchers targeted respondents who self-identified as women of color and specifically invited them to participate in discussion groups. Using a semi-structured guide, facilitators (also self-identified women of color) conducted three focus groups composed of a total of ten women. Data were transcribed and loaded into an extensive data coding and analysis online application. Using a coding guide composed of reliable identifiers based upon the related literature; the investigators tagged themes and, through a reiterative process, identified consistent, emerging thematic patterns found in the narratives. Researchers found most of the expected microaggressive themes. Moore importantly, these collective narratives suggested an ethos of [defending one another] and other significant themes that may be salient to women of color on a residential campus inhabited by a predominantly White student body. In future studies, the researchers will use individual interviews to further investigate the use of support systems and coping mechanisms. These investigations will help to extend the perspective on these experiences and pave the way for future examinations, thereby contributing to the newly emerging existing research within the field


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Female Psychologists and the Restorative Justice Process
Restorative justice is an integral part of restoring individuals, families and communities. A crucial part of the restoring process is the involvement of mental health professionals. The current climate in the criminal justice environment lends itself to using more punitive measures before considering rehabilitating offenders. With the increasing number of offenders in jails and correctional facilities, many professionals in the criminal justice system are realizing that punitive measures are no longer effective to correct behavior. As a result, researchers and clinicians alike are searching for solutions to decrease the numbers of offenders in the system and decrease the rate of recidivism upon release. Providing holistic treatment from competent mental health professionals can be an integral part of the restorative justice process. Within this context, female psychologists can provide treatment to families and offenders while also being an advocate for the restorative justice system. Female psychologists and other female mental health professionals have a specific voice and offer many valuable attributes to the treatment process. Specifically, treatment of the offenders will be enhanced through the use of positive psychology through a feminist lens. As women are often the victims in restorative justice situations, intentionally having women as a part of the restorative process can bring healing not only to the offender, but also to the victim and the community as a whole. This paper will focus on the various types of treatments that can be used to treat offenders while still being supportive of the victim and their family, as well as providing healing to the community at large. Several modalities including solution-focused brief therapy, substance abuse treatment and drug court have been posited to be effective in treating offenders and will be examined further.


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Gathering the Campus Community: A Collective Response to Violence
Transformative justice says individual justice and collective liberation are equally important, mutually supportive, and inexorably intertwined. The success of one is impossible without the success of the other. Movements that use transformative justice present us with a model to heal the trauma of violence (whatever that might be), reduce the level of assaults we experience and mobilize masses of people. A month after Michael Brown’s death in Ferguson, a small group of community members gathered at the University of Utah. The group was disappointed at the minimal response to the tragedy observed in the community. Just days before, a young man Darrien Hunt was shot six times in the back by police in Saratoga Springs, Utah. Again, our campus community fell silent. As the group spoke, we identified a need for collaboration in our school responses to violence—a shift to a culture of collective accountability. To this end, we propose creative responses to social injustice that do not rely on current state systems. We believe this is a liberating process that creates a space for healing and transformation. Through our discussions, we identified a need for a phone alert system that prompts action when violence occurs in our communities. It is our hope that by creating an avenue for people to connect, our campus will have more effective responses to oppression, discrimination, and violence. This poster details our process of planning this community action project. It highlights the feminist principles we use, such as attending to the process, resisting hierarchy, and acknowledging privilege’s role in violence. All involved in the project are agents of change to end violence. Starting with the communities in which we are part of, we hope to be part of a larger transformation of state systems, refocusing the importance of community-centered responses to violence.


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Group Art Therapy with Juvenile Offenders
The purpose of this research is to explore the integration of restorative justice approaches with adolescents in the juvenile justice system using a 12-week Art Therapy program. Restorative processes bring those harmed by crime or conflict, and those responsible for the harm, into communication, enabling everyone affected by a particular incident to play a part in repairing the harm and finding a positive way forward. (Restorative Justice Council, 2013). Restorative justice is essential in the process of understanding the impact and consequences of behavior. Recent studies (Rodriguez, 2007; Schwalbe & Gearing & MacKenzie & Brewer & Ibrahim, 2012) indicate that restorative justice approaches are effective in reducing recidivism rates and victim empathy. The goal is to integrate Art Therapy services as an integral part of treating adolescents that are experiencing symptoms of anxiety and depression. The Art Therapy program intends to decrease symptoms of anxiety and depression so that the adolescent can be more engaged in the community which overall aims to prevent recidivism. Art Therapy can help to visualize concepts that may contribute to the participants’ understanding of the past behavioral experiences and deepen the meaning they derive from their crimes. It is the intention of this research to bridge the gap between using art therapy and restorative justice in the treatment of juvenile offenders and provide valuable information to the Art Therapy field. Research continues to show the effectiveness of group art therapy and has been correlated with reduced rates of depression and other symptomology, as well behavioral modification (Erickson & Young, 2010; Gussak, 2006; Gussak, 2009a; Gussak, 2009b; Meekums & Daniel, 2011; Smeijsters & eleven, 2006). Though researchers have spent time investigating the effectiveness of art therapy with criminal populations, a deficit in research was found that incorporated art therapy, restorative justice, and early interventions with juveniles offenders.


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Racializing Embodiment of Female Immigrants
By the year 2012, approximately more than forty million individuals residing in the United States were immigrants and 11.4 million of them were undocumented (DHA, 2012; MPI, n.d.). According to existing scholarly literature, the general public holds varying degrees of positions and attitudes towards immigrants depending on their legal status (Murray & Marx, 2013; Yakushko, 2009), ethnic origin (Hitlan, Carrillo, & Aikman, 2007), and language abilities (Newman, Hartman, & Taber, 2012). Immigrant women have been stereotyped as uneducated, passive (Hallak & Quina, 2004), exotic, subservient, and model minority, among many other sterotypes (Tummala-Nara, 2013; Yakushko & Espin, 2010). The proposed paper will focus on female immigrants and will present the concept of racializing embodiment (Hook, 2008) as an alternative paradigm in the discussion on existing biases towards female immigrant population in the United States. The paper will provide a brief overview of the theories regarding various forms of gender related bias, including prejudice and stereotypes (Fiske, 2010) as well as extend these theories toward understanding experiences of female immigrants through the post-colonial concept of racializing embodiment (Hook, 2008). The term racializing will be used to refer to linguistically constructed interactive and communicative processes situated within dominant social, political, and cultural practices of the host society (LeCouteur & Augoustinos, 2001). The unconscious processes contributing to the process of racialization of female immigrants will be explored through the language of psychoanalysis and will illustrate how the unconscious placement of objectionable contents and prohibited desires creates a gendered racialized other (Hook, 2008; Hook, 2006; Hook & Truscott, 2013) and differences in gender embodiment within a host culture patriarchy (Hook, 2008). By deploying a psychoanalytic theory (Dalal, 2006; Hook, 2008), the role and impact of signifiers and embodiment of color in the process of racializing of female immigrants will be discussed. Moreover, the concept of abjection will be introduced as the way of understanding projection of simultaneously abhorred and desired contents into the racialized Other. The paper presentation will conclude with further research suggestions and implications for feminist post-colonial clinical practice, namely, scholarship that increases awareness into less visible social structures behind the racializing embodiment of female immigrants and studies that focus on the affective and pre-symbolic dimensions of racializing of immigrant women.


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Reporting sexual violence on campus: Restorative Justice as friend or foe?
Restorative Justice (RJ) principles lend themselves to their application in disciplinary proceedings on college campuses, particularly since both align well in the aim of fostering human, and in this case student, development. The ideal RJ processes are victim-empowering, dialogue-centered procedures, which focus on accountability and the reinforcement of values in their respective communities (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2006). As more colleges implement RJ procedures, there is a scarcity of research of potential consequences for reporting serious misconduct, in particular sexual violence. Almost one in five college women will become the victim of sexual violence (Kilpatrick et al., 2007). Renewed focus in the issue by the White House has put the spotlight on colleges to increasingly prevent, investigate and deal with sexual violence on their campuses. In light of the fact that these cases are notoriously underreported at a rate of only around 5% (to both campus authorities as well as police), women apparently still perceive substantially more negative consequences than benefits to reporting (Fisher et al., 2003). The reasons for not reporting are most often cited as not wanting others to know about what happened/confidentiality and believing that the incident was not serious enough (Sable et al., 2006). It is unclear whether these concerns are affected by models of student conduct policies being traditional versus RJ. As promising as RJ principles may seem for fostering student development, effects on victims and communities need to be of primary concern. Without a thorough investigation of the potential effects, we run the risk of minimizing the incidents and deterring further from reporting instead of empowering the victim and preventing future sexual misconduct. This poster highlights the potential benefits as well as dangers of applying RJ processes to sexual violence cases on college campuses and calls for more focused research.

Speakers
HM

Heike Mitchell

University of Akron
IW

Ingrid Weigold

University of Akron


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Restorative Justice and Compassion-Based Practices with Inmates
There are different models of Restorative Justice, from group processes within a neighborhood to volunteering to teach restorative justice principles and practices within the confines of a prison setting. This presentation will serve to share about one way that restorative justice principles and practices have been taught to and facilitated with male inmates referred to as “lifers” and how it was done so in a feminist context and with the inclusion of compassion-based practices and role play. Examples will be given in regard to how three women volunteers ( a psychologist, a survivor of violence, and the sister of a murdered brother) facilitated restorative interaction with male inmates who had volunteered for a restorative justice workshop to address their crimes after having completed an Alternatives to Violence program. Implications for future endeavors with both male and female inmates and for those re-entering society will be discussed. The value of approaching the humanity of the survivor, perpetrator, and the systems in which they interact will also be discussed from a feminist perspective. A possible film clip will be included.


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

The Impact of Stereotypes and Microaggressions on Mental Health of Ethnicity
The purpose of our study was to explore the experiences and impacts of microaggressions regarding ethnicity. Stereotypes greatly impact how people perceive others in society (Koenig & Eagly, 2014). The blatancy of their effects on people is well known and studied. Nevertheless, there are forms of discrimination that are not so openly studied (Smith, 2014; Koenig & Eagly, 2014). Microaggressions are a more subtle form of discrimination, which consists of unconscious behaviors that make people feel like the “other” group (Nadal, Griffin, Wong, Hamit & Rasmus, 2012). Microaggressions can be targeted in numerous ways, such as an individual’s ethnicity, gender, SES, and physical capability. Research has shown that microaggressions have an impact on mental health, depression and anxiety (Nadal et al., 2012). In order to address these various factors, it is critical to understand the common themes that arise from individuals who are being microaggressed regarding their ethnicity. Participants were students from a public university in Southern California who believed they were being impacted by microaggressions. Data was collected in the form of focus groups, with 4 groups in total. Participants were asked to discuss their experiences regarding the ethnic group they felt most microaggressed into by members outside of their group. Using qualitative procedures, date was analyzed to identify common themes of microaggressions. The results ascertained that participants displayed feelings of disconnect with their own identities. The findings can help us further understand the effects microaggressions have on such populations, as well as to educate others about the long-term negative effects that manifest throughout their lives. References Koenig, A. M., & Eagly, A. H. (2014). Evidence for the social role theory of stereotype content: observations of groups’ roles shape stereotypes. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 107 (3), 371-392. Nadal L. Kevin, Griffin E. Katie, Wong Yinglee, Hamit Sahran, & Rasmus Morgan. (2012). The impact of racial microaggressions on mental health: counseling implications for clients of color, Journal of Counseling & Development, (92), 57-66. Smith, S. (2014). Limitations to equality: gender stereotypes and social change. Juncture, 21 (2), 144-150


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Understanding Latina Experience of Discrimination: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches
Introduction Discrimination against Latinas/o in the U.S. in jobs, education, health care, and everyday life is a serious problem and has deleterious effects on Latina/o health and mental health. A number of predictors of discrimination have been identified, such as language, immigration status, socio-economic status, but few studies have examined Latina women and what variables may be uniquely associated with their perception discrimination. The purpose of this study is to 1) determine, quantitatively, the predictors of perception of discrimination among a sample of Latina college women, focusing on immigrant status, fear of deportation, acculturative stress, and social support; and 2) to investigate, through open-ended interviews, how Latinas explain, interpret, and cope with discrimination in their daily lives. Methods Participants were 107 Latina college students recruited through Internet solicitation to national immigrant student rights organizations, university student organizations, Craigslist, and other pertinent listservs in the Western, Southwestern, and Midwestern United States. Average age was 23.71, sd=4.72; 75% were born in the U.S.; of those born outside the U.S. 63% were born in Mexico. Each participant completed an online questionnaire that measured perception of discrimination, fear of deportation, acculturative stress, peer and family social support, and demographic items, such as age and whether born in the U.S. or not. A series of 6 interviews with Latina college students that investigates their experience of discrimination is underway, but have not yet been completed. However, the results of interviews will be included in the final presentation. Results Hierarchical multiple regression indicate that immigrant status, i.e., immigrant or U.S.-born, and acculturative stress were not significantly related to perception of discrimination; fear of deportation and social support were significantly related to perception of discrimination. The in-depth interviews will provide an interpretive framework for these results and for further understanding the experience of discrimination among Latina women. Discussion Social support appears to buffer against perception of discrimination, while fear of deportation leads a greater perception of discrimination among Latina college students. As the number of Latinas in higher education increases and as they enter the workforce in higher numbers, understanding what factors are related to perception of discrimination becomes vital. Furthermore, how Latinas may explain, experience, and cope with discrimination can provide insight into their vulnerability to discrimination, as well as their resilience and strength in the face of it.


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Building and Maintaining Multicultural Feminist Research Support Communities
Developing a national/international support system for conducting multicultural feminist (MCF) research can foster the productivity required of tenure-track faculty and build connections for continued career development (e.g., networking for future jobs). Building MCF communities develops sustainability in the often patriarchal, competitive, and isolative academic systems (Arczynski, 2014; Porter and Vasquez, 1997). Academic departments can render feminist and multicultural research and scholarship invisible by being unaware, minimally, or by being actively oppositional, maximally, towards scholarship that seeks to investigate MCF topics (Arczynski, 2014). Previous research validated that reaching out for support and connecting with scholars who promoted a MCF orientation can serve to help faculty make sense of being challenged or marginalized for and serve to energize and support a MCF research agenda (Arczynski, 2014; Szymanski, 2003). By building MCF communities, scholarship devised to promote social change, equity, and inclusion can be fostered and supported (Morrow & Hawxhurst, 1984). Creating MCF research communities can emerge in many local, national, and international forms. The purpose of the roundtable is to bring together MCF researchers to talk about how we can support each other in developing publications, grant applications, and overall tenure track career trajectories. Christensen and Arczynski will describe their approach to building a qualitative MCF research community. Then, we seek to examine varied challenges participants have experienced in developing and maintaining supportive research communities. Next, we focus on facilitating participants’ sense of empowerment to build their own collaborative MCF scholarship communities by identifying plans of action. Participants will be encouraged to identify strategies for collaboration. For example, participants may identify the following options as promoting tenure-track sustainability: (a) Peer review before submission (critique papers before submitting for publication); (b) Incorporating authors (inviting colleague MCFs to join manuscripts); (c) Develop collaborations (cross-disciplinary, multi-site); and (d) Acquire seasoned mentors for guidance.


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Gold Rush A

1:05pm

Creating Space and Boundaries: Lessons on Feminist Mentoring from Feminist Mentors
Mentoring is a critical skill for both clinical and academic psychologists. Although we have all benefited from being mentored as students, trainees, and colleagues, few of us have received formal training on how to mentor others. Indeed, many of us learn how to mentor “on the job”. For those early in their careers, there may be difficulties associated with enacting feminist models of mentoring that are typically collaborative and hierarchy-free, especially when mentees are unaccustomed with such models. In this interactive panel, sponsored by the early career caucus, four renowned feminist psychologists and mentors will discuss their experiences of feminist mentoring. Panelists will answer questions and provide advice to those looking to develop and/or improve feminist mentoring of undergraduate, graduate, and post-graduate students and clinical trainees.


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Gold Rush A

1:05pm

Diversity Training and Multicultural Competence: Moving from Shame and Blame to Real Change
Many of the participants at AWP are committed to efforts to reduce prejudice and discrimination of all kinds. And many of us have been frustrated when those efforts seem to go nowhere, or to create huge psychological reactance, or even to blow up in our faces. Conversely, many of us have participated in diversity trainings that leave us underwhelmed or feeling ashamed but with no tools for moving forward. Frustrated by these sorts of experiences, we went back to the drawing board to try to figure out what approaches might be more productive. We were excited by the emerging research on implicit attitudes and how much that research helped to explain about what does and does not work when purple tackle challenging learning at implicit as well as at explicit levels. We have been developing and applying a model based on the implicit attitudes research. We have used the model in a number of contexts, including general diversity training, work with academically at-risk college students, individual and group therapy, trainings on oppression and privilege, teaching at different levels, and consultation and outreach. The model has shown great promise, and we have received uniformly positive evaluations from a large variety of participants. We would like to use a structured workshop to share this model with AWP participants and to find out what approaches and methods they have been finding helpful. We propose offering a brief introduction about the challenges of creating spaces in which participants can feel safe enough to work to undo prejudicial attitudes and behaviors. We want to introduce them to the approaches we have been developing and we want to hear what approaches they have been finding useful in whatever contexts they do their work.


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Gold Rush A

1:05pm

Faculty Leadership: Challenges and Strategies
Resources exist for women interested in moving into administrative leadership positions (e.g., HERS program). However, there is little guidance for those interested in leadership opportunities within the faculty (e.g., department chair, faculty committee chair). Knowing that service is often evaluated in promotion and tenure decisions with less emphasis than teaching and scholarship, junior faculty often wait until after they are tenured to become significantly involved in faculty governance. However, this impedes them from having a track record necessary to be perceived as faculty leaders amongst their colleagues and by the administration (Chrisler, Herr, & Murstein, 1998). For women, there are still additional hurdles for entering leadership positions, because institutions which reproduce inequality within their governance structure are resistant to change (Dean, Bracken, & Allen, 2009). Although women are able to move into leadership roles (e.g., department chairs) in traditionally male-dominated professions, they are still expected to exhibit both masculine/agentic and feminine/communal behaviors in order to be successful (Isaac, Griffin, & Carnes, 2010). Formal faculty influence in institutional governance is steadily decreasing (O’Meara, LaPointe Terosky, & Neumann, 2008), yet faculty involvement directly affects the strength and influence of their participation in critical institutional decisions. This structured discussion will be facilitated by women who serve (or have served) in such roles in recent years. We will discuss strategies for becoming an effective faculty leader (e.g., networking, cultivating a reputation as an independent thinker, understanding the culture and political climate of the institution, as well as the issues affecting higher education) based upon personal experiences, as well as the existing literature (e.g., Kezar & Lester, 2009; Lester & Kezar, 2012; Schoorman & Acker-Hocevar, 2010). NOTE: Sponsored by the Early Career Caucus


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Gold Rush A

1:05pm

Restorative Practice Applications in Multicultural Training
To become culturally competent (APA, 2002), graduate psychology students must reflect on themselves and others in a cultural context. Toward this end, taking risks that involve authentic exploration of complex multicultural dynamics often invokes discomfort, fear, and, at times, conflict. In multicultural training, conflicts may involve intersections of multiple identities and dynamics around privilege, oppression, and power. Oftentimes unconscious biases, stereotypes, and internalized oppression are the undercurrents of these challenging dynamics. These classroom conflicts, ruptures, and microaggressions (Sue, 2010) may provide rich examples of the lived experiences of historical and systemic oppression - a microcosm of the larger society. Restorative practices can be used to address conflicts, ruptures and microaggressions that occur in the classroom. Restorative pedagogy helps to inform responses to difficult classroom situations through the teaching of the restorative mindset and values, as well as restorative modeling by the instructors (Hopkins, 2012). Restorative values involve a commitment to community, connection, transformation, and power-sharing (Gavrielides, 2014), which may represent a superordinate goal (Ridley, 2006) that helps students come together to address injustice, not solely from an individual interaction level but from a more interdependent and collective level. Additionally, conflict resolution and shame management within restorative models (Morrison & Ahmed, 2006) are critical to navigate challenging classroom situations. The presenters have many years of collective experience training, presenting, and publishing in multicultural psychology and have worked collaboratively to consider how best to interrupt classroom conflicts and microaggressions. The aim of this structured discussion is to bring educators together to discuss and explore the ways in which restorative practices can facilitate connection and community in the classroom even after ruptures, resistance, and microaggressions have taken place. Practical strategies for applications of restorative practices into curriculum design and group facilitation will be explored through the use of vignettes and structured questions. References American Psychological Association, Joint Task Force of APA Divisions 17 (Counseling Psychology) and 45 (The Society of the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues)(2002). Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change for Psychologists. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/oema/resources/policy/multicultural-guidelines.aspx Gavrielides, T. (2014). Bringing race relations into the restorative justice debate: An alternative and personalized vision of “the other.” Journal of Black Studies, 45, 216-246. Doi: 10.1177/0021934714526042. Hopkins, B. (2012, Annual). Restorative justice as social justice. Nottingham Law Journal, 21, 121+. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA327955043&v=2.1&u=nu_main&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w&asid=bf02a1c794152edc60972aa4cca07215 Morrison, B. & Ahmed, E. (2006). Restorative justice and civil society: Emerging practice, theory, and evidence. Journal of Social Issues, 62(2), 209-215. Ridley, C.R. (2006). Surmounting resistance to multicultural training. Presented at the Convention of the American Psychological Association, New Orleans, LA. Sue, D. W. (2010). Microaggressions, marginality, and oppression: An introduction. D.W. Sue (Ed.), Microaggressions and marginality: Manifestation, dynamics, and impact. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Gold Rush A

1:05pm

Succeeding in Graduate School While Failing at Being a 'Good” Minority
This presentation will focus on the trials and tribulations faced by students of color when negotiating the predominantly White system that is academia. White people, specifically, White women are the majority demographic of doctoral program graduates in the United States and the field of psychology (APA, 2012). Students of color occupy a liminal space in which they are celebrated for their diversity; at the same time, existing stereotypes of minorities are used to create narratives of their identity for them. The expectation to fit this narrative creates internal conflict for these students. Additionally, when minority students do not act according to these expected stereotypes, academia is ill-equipped to respond. Therefore, these students of color end up being typecast as “problematic” and “atypical.” This issue, though an important piece in the broader mosaic of multicultural issues in psychology, is not frequently acknowledged or deconstructed. Ignoring the problem perpetuates a system wherein students of color are disempowered and then question their ability to succeed (Ewing, Richardson, James-Meyers & Russell, 1996). This influences their progress through their graduate program of study. The presenters will deconstruct how this issue affects students’ progress in their academic program and negatively impacts overall well-being. For instance, this disempowerment can manifest itself as students of color trying to change their behavior to become a tokenized minority, between-group struggles, within-group distrust, and trying to “act White.” The presenters will also discuss factors that aid in graduate students’ success and overall well-being. These factors, internal and external, include identifying this phenomena as it occurs, not internalizing it, developing discourses of empowerment, forming healthy support systems, self-care, and confronting impostor syndrome, among others.


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Gold Rush A

1:05pm

Supporting ourselves and each other: First generation, low-income, and women of color graduate student’s experiences
Graduate school can be a challenging experience for many students due to life changes and intensified pressures. The many stressors of graduate school (i.e., financial/debt, academic responsibilities, anxiety, poor work and school-life balance, isolation/lack of social support) can compromise optimal functioning and negatively impact physical and mental health (Myers, Sweeney, Popick, Wesley,Bordfeld, & Fingerhut, 2012). These stressors may be exacerbated for students who are underrepresented in the academe (e.g., first generation, low income, female, person of color). For example, experiencing prejudice and discrimination (El-Ghoroury, Galper, Sawaqdeh, & Bufka, 2012; Willison & Gibson, 2011), being underprepared to manage time and work independently, limited finances, and difficulty developing social support systems can create additional obstacles for first generation, low income, women of color scholars (Willison & Gibson, 2011). Further, while there has been an increase in the number of underrepresented students admitted into graduate programs generally, these students are completing their degree or seeking post-graduate employment in the academy at lower rates (Levin, Jaeger, & Haley, 2013; Willison & Gibson, 2011). Students may feel isolated in their experiences and lack a venue to discuss struggles and experiences related to their identity and background. The goals of this structured discussion are to create a space for underrepresented graduate students to share our experiences and explore how we can support ourselves and each other. This discussion is intended to serve as a space for personal reflection, voluntary sharing of one’s own struggles and triumphs during graduate school, supportive listening, and building community.


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Gold Rush A

1:05pm

Walking the Line: On Feminism within a Patriarchal Culture
There are intersections of identities that may appear to be a contradiction. Occasionally these intersections lead to cognitive dissonance whereby accepting one identity indicates the denial of another. This structured discussion will focus on two specific identities, identifying as a feminist and identifying with a culture that is patriarchal. Patriarchal cultures typically have values that are viewed as oppressive to women. Take for example the Hmong culture where daughters are traditionally raised under the notion that they will one day marry and no longer belong with their birth family. Upon marriage, Hmong daughters will be a part of their husband’s family instead. This belief traditionally privileges Hmong sons and men over Hmong daughter or women. Another example is when Hmong women get out of abusive marriages and experience shaming and rejection from their own community. Some Hmong women believe their culture or even their birth parents have betrayed them. Feeling rejected by other Hmong people, divorced Hmong women often feel as though they cannot go back to their cultural community. The current structured discussion will provide some cultural contexts to the examples provided above. The goal of the discussion is to compile ideas for women who feel like they have been wronged by their culture so they may have restorative justice. This discussion gives women in psychology a chance to voice stories, opinions, and ideas on how to be a feminist within a patriarchal culture.


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Gold Rush A

1:05pm

A New Look at Women's Objectification: Christianity, Social Media, and Sisterhood
Objectification theory posits the objectification of women by their culture leads to a mental separation of the woman from her body, creating self-valuation tied closely to societal ideals (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997; Stratemeyer, 2012). A variety of mental health issues have arisen from women's experience of objectification (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997). Objectification also negatively impacts women's interpersonal relationships (Daniels & Zurbriggen, 2014) and leads to increased violence against women (Stratemeyer, 2014). This symposium presents three perspectives on the application of restorative justice to women’s objectification. A restorative justice approach is more humanistic in nature focusing on victim-centered reparations and often includes community involvement (van Wormer, 2009). Several considerations will be reviewed regarding the way objectification of women has been perpetuated through US culture. These considerations may provide a pathway to social justice by deconstructing women's objectification experiences and initiating opportunities for community healing. The current considerations include objectification of women in Christian purity culture, social media as perpetuating objectification and sister relationships as a potential mitigating factor for adolescent girls’ experience of objectification. We intend to focus on the way women are impacted by objectification as it intersects with religiosity, social media, and sibling relationships separately. Our presentation will focus on literature surrounding these topics and the ways current research can be applied to working with women dealing with intrapersonal and interpersonal consequences of objectification. The purpose of this symposium is to initiate a conversation regarding contemporary factors related to objectification of women with a focus on restorative justice. References Daniels, E.A., & Zurbriggen, E.L. (2014). The price of sexy: Viewers' perceptions of a sexualized versus nonsexualized Facebook profile photograph. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, advanced online publication. doi: 10.1037/ppmm0000048 Fredrickson, B.L., & Roberts, T.A. (1997). Objectification theory: Toward understanding women’s lived experiences and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173-206. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00108.x Stratemeyer, M. (2014). "Here's looking at you": Psychological perspectives on sexual objectification. Issues, 107, 24-26. van Wormer, K. (2009). Restorative justice as social justice for victims of gendered violence: A standpoint feminist perspective. Social Work, 54(2), 107-116.


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Oregon

1:05pm

Engaging the Community on the Reality of Violence: Building Grassroots support for Restorative Justice
Dramatic episodes of violence, such as the school shootings at Sandy Hook elementary, and the shootings of 17 year-old Trayvon Martin and 17 year-old Jordan Davis in 2012 instigate an immediate burst of interest in restorative justice and violence prevention that disappears as quickly as it appeared. A stable community network dedicated to ending interpersonal violence is needed across the USA. This symposium consists of three presentations describing different forms of community building to engender grass roots support for restorative justice. Each effort integrates violence education so that potential community members understand the reality of violence and the need to become an advocate for change in support of victims. The first presentation covers building grassroots support for victims of violence through a four day, campus and community conference. Building a network amongst the interdisciplinary attendees was an overt goal of the conference. The second presentation covers community building through transformational curricula that integrate violence education and advocacy into the classroom experience. The final presentation covers how the “We Can Prevent Violence” Facebook group was used to build an on-line, violence prevention community. Each of these presentations will include the goals of the initiative, the types of communities that were developed, the successes and failures that were experienced, and any gender effects that were noted. Key to restorative justice is building many different types of communities nationwide that have no tolerance for acts of violence and who strongly believe in the power of nonviolence to transform communities into safe places (Veith, 2014). Community wellness could be substantially improved if restorative justice was available to support victim’s healing and if interpersonal violence was eradicated to prevent further victimization (Brown et. al 2009; Felitti, 2002; WHO 2006).


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Nevada

1:05pm

Gendered Journeys: Women, Migration & Feminist Psychology
This symposium includes presentations representing chapters from an upcoming edited collection on women’s experiences of migration. Panelists explore the gendered personal and emotional costs of the dislocation of space in the contemporary global political/economic regime. Even though popular notions continue to perceive the immigrant as male, the presence of females is central to the process. And yet, most published work on immigration does not focus on the gendered processes that underlie the experience of migration. With very few exceptions, even when data about women and girls are presented, a gender analysis of the implications of these data tends to be absent. Through a combination of empirical research, personal narratives, and clinical insights about women immigrants and refugees, these presentations contribute an innovative and multicultural approach to the knowledge base on women’s experience of migration. The extant psychological literature about women who migrate tends to pathologize their experiences and/or emphasize the needs of clinical populations (e.g., studies of depression among immigrants). In other words, the focus tends to be on illness-based studies. By contrast, this panel provides other perspectives and healthy alternatives, including those of survival, resilience, and success. Presenters provide a gender analysis of women’s and girls’ experiences of migration, not simply examining women as subjects of scholarship, but exploring ways in which gender is an organizing structure of power relations. These presentations do not simply examine data about girls and/or women, but provide a feminist analysis in which gender is a central organizing axis of power, alongside other social structures such as age, class, race, ethnicity, nationality, and so on. Specific topics explored by these presenters include gender identity, acculturation, language, food, violence, intersectionality and the psychology of place and space.


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Gold Rush B

1:05pm

Responding to Disability Microaggressions: A Programmatic Approach
This workshop will expose attendees to the process of developing a disability ally program at a post-secondary university and will include topics addressed, collaboration, initial data and lessons learned. We will also discuss the process of purposefully developing an “ally” program and not an “advocacy” program, as well as thoughts about the inclusion of culturally immersive experiences within programming and the stand we have decided to take on disability simulation. Although touted for being a disability-friendly institution, disability was consistently ignored or treated differently in conversations regarding the spectrum of inclusivity and cultural awareness on our campus. When others on campus were engaging in conversations around disability, it was piecemeal, fragmented and generally unsupported. We found this in the literature as even in Sue, et al.,’s descriptions of microaggressions, ability is not on the table (an oversight which they are currently amending). As information that ability microaggressions were increasing towards our students despite our efforts, we felt as though developing a disability ally program and developing an official statement on disability simulation was absolutely imperative in improving our students’ mental health by changing the environment they are a part of. In addition, we engaged in many discussions across the country where if disability programs existed, they were advocacy programs from outside of the community that appeared to fizzle when student interest waned. We developed this program based on current best practices in culturally competent programming, fusing cultural awareness, intersectionality, and social-emotional connection and would like to share the disability ally program we have piloted to assist other feminist practitioners in helping to restore justice in environments that have been harmful to us and our students. We would like to encourage others to include ability in every conversation about diversity, equity, and inclusion in order to help repair this longstanding oversight. Sue, D.W., Capodilupo, C.M., Torino, G.C., Bucceri, J.M., Holder, A.M.B., Nadal, K.L., & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial microaggressions in everyday life: Implications for Clinical Practice. American Psychologist, 62(4), 271-286. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.62.4.271


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Washington

1:05pm

2:25pm

2:25pm

2:25pm

Publishing Your Work
Look behind the “curtain” of publishing with editors from Sex Roles, Psychology of Women Quarterly, Women’s Reproductive Health, and Feminism & Psychology in a safe, supportive setting. Learn about manuscript submission, reviewing, deciphering decision letters, and finding homes for your manuscripts. Sponsored by the early career caucus.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Emerald

2:25pm

Film Festival - Living Thinkers: An Autobiography of Black Women in the Ivory Tower  A film by Roxana Walker-Canton

LIVING THINKERS: AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF BLACK WOMEN IN THE IVORY TOWER examines the intersection of race, class and gender for Black women professors and administrators working in U.S. colleges and universities today. Through their diverse narratives, from girlhood to the present, Black women from different disciplines share experiences that have shaped them, including segregated schooling as children, and the trials, disappointments and triumphs encountered in Academia.

Women Make Movies (c)

Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Arizona

2:25pm

2:25pm

'Coming out' as queer: A thematic analysis approach exploring outness as a relevant construct for queer-identified individuals.
The notion that part of the development of the sexual identities of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people entails a time period during which an individual conceals his or her sexual identity from others has become commonplace in contemporary American society. This idea is typically encapsulated in the metaphor of the closet, as a place where one keeps his or her sexual identity closed off and secret from the rest of the world. Recent psychological research has suggested some benefits of coming out of the closet, or effectively disclosing their non-normative sexual identity to family members, peers, or coworkers. These include increased positivity in self-concept, reduced anxiety from concealing an important piece of identity from important people in their lives, and increased cohesiveness in identity politics. However, for those who identify as queer, the idea of a metaphorical space to shield one’s identity may appear as a deployment of hetero-(or even homo-)normativity. Queer theory questions the universality of the narrative of the healing coming out process, which may gloss over the, at times, catastrophic impact of this event in some peoples’ lives. Through thematic analysis of survey responses, this poster will assess the dominant themes found in the responses of queer-identified persons. We aim to address the meaningfulness and usefulness of this concept for queer individuals and if/how coming out of the closet may strengthen individual well-being.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Career Counseling with Transgender Clients: Cultivating Resilience
Using a resilience based model, this poster will discuss how career counselors can assist transgender clients in developing resilience in the face of widespread bias and discrimination in the American workforce (Grant et al., 2011). It will begin with the definition for the widely used umbrella term “transgender,” along with the definition of “cisgender” and a list of common gender neutral pronouns. This poster will state hardships experienced by transgender individuals in the workplace: rejection, disrespect of preferred name choice and pronouns, denial of a job, name-calling, threats, destruction of property, physical violence, sexual assault, denial of preferred restroom choice, and being fired (Budge et al., 2010; Dietert & Dentice, 2009; Levitt & Ippolito, 2014). In the face of workplace discrimination and hardships in other life domains, transgender individuals cultivate resilience. Studies that capture the different forms of resilience used by transgender individuals will be included. Resilience takes the forms of identity development, a sense of hope, awareness of oppression, advocacy, connecting with other transgender individuals, familial relationships, accessing resources, and spirituality (Singh et al., 2011; Singh & McKleroy, 2011). It is important to note that these resilience strategies are not generalizable to the entire transgender population - more research on the resilience strategies of transgender individuals is ideal. Recommendations will be given of how to assist transgender clients with specific workplace issues and with cultivating specific forms of resilience using Social Cognitive Career Theory and a Social Justice Approach (Burnes et al., 2010; Lent & Brown, 1996). Examples of how to advocate for transgender clients will be given: spearheading the creation of unisex bathrooms, mediating between employers and employees, conducting trainings in workplaces, connecting clients with mentors and support groups, co-authoring legislation related to transgender rights in the workplace, facilitating access to appropriate services, and networking with organizations dedicated to improving the experiences of transgender people in the workplace (McWhirter & O’Neil, 2008). References: Budge, S., Tebbe, E., & Howard, K. (2010). The work experiences of transgender individuals: Negotiating the transition and career decision-making processes. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(4), 377-393 Burnes, T., Singh, A., Harper, A., Harper, B., Maxon-Kann, W., Pickering, D., Moundas, S., Scofield, T., Roan, A., & Hosea, J. (2010). American counseling association: Competencies for counseling with transgender clients. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 4(3-4), 135-159. Dietert, M. & Dentice, D. (2009). Gender identity issues and workplace discrimination: The transgender experience. Journal of Workplace Rights, 14(1), 121-140. Grant, Jaime M., Lisa A. Mottet, Justin Tanis, Jack Harrison, Jody L. Herman, & Mara Keisling (2011). Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. Washington: National Center for Transgender Equality and National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. Lent, R. & Brown, S. (1996). Social cognitive approach to career development: An overview. Career Development Quarterly, 44(4), 310-321. Levitt, H. & Ippolito, M. (2014). Being transgender: Navigating minority stressors and developing authentic self-presentation. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 38(1), 46-64. McWhirter, E. & O'Neil, M. (2008). Transgender identities and gender variance in vocational psychology: Recommendations for practice, social advocacy, and research. Journal of Career Development, 34(3), 286-308. Singh, A., Hays, D., & Watson, L., (2011). Strength in the face of adversity: Resilience strategies of transgender individuals. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89(1), 20-27. Singh, A. & McKleroy, V. (2011). “Just Getting out of Bed is a Revolutionary Act”: The resilience of transgender people of color who have survived traumatic life events. Traumatology, 17(2), 34-44.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Experiences of LGBT Microaggressions in the Workplace: Implications for Policy
The proposed poster will focus on experiences of microaggressions toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) employees in the workplace. Microaggressions have been described as everyday verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that convey hostile, derogatory, or negative slights and insults toward members of oppressed groups (Nadal, 2008). Though microaggression research is in its nascent stage, much of the previous scholarly work has focused on racial/ethnic microaggressions. Some microaggression research has concentrated on the LGBQ community; however, this work has been mainly focused on developing a typology of LGBQ microaggressions (Platt and Lenzen, 2011; Nadal et al., 2010; Sue, 2010; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008), describing the negative side effects of LGBQ microaggressions (Burn et al., 2008; Nadal et al., 2011), and LGBQ microaggressions in counseling settings (e.g., Shelton & Delgado-Romero, 2011). Although the workplace has been named as a context where microaggressions occur (Nadal, Rivera, and Corpus, 2010), no scholarly research has examined how LGBQ microaggressions are experienced and expressed within the workplace. The current research used a qualitative approach to identify the types of microaggressions that LGBQ employees experience in their place of employment. Participants included LGBQ self-identified adults (18 or older) who were currently working at least part-time. Our survey expanded upon the previous research by asking participants to describe their experiences of microaggressions in the workplace. In addition participants described existing workplace policies that both prevented and promoted microaggressions in the workplace. Implications of these findings and recommendations for workplace policies will be discussed.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Finding and Developing a Feminist Mentorship: Discussion Points for Mentors and Mentees
Within the world of feminist scholarship, students rely on their teachers to educate them about the past as well as guide them into the future. Developing an effective relationship with a feminist mentor is critical for students who want to pursue feminist academia and is also beneficial to the mentors themselves. Students gain valuable guidance and support while advisors are offered new feminist perspectives as a result of engaging with fresh ideas. Both benefit from the enjoyment of pursuing a shared passion. This discussion will cover a range of topics relevant to both students and professors who are either considering or already involved in mentorship. By combining perspectives, we believe these groups can learn from each other about how to be a valuable mentee or mentor. We hope to address students’ concerns with questions such as: How do students determine what type of working relationship to commit to? How do they decide which professional complements their feminist interests? How might they pursue their passion through scholarship? Discussion points will give professors an opportunity to offer valuable insights from past experiences, as well as discover how they can more successfully connect with students and lead them to find answers to these questions. For example, how can teachers incorporate feminist theory into their lectures? Further, how can they encourage feminist praxis and individual development of ideas outside of the classroom? Of course, there are topics for continuous dialogue between professors and students looking to build a professional relationship. What makes a good mentor/mentee partnership? How can such a relationship be continued after the student graduates from their current institution? By creating and fostering relationships between students and professors, each subsequent generation of feminists can further the developments already made and reach new milestones of their own.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Gold Rush A

2:25pm

Justice for TransWomen: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation of the “Trans Panic” Defense
Transgender, or trans, refers to individuals whose gender identity is not concordant with their biological sex. The trans panic claim is a defense that has been applied in assaults on transgender persons, typically transwomen. In most invocations of this defense, a heterosexual male engaged in a romantic or sexual relationship with an individual whom he perceives to be biologically female is confronted with the victim’s transgender identity; the offender unleashes an uncontrollable rage in an assault on the transgender victim. Trans panic defenses allege that these crimes entail temporary insanity or are justifiable due to provocation by the victim. By mitigating punishment for a murder by categorizing it as manslaughter, the Court devalues the lives of transwomen and curtails their liberties of self-expression. Furthermore, the concept of trans panic as a defense appears to conflict with hate crime legislation, which seeks to increase penalties for bias-motivated crimes. The American Bar Association (2013) has made a plea to legislators to abolish the gay and trans panic defenses, “which seek to partially or completely excuse crimes such as murder and assault on the grounds that the victim’s sexual orientation or gender identity is to blame for the defendant’s violent reaction.” They stated that “neither a non-violent sexual advance, nor the discovery of a person’s sex or gender identity, constitutes legally adequate provocation to mitigate the crime of murder to manslaughter, or to mitigate the severity of any non-capital crime.” This presentation evaluates the trans panic defense theoretically and empirically. This is the first known effort to evaluate the validity of such defenses empirically. Empirical findings support the author’s position that trans panic cases would are a subset of hate crime, rather than a subset of manslaughter. The significant implications for sentencing and restorative justice are discussed.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

LGB Client Experiences and Therapeutic Practice with Sexual Minorities: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis
In this poster I will present the findings of a recent qualitative study concerning the therapeutic experiences of lesbian and bisexual women as well as gay men. Despite some indications that treatment experiences have been improving (Liddle, 1999), LGB clients still receive discriminatory and inadequate treatment (Bieschke, Paul, & Blasko, 2007). Studies consistently show that counselors continue to be inadequately trained in the experiences of LGB clients (Murphy, Rawlings, & Howe, 2002; Phillips & Fischer, 1998). Furthermore, even clinicians who seek to offer affirmative therapy may hold unconscious negative biases as a result of growing up within a heterosexist culture (Bieschke et al., 2007). Utilizing Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (Smith, 2010), this study presents the therapeutic experiences of seven individuals in order to inform competent practice with this population. Results of this study included reflections on the influences of invisibility and visibility on self-categorization, ways in which sexual minority individuals assess the cultural competence of their practitioners, and the influence of heterosexism on expectations of therapy. Participants also discussed situations in which clinicians expressed judgment or lack of knowledge in the therapy. Recommendations concerning how therapists can effectively respond to cultural ruptures will be provided based on these accounts. Furthermore, underlying principles of competent cross-cultural therapy are proposed, which emphasize the importance self-reflective work on the part of the clinician in order to facilitate their ability to provide nonjudgmental acceptance, discuss sexuality with ease, value different ways of approaching relationship, and decrease therapeutic defensiveness. Additionally, participant preferences regarding the sexual orientation of the therapist were explored, and the diversity of preferences reflect variations present within the body of matching research. While this study found that several participants preferred sexual minority therapists, the results also suggest that there are significant benefits to working with culturally competent heterosexual clinicians. Participants described benefiting from the experience of acceptance from a member of the dominant culture, which provided a corrective experience to familial rejection and internalized heterosexism. These accounts suggest that this therapeutic dyad could provide aspects of restorative justice in the microcosm of the therapy room through the witnessing of influences of heterosexism by an educated and reflective heterosexual.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Mental Health Professionals’ Experience of working with Hmong GLBT individuals and their Identity Development
Mental health professionals were interviewed about their experience in therapy with the Hmong GLBT population. Findings include themes regarding clients’ distress, as well as culturally competent strategies to help them manage multiple levels of identity in a society where they have to navigate homophobia, racism, and sexism.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Separate tables, same sentiment: Lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual women’s benevolent and hostile attitudes toward men.
Stereotypes about lesbian women and feminist women characterize these women as “man-haters” (Bell & Klein, 1996; Eliason, Donelan, & Randall, 1992; Swim, Ferguson, & Hyers, 1999). However, previous research has indicated that feminist-identified women do not stereotypically hold negative attitudes toward men and, in fact, have healthy relationships with heterosexual men (Rudman & Phelan, 2007). Similarly, this research aims to challenge stereotypes of lesbian and feminist women. In this study, we examined women’s attitudes toward men by considering the intersection of gender, sexual orientation, and political ideology (i.e., feminist identification). Female participants (N = 322) participated in an online survey that measured feminist identity (Feminist Identity Index; Rudman & Fairchild, 2007; Zucker, 2004), as well as hostile and benevolent attitudes toward men (Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory; Glick & Fiske, 1999). Sixty-seven participants identified as lesbian, 69 participants identified as bisexual, and 186 participants identified as heterosexual (88 heterosexual participants did not identify as feminists). Participants ranged in age from 17 to 67 years old (M = 26 years; 75% White). Results indicate that attitudes toward heterosexual men depend on women’s sexual orientation and feminist identity. Feminist-heterosexual and bisexual women held the most positive attitudes toward men compared to lesbian women and nonfeminist-heterosexual women, F(3, 319) = 4.44, p = .004. Specifically, nonfeminist-heterosexual women (M ¬= 2.65) endorsed benevolent sexism toward men to a greater extent than lesbian women (M = 2.10), feminist-heterosexual women (M = 2.16), and bisexual women (M = 2.30). These results discredit the belief that lesbians and feminists have more biases toward men than other women do. Moreover, this work exemplifies the idea that women do not share homogenous perceptions of men, but rather, their social locations on political and sexual identity spectrums greatly inform their attitudes. Implications for benevolent and hostile attitudes will be discussed.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Sexual Satisfaction In Male-to-Female Trans Individuals
The purpose of this study is to address the lack of research related to sexual satisfaction in the transgender community. There is a significant lack of research examining factors that may contribute to quality of sex in the transgender community. Research that does exist often focuses on physical factors that either enhance, or hinder sexual satisfaction. The few studies that examine sexual pleasure often use self-report questionnaires, and although many of these questionnaires are valid and useful scales, they fail to explore the reasons behind participant’s sexual satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Furthermore, these questionnaires are often originally created for biological females, and may not address the issues of transgender women. Given the positive benefits of sexual expression on one’s physical and emotional health, it is important to understand the lived sexual experiences of transgender individuals, and to not solely focus on sexual complications or dysfunction. Many of the studies examining sexual satisfaction or functioning are limited to transsexuals who have had sex reassignment surgery (SRS), specifically, vaginoplasty.In addition, they are mainly conducted in Europe or Brazil, and few are done in the United States. Moreover, those done in the United States may be limited in that many participants who could afford this expensive surgery were of higher socio-economic status (SES). This is different in many of the other countries where previous transsexual studies were done, where laws are different with regards to transsexuals (where surgery is available at a lower cost or free). Lastly, there is often a medical bias, in that these studies are often conducted in medical clinics by staff members or doctors who performed the individual’s surgery This qualitative research study includes a face to face semi-structured ninety (90) minute interview that will be used to elicit in-depth information about the interviewee's lived experiences.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Subculture Within A Subculture: Women of Color in Bay Area in the Fetish Lifestyle! A Spectrum of Gender Orientations and Divergent Interests
The objective of this ethnographic research is to offer an introductory summary of a Subculture Within A Subculture... This research will endeavor to offer powerful social and historical content for the subject’s social emergence, seek to demystify Fetish/Kink/ Bondage, Dominance, Sadism, Masochism (BDSM), to challenge the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM‐5) Paraphilic and Paraphilic disorder, reframe the A & B diagnostic criteria classifications, to explore the subject’s underground lifestyle from a psychosocial point of view, to offer sixteen (N=16) personal interview findings from sexually variant women of color in the fetish/BDSM lifestyle, and to advocate for inclusive sex‐positive awareness acceptance.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

“Love Thy Neighbors” (But Not if They’re Gay): Gender and Religiosity in Heterosexist Prejudice
Many rights that heterosexuals take for granted (e.g., marriage, adoption) are still struggles for non-heterosexuals. Many of the arguments against non-heterosexuals’ rights are based in religious ideologies, such as ‘a marriage is between one woman and one man’ or ‘children need one father and one mother.’ Research has indicated that women are more accepting of homosexuality than men. Additionally, lesbian women often face less religious discrimination than gay men. Finally, when asked their attitudes towards homosexuals individually, people are less discriminatory than when they are within a small group. This study further explored the relationships between gender, religiosity, and attitudes towards gays/lesbians. Using secondary data analysis on one author’s thesis data (Z. Kunicki), this current study examined a prediction model of spirituality based upon one’s identified gender and the strength of one’s religiosity. A convenience sample of 222 undergraduates (female = 151, male =69, dta = 2) used an online program to complete a series of surveys that examined religiosity and attitudes about homosexuals. Data were analyzed using a multiple regression with religiosity and gender as predictors of attitudes towards gays/lesbians. One prediction model used both genders together while the other separated the models by gender. Results indicated that using both genders in the model, being a woman was related to more favorable attitudes towards homosexuals, while religiosity scores predicted less favorable attitudes. This finding was true for both genders. However, the separate analyses by gender indicated that religiosity was a bigger influence on men’s attitudes towards gays/lesbians than women’s attitudes. The use of undergraduates as the sample may have been a limitation of this study. Future research should use a more diverse sample. In addition, research should seek to explore how attitudes towards gays/lesbians and other minority groups develop, and if these developments are different for men and women.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Advocating for Action: Psychology and Ferguson
Media coverage of Michael Brown’s murder and Ferguson protests have brought into the national spotlight issues that have affected communities of color, particularly black communities, for decades. Although various activist organizations have joined in solidarity with this movement (Bosman, 2014), mainstream media attention is waning and the U.S. government has taken a passive approach (Horwitz & Kindy, 2014; Trott, 2014). As students in counseling psychology, we have found ourselves wondering what the role of psychologists (and future psychologists) can and should be in this movement. Within our own graduate program, a discussion group has evolved out of these events, but deciding how to take action beyond discussion has proven more difficult to accomplish. Racial justice is long overdue--over 150 years since the abolition of slavery, and we are still waiting. Considering the conference theme, we seek to explore what restorative justice might look like in in the case of communities like Ferguson. In areas with a long history of institutional power being used to exploit and oppress, where might the community even begin to restore justice? How can psychologists be most helpful to the social movements already in progress to combat these injustices? What about graduate students? Certainly, research on white privilege and racial prejudice has been one major contribution of the field and should not be discounted. For example, Eberhardt, Goff, Purdie and Davies (2004) found that white males processed weapon imagery faster when primed with black male faces compared to the no-prime control and processed these same images slower when primed with white faces compared to the no-prime control. Although published in 2004, the research remains pertinent today and has clear implications for legislation surrounding events like Michael Brown’s murder. But what is our responsibility to more immediate action when innocent people are dying?


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Gold Rush A

2:25pm

Community-Based Research to Empower a Community
Structured Discussion - Community-Based Research to Empower a Community The Latino population is among the fastest growing minority group in the U.S. This group is projected to make up one fifth of the population by 2020 (Pew Hispanic Center, 2006). Alongside their growing numbers, they have face problems such as discrimination, microaggression, and stigmatization. Furthermore, there is a significant disparity in mental health services used between Latinos and Caucasians (Keyes, Martins, Hatzenbuehler, Blanco, Bates, & Hasin, 2012). This is a concern given that more than half of Latina women experience interpersonal violence within their lifespan (Cuevas, Sabina, & Bell, 2012). In addition, it is common for Latina women to wait for mental health symptoms to worsen before seeking help, leading to negative outcomes (Keyes, Martins, Hatzenbuehler, Blanco, Bates, & Hasin, 2012). In our community research project, we engaged Latina women in focus groups and interviewed them in order to understand community needs and empowerment process. This structured discussion will focus on using community based research to empower Latina women in our community. We will talk about the impact of research as well as our responsibility as researchers to help strengthen our communities. This is important because it has been shown that research can either be beneficial or damaging to a community (Ojeda, Flores, Rosales, and Morales, 2012, p. 185). We will discuss struggles one may encounter in conducting community-based research and how to overcome these issues. We will further discuss the importance of community based research and how we can promote it in our community. We believe knowledge obtained from this study can be an important tool to help establish effective methods for reducing negative outcomes that Latina women often experience.

Speakers
EA

Evelyn Ayala

CSU San Bernardino
MB

Manijeh Badiee

CSU San Bernardino
MC

Monica Cuevas

CSU San Bernardino


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Gold Rush A

2:25pm

Encouraging Activism and Social Change
Feminist multicultural therapists assert that contextual factors, such as oppression and discrimination, contribute to psychological distress, limit access to resources and information, and isolate individuals from sustaining communities (e.g., Brown, 2010). They suggest that participation in social justice activism contributes to psychological wellbeing, such as increased empowerment, social connectedness, and resilience (e.g., Arczynski, 2014; Worell & Remer, 2003). Activism is also a way people may nurture and care for themselves as well as others in their community(s) while reducing oppression, harassment, and marginalization. Hagen (2013) demonstrated that individuals with diverse circumstances, with varied social identities, and from various social contexts may prefer different types of social justice activism. Further, the different activisms people reported preferring and engaging in held different socio-cultural-political meaning and relevance based on their beliefs, values, and experiences of oppression and privilege (Hagen, 2013). The purpose of this structured discussion is to cultivate participants’ empowerment to create positive social change in their varied communities. We will encourage a broad conceptualization of activism in order to include behaviors and strategies on micro, meso/community, and macro levels. We will give attention and sensitivity to different socio-cultural perspectives on oppression, power, and privilege. First, we focus on discussing specific concerns and experiences of oppression and marginalization relevant to participants’ communities (e.g., home, work, churches, families, friend networks). Then, we anticipate dialoguing about specific social justice activisms that participants presently engage in or have interest in doing in order to target oppression observed in participants’ local and national communities. Last, we will encourage participants to brainstorm strategies for collaborating with other people to increase social support; challenge discrimination, and increase access to opportunities, information, and resources. In this structured discussion, we will address challenges and benefits associated with engaging in activism.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Gold Rush A

2:25pm

Feminism across the lifespan: Planning for AWP 2016
Join us for a structured discussion focused on conference planning for the 2016 conference in Pittsburgh, PA. The theme of the conference will be “Strong girls and wise women: Sustaining feminism for the future.” Our primary goal for this conference is to highlight and explore the ways in which a feminist ethos can benefit girls and women throughout the lifespan. In particular, we are interested in exploring how AWP can focus on girls. We will consider ways in which feminism can supplement girls’ natural resilience in order to assist them in navigating the challenges they will face as participants in a patriarchal culture. Presenters will be prepared to provide examples of specific key issues facing girls and young women today, and we would like to solicit other examples from session attendees. In addition to our focus on girls, the conference co-coordinators would also like to foster a discussion about the challenges faced by older women and consider the ways in which older feminists can provide support and wisdom for future generations. This structured discussion will also involve exploration of specific programming that attendees would like to see carried out at the next conference (2016), as well as ideas for conference activities and events that attendees have found to work well at past conferences. Opportunities to assist in conference planning include tasks that can be done from a distance. Examples of ways to become involved include working with a specific sub-committee (such as Activism events) or working on specific conference related tasks (helping with registration).


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Gold Rush A

2:25pm

How to be social change agents as counseling psychologists: Future directions and goals
Many of us have been trained as change agents in psychology. Women of Color of diverse Asian ethnicities raised at the intersections of gender and ethnic socialization have challenged dominant discourses of the quiet, subservient Asian female worker bee (Okubo, 2013). This panel of women of Japanese, Korean and Filipina descent, trained as counseling psychologists early and mid-career academics but working in non-counseling graduate programs as faculty members and in senior administration will facilitate a discussion on issues related to race, gender, power and privilege and strategies to leverage privileges we have to disrupt oppressive practices in the academia. Counseling Psychologists have unique training that allow us to be aware of power, privilege, and oppression at individual, cultural, institutional, and societal levels, and we are equipped to facilitating dialogues and concerted effort to instigating positive, meaningful changes. By critically examining our positionalities and missed opportunities from the past, we would like to engage with the discussion attendees to generate action plans as social change agents. We would like to facilitate the structured discussion using the following questions: How can we leverage our positionalities to be more effective allies considering our interactionality of privileged and marginalized identities? What have been the missed opportunities? How are we unwittingly serving as what Kivel calls the buffer class between the 1% and the lowest earning 80%? By identifying such instances and learning from them, we aim to facilitate discussion of how we can instigate meaningful changes as social change agents.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Gold Rush A

2:25pm

Giving Voice to The Victim: Consent and Rape Culture in Popular Media
As evidenced by recent attention from the press, questions around institutional policy, and public outcry, politics regarding sexual violence have become particularly pertinent within Western culture. These articulations play out across an array of discourses, including media landscapes. Drawing from popular culture and contemporary literature, television, and film, the papers in this symposium will utilize feminist frameworks to delineate how our society understands and reacts to sexual violence. This symposium serves to ask: Where and how do we learn about sexual violence? Why do media outlets so often romanticize and glorify abusive relationships? What are the implications of consuming these problematic media images? Both presenters will extrapolate from their continued research on rape culture to analyze the real-world impact of these media depictions. The specific and insidious abusive links within several popular television series and novels, among them Scandal, Game of Thrones, Twilight, and 50 Shades of Grey, are analyzed. The presenters assert that the marketing and development of these media series suggest that abuse is acceptable and favorable, and that rape serves to function primarily as a plot device. Norms of masculinity, femininity, and heterosexuality all play a role in constructing images of victims and abusers, “good girls” and “bad girls”, and notions of true love. Furthermore, these portrayals contribute to the existence and proliferation of rape culture. The presenters find that these media examples actively harm individual consumers and inspire the creation of similarly problematic media-- an effect which is exacerbated when that content is disseminated across the globe. Additionally, the presenters bring an activist dimension to their work by including victims’ words and experiences, and by confronting the culture of silence that surrounds sexualized harm. This symposium strives to cultivate new directions for feminist social justice efforts, particularly in approaches to rape, resistance, prevention, violence, and victimhood.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Nevada

2:25pm

Lesbians in long-term intact and dissolved relationships reflect on legal status
Lesbian couples who had civil unions in 2000-1 and those who did not were interviewed in 2014. Over time many couples in both groups have also gotten married or had civil unions or domestic partnerships in other U.S. states. Lesbians who dissolved their relationship were also interviewed.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
California

2:25pm

From Ferguson to Gaza: Restorative Justice, Feminism and Beyond
Ferguson and Gaza raise complex political issues that impact personal and communal experiences. These events are iconic reflections of the ways structural violence dehumanizes people with less social and political power. When those in power control the discourse, reality is distorted. Some people use the dominant narrative to justify racist and inhumane treatment. Others experience dissonance as they try to integrate their sense of justice with conflicting loyalties to racial, ethnic or national identity. As feminist teachers and clinicians we are committed to interventions that challenge dominant narratives and encourage alternative dialogue. Circles -a gift from Native Nations widely used throughout the world- are natural tools for this endeavor. The use of Circles is auspicious at a time when feminism has found a place in Academia yet strayed from grassroots forms of consciousness raising. Circles, used in restorative justice practice, reflect feminism¹s grassroots and are powerful in extending feminist ideals to the exploration of challenging societal events. The use of Circles in feminist practice engages us in a healing process addressing dissonance and offering a space to consider possibilities for transformation of oppressive structures promoting exploitation. In this workshop participants will have the opportunity to join a Circle experience that highlights its use as a tool for feminist exploration and possible restoration. The Circle will focus on recent events in Ferguson and Gaza. It will provide a context for reflection and action through the use of four questions: How are you affected? How does your community respond or not to these events? What is your understanding of why these events happened? Considering the systemic forces causing these conditions, how can you contribute to change and/or restoration? Participants will be encouraged to bring Circles into their local communities to continue dialogue and to address the oppressive forces impinging on our lives.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Monterey/Carmel

2:25pm

Tales from the Academic Plantation: Women of color challenge oppression in the academy
This workshop examines the significance of racism, heterosexism, and sexism in American colleges and universities and its effects on women of color faculty. By examining the stories of women of color who serve as faculty and administrators in academia, presenters and participants will analyze the effects of institutionalized American racism, heterosexism, and sexism. The presenters provide a guide to avoiding the perils and pitfalls of academia, strategies for affirming and enhancing diversity, and methods for using membership in the academy and its privileges for challenging social inequity. Presenters, who are psychologists and women of color, bring their many years of experience and learning to questions of great significance to racism, sexism, and heterosexism in academia. The formal presentation outlines frequently encountered obstacles, critical issues in the struggle and offers psychological analyses and commentary on its various aspects. Presenters will focus on the interaction of racism, sexism, and heterosexism and their effects on the careers and lives of women of color professors, their students, and associates. Bringing the personal experiences of successful, “resilient” professionals to bear on these issues, they analyze and synthesize various perspectives to offer a comprehensive look at the small numbers of women of color who find their way to the front of the university classroom, and their effects on students, the nation and themselves. Keywords: social oppression, academic discrimination, women of color


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Washington

3:45pm

3:45pm

AWP Business Meeting
Annual AWP Business Meeting


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Wellness Suite

3:45pm

But You Look Just Fine: Experiences of Ableism by People with Invisible Disabilities
Ableism is the systemic oppression that affords privilege to people who are able-bodied and/or neurotypical while marginalizing individuals with disabilities. Much existing research on ableism focuses on individuals with “visible” disabilities; those whose disabilities are more apparent to outsiders. This study used phenomenology based qualitative interviews (Padgett, 2012) in order to examine how people with “invisible” (less apparent) physical disabilities experience ableism. Fifteen individuals ages 18 and older were interviewed (approximately 45 minutes each) regarding the participant’s disability(ies), their feelings around having disabilities that are perceived as “invisible” by others in society, and their experiences of ableism, both explicitly and through microaggressions. Questions were part of an open ended, loosely structured interview scheduling, allowing for personalization of each interview depending on the participants’ experiences. Themes that emerged via open coding and using the table-top method to reach inter-rater consensus on theming (Saldana, 2013) included policing of selves, tension in roles, desire for justice, and interestingly, internalized ableism. Many participants recounted their experiences of having their bodies and actions policed by others, including others with disabilities, challenging their actions on a regular basis. In examining their roles as someone providing education about their disabilities and having to educate on policies, needs and accommodations, several participants shared struggling with what their roles were in any given situation. The theme of desire for justice speaks to the frustration participants expressed of having to educate others, how much energy it took to provide this education, and desire for social change to provide societal education regarding ableism. The theme of internalized ableism reflects both explicit experiences of individuals sharing their self-judgment about abilities, as well as unintentional ableist statements made throughout the interviews. Given these themes, potential implications for community education, policy change and offering justice/equity will be discussed.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Washington

3:45pm

Preventing school violence: Comparing policies in Sweden (Gothenburg) and US (Oakland)
Policies to prevent school violence in Sweden and in the United States are different, yet alike. In the US, school violence seems to be a growing problem but in Sweden it is decreasing. Not only have the US had substantially more school shootings; they have also implemented more preventive measures to combat school violence. This paper examines how school violence is handled in Sweden and the United States. The study is based on qualitative content analysis of educational steering documents and interviews with middle and high school principals. Both in Sweden and the US, a crime perspective (that students increasingly are subjected to zero tolerance policies that are used primarily to punish, repress and exclude them), dominates how violence are treated and handled in schools. In the US students are increasingly subjected to a “crime complex” where harsh disciplinary practices by security staff increasingly replace normative functions teachers once provided both in and outside of the classroom. One obvious difference between the two countries is the emergence of a great number of federal and state laws in the US, such as the Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994. Schools in the US are also increasingly turning towards alternative methods like restorative justice as a mean for creating safer schools and social equity. One main point of the paper is also that the key to violence prevention might be found in a comparison of how normalized masculinity is operating in everyday dynamics, rather than differences in policies.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Washington

3:45pm

Reasonable Accommodations in Assessment Courses to reduce Barriers for Blind Graduate Students
Assessment is an essential area of competence for licensure as a psychologist, but presents a barrier for students with visual impairments or blindness (VI). Accommodations for testing when the examiner is the one with the VI have not been documented. We present the accommodations for several common tests and best practices.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Washington

3:45pm

Bystander Behaviors and Attitudes in College Students Before and After Green Dot Bystander Intervention Training
Incidents of rape and sexual assault in the US have not significantly decreased in the past several decades, and rates of assault on college campuses are higher than national statistics. Research suggests that bystander intervention programs are a popular and effective means of reducing sexual assault. The current study was designed to expand upon the literature by evaluating changes in attitudes and behaviors toward bystander intervention and sexual assault before and after undergoing Green Dot bystander intervention training. Participants completed a pre-test to measure bystander attitudes and behaviors, bystander efficacy, and rape myth acceptance before taking part in a 6-hour bystander intervention training. Three weeks after the training, participants filled out a post-test that consisted of the same measures. Analyses revealed that participants had significantly increased positive attitudes toward bystander intervention, increased self-efficacy to intervene, and decreased rape myth acceptance. There was no significant difference in performed bystander behaviors as a result of the training. Implications for bystander intervention programs and future research are discussed.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Redwood

3:45pm

Healing trauma through ritual: The power of women-centered support groups in the transformation of wholeness and empowerment in abused women
Due to the overwhelming and shocking nature of trauma, the process of healing is often very difficult both psychologically and physically. Having endured the threat of an attacker, and unable to fight back or flee, many victims find themselves left in a freeze response whereby energy related to the stressful event is pent up, unable to be processed by the mind and body. Thus, the trauma continues to haunt the victimized individual, preventing the continuation of aliveness and healing. Research on female victimization indicates that women who have experienced trauma frequently maintain feelings of hopelessness and powerlessness as a result of the abuse. Healing rituals that are centered around images and values associated with female strength, such as guided meditation, public recognition of victimization, and chanting, are believed to instill a sense of empowerment while restructuring more positive definitions of self. Moreover, the identification with other women who have endured similar forms of abuse reduces the feelings of isolation that victims often experience. This is of significant importance in light of the fact that victimized women often carry feelings of guilt and responsibility related to the traumatic event. Thus, women are given the opportunity to relieve themselves of the burden of shame and secrecy, thereby opening themselves to the process of healing. Ritual has been known to be especially effective in decreasing fear, releasing anger, and increasing as sense of empowerment (Jacobs, 1989). This poster presentation will examine the benefits of ritual practice and highlight the increased need of women-centered support groups within communities as a therapeutic outlet for improving mental well-being for women who have survived abuse.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Redwood

3:45pm

Promoting Transcendence: An Ecological-Womanist Approach to Understanding Religiosity as a Protective Factor Against Adverse Mental Health Outcomes Among Ethnically Diverse Survivors of Sexual Victimization
Prevalence rates of sexual victimization fall between one-sixth to nearly one-quarter of women in the United States (Elliot, Mok, & Briere, 2004). Literature suggests that survivors of sexual victimization are subject to adverse mental health outcomes such as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) (Bryant-Davis, Chung, & Tillman, 2009; Gladstone et al., 2004). There has been paucity within the literature related to understanding, holistically, the coping behaviors endorsed by diverse populations to achieve restoration. Observing coping behavior from a culturally based, ecological perspective helps conceptualize methods used by ethnically diverse women, allowing for the values expressed within specific ethnocultural groups to be examined (Wang & Heppner, 2011, Fontes, 1993). Womanist theory considers how spirituality can be used to foster reexamination, growth and wholeness (Walker, 1983). This study utilizes an ecological, womanist framework to examine the use of spirituality to promote thriving. Studies have demonstrated an interconnected relationship between religiousness and negative life events whereby religious belief can enhance an individual’s ability to cope with negative life events and negative life events can concurrently lead to enhanced religious faith (Pargament, 1990; Mcintosh, 1995). Furthermore, spiritual and religious beliefs have been shown to be particularly impactful for various ethnic groups, namely African Americans, impacting their understanding of several values including justice, salvation, and coping from oppression (Mattis, 2000). Recent studies have expanded the understanding of the use of religious coping amongst culturally diverse trauma survivors (Bryant-Davis, Ullman, Tsong & Gobin, 2011; Ahrens, Abeling, Ahmad, and Hinman (2010). Feminist clinicians and researchers can utilize an ecologically based, womanist frame to establish integrative treatment programs, which consider spiritual values in order to attend to the needs of diverse communities and promote restoration. Integration of spiritual norms within the treatment framework can enhance cultural congruence and function as a pathway toward transcendence.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Redwood

3:45pm

Resisting Hegemonic Femininity: heterosexuality, whiteness, and gender roles
Hegemonic masculinity has been conceptualized as being constructed at the intersections of race, class, and sexuality (Hurtado & Sinha, 2005) and intimately connected to heterosexuality and whiteness (Connell, 1995; Kimmel, 2003). Some social psychological research has provided empirical evidence to support the existence of this link (Herek, 1984, 1988; Pascoe, 2011). Hegemonic femininity and its relationship to hegemonic masculinity has received less attention (Schippers, 2007). Scholars have argued that hegemonic femininity functions in ways that support male dominance and complement hegemonic masculinity (Schippers, 2007). Because hegemonic femininity also occupies a unique position in relation to white supremacy, white women may engage in gender discourse in specific ways that can either subvert or reify existing social arrangements (Hurtado, 1996). The present study examines women’s attitudes towards hegemonic femininity. College students completed a 22-page questionnaire (n=174), consisting of the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men scale (ATLG; Herek, 1984), the Traditional Family Ideology scale (TFI; Levinson & Huffman, 1955), and an abbreviated version of the Sex Role Egalitarianism Scale (SRES; King & King, 1990). A large proportion of the sample identified as white women (40%). In order to better understand the processes influencing women’s attitudes, a regression was used to examine the relationship between race, class, gender and hegemonic femininity. Amongst the women, positive attitudes towards homosexuality and negative attitudes towards traditional gender roles predicted egalitarian beliefs about sex-roles, even after controlling for race and social class. Together, gender, social class, race, the ATLG, and the TFI explained 55% of the variance for the SRES. The findings of this study can contribute to understanding forms of resistance as they emerge from the intersections of gender, race, and social class.

Speakers
RV

Rebecca Von Oepen

CSU Monterey Bay
MS

Mrinal Sinha

CSU Monterey Bay


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Redwood

3:45pm

Restoring Survivors with Psychological Outcomes in Ethnically-Diverse Sexually Victimized Females
Recent literature suggests prevalence rates of sexual victimization falling between one-sixth to nearly one-quarter of women in the United States (Elliot, Mok, & Briere, 2004). Sexual victimization of women, across ethnic groups, has been frequently associated with various negative mental health outcomes including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression (Bryant-Davis, Chung, & Tillman, 2009; Gladstone et al., 2004). The current study offers the restoration process for sexually victimized females to occur through the utilization of mental health services. Equally important in the restoration process is addressing the communities that are often offered the least amount of resources to address the injustice of sexual victimization. Examining ethnically diverse females with sexual victimization histories provides a conceptual framework for establishing treatment as a component of restoration in its role as a protective factor against psychological outcomes. The current study used data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R) to explore the role of therapy as a protective factor against the development of psychological outcomes such as PTSD and depression (Kessler & Merikangas, 2004). The goal of this study was to test for ethnic group as a predictor of therapy use such that Caucasian women are more likely to utilize therapy than African American and Hispanic/Latina women and to determine whether mental health treatment plays a relationship in decreasing risk of sexual revictimization across all ethnic groups. The current study used ethnic groups including African American, Hispanic/Latina, and Caucasian females with histories of sexual revictimization from a sample of 5,692 participants. Regression analyses examined the relationship of ethnic groups on the utilization of mental health services leading to PTSD and depression in this sample. In addressing how ethnically diverse female survivors of sexual victimization are impacted by mental health outcomes, restoration may be provided to these females through the implementation of mental health services.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Redwood

3:45pm

Self-objectification and Social Functioning in Close Relationships: Body Shame as a Predictor of Social Intimacy and Loneliness
According to Fredrickson and Roberts (1997), an individual’s subjective experience of sexual objectification can lead to many consequences, such as body shame. Body shame is the negative feeling that results from comparing oneself to an internalized cultural ideal and not aligning with it (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997). Studies have shown that women tend to experience body shame more often than men (Fredrickson, Roberts, Noll, Quinn, & Twenge, 1998), and it can lead to serious consequences such as disordered eating, depression, and sexual dysfunction (Tiggeman & Williams, 2012). The current study examined associations between women’s self-objectification (self-surveillance and body shame) and social functioning in close relationships. Previously, body shame has predicted fear of intimacy in romantic relationships (Cash, Theriault, & Annis, 2004). Expanding on this, we predicted that women higher in self-surveillance and body shame would experience more fear of emotional intimacy in a romantic context, less social intimacy in close relationships, and more overall feelings of loneliness. At a small private college in New England, students volunteered to participate in the study for course credit. The 99 female participants (majority White) took an online survey, completing the following measures: Miller Social Intimacy Scale (Miller & Lefcourt, 1982), Fear of Intimacy Scale (Descutner & Thelen, 1991), UCLA-8 Loneliness Scale (Hays & DiMatteo, 1987), Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (McKinley & Hyde, 1996), and demographic items including age and current relationship status. At the bivariate level, self-surveillance and body shame were correlated with social intimacy, and body shame was correlated with loneliness. However, neither shame nor self-surveillance related to fear of intimacy. In hierarchical regressions, body shame predicted social intimacy and loneliness after controlling for age, current relationship status, and self-surveillance. These findings suggest that intimacy and functioning in close relationships should be further examined within the objectification theory framework.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Redwood

3:45pm

The Enemy Among Us: The role of sexual assault and PTSD among female U.S. veterans.
The military has faced recent criticism for sexual assault among troops; however, more research is needed regarding prevalence and the contribution of sexual trauma to rates of PTSD among service members (Cooper, 2014; Turchik & Wilson, 2010). Furthermore, rates of PTSD and depression remain higher among women, although the causes of the are unclear . This study explored prevalence of sexual violence in the military as well as its contribution to the development of PTSD and depression. Our Midwestern sample was predominately African American (80%) service women. Using the Life Events Checklist (Blake et al., 1995), the PTSD Checklist (Weathers, 1991), and the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (Blake et al., 1995), and physician-determined depression, we assessed traumatic life events, current PTSD, PTSD symptom severity, and depression. On average, participants experienced 7 traumatic events. The most common traumatic incident reported was physical assault (80%), followed by traffic accident (71%), sexual assault (57%), and unexpected death of loved one (57%). A linear regression with the 4 most common traumas and combat found that traumatic life events significantly predicted PTSD symptom severity, adj. r2 = .60, f(5) = 11.148, p < .001, with sexual assault (b = .77, p < .001) as the only significant predictor; combat exposure was not significant (b = .17). Similarly, logistic regression found that sexual assault (B = 3.15, p = .01) was the only significant predictor of depression; combat exposure was not significant (B = .36). Although combat exposure is often believed to be the primary trigger for PTSD following military service, our findings point to sexual assault as an equal or greater risk factor. This supports the hypothesis that women more commonly suffer from PTSD and depression due to higher rates of sexual assault (Breslau et al., 1991). Implications and recommendations, including intervention and prevention measures, will be discussed.

Speakers
EL

Eric Larson

Northwestern University- Rehabiliation Institute of Chicago
CS

Christy Starr

University of California


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Redwood

3:45pm

The perception of aggression in women across ethnic groups
The proposed study examines the difference in the actual versus the perceived level of aggression in women of color. The principles of social cognition have provided a valuable tool in the study of the perception and the interpretation of aggression. It is sometimes said that we see what we expect to see. It is the experiences and events we least expect that stand out most in our perception of the world and in our memory. However in ambiguous situations, and when we have little information, we are likely to interpret events in a manner that is consistent with our expectations or schemas. Once a schema has been activated, people are likely to look for, notice, and recall anything in their experience that is clearly consistent with that schema. So, what is the overall effect of these cognitive processes? Well, our expectations sometimes lead us to see what we expect to see even when it is not there. These expectations could nonetheless lead to inaccuracies in people’s perception of specific individuals and incidents. This study investigates how the racial/ethnic identity of the aggressor, and observer influences the perception and evaluation of aggression. A quasi experimental design examines whether assertive behavior in women triggers stereotypes of aggression, passivity, or assertiveness. Deception will be used to conceal the true nature of the study in order to account for race related biases. Participants, women and men over the age of 18, will be randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups containing video vignettes that demonstrate an ambiguous assertive act performed by a woman. The aggressor-target race combinations and the assertive act will be varied. Hypotheses were formulated concerning how people would respond to an aggressive act in a vignette, depending on the racial/ ethnic identity of the aggressor, target, and participant. Several predictions are made concerning the level of aggression participants would report. It is predicted that because of the impact of racial/ethnic stereotypes, more aggression would be reported when a vignette described an aggressive act by a Black woman than the same act performed by a White woman. Additional hypotheses concern whether racial stereotypes, lead people to see a greater level of aggression in an ambiguous act by a Black woman. Finally, a third group of hypotheses involve whether there are in- group, out-group differences in the perception of assertiveness and what is “defined” as acceptable norms. The findings of this study would have implications for minimizing diagnostic labels due to cultural differences in what I am hypothesizing to be socially acceptable assertive behavior. This study would highlight the impact that stereotypes have on Black women as it relates to assertiveness and/or the perception of maladaptive aggression. By understanding the cultural differences in the expression of assertiveness in Black women and other women of color, I hope to demonstrate a discrepancy between actual vs. perceived level of aggression that influences the increasing number of racialized violence that occurs towards the black and brown communities.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Redwood

3:45pm

The Role of Gendered Dating Scripts on Beliefs about Love, Romance, and Monogamy
Stereotypes—and research suggests that men dislike monogamy and, instead, prefer casual relationships (Bradshaw, Kahn, & Saville, 2010; Schmitt, Shackelford, & Buss, 2001). Yet, men and women view long-term monogamous relationships as optimal partnerships (Moors, Matsick, Ziegler, Rubin, & Conley, 2013). Given the complexity of these findings, it is possible that men’s disinterest in long-term relationships contextually varies. The present studies investigate social-cultural explanations, specifically, gendered dating scripts, for men’s preference for casual over long-term relationships. In Study 1, I examined the extent to which men and women view various artifacts and symbols related to long-term relationships as defining of gendered dating scripts. In two experimental studies, I examined the effects of gendered dating scripts on people’s beliefs about love and monogamy. Participants responded to monogamy-related items on Valentine’s Day or April 10th (Study 2) and after viewing engagement or landscape photographs (Study 3). When gendered dating scripts were salient, men reported lower endorsement of the committed relationship ideology, monogamy beliefs, and romanticism as compared to men and women in the control conditions and women in the high salience condition. Women’s attitudes were unaffected by gendered dating script salience. Taken together, men do like monogamy, but not the gendered scripts associated with it.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Redwood

3:45pm

Victim Blaming: Minimization of Unwanted Sexual Experiences Among College Students
Rape is often depicted by the media and within American culture as an event of dominant physical force by a male stranger over a female victim (Gavey, 2005), and is the primary social representation of sexual assault (Basile, 1999). However, rape does not always take on that form, nor is it the primary form of sexual assault. Given the dominant representation of rape, if a person experiences unwanted sexual experiences that do not fit the above conditions, he or she may not acknowledge it as a sexual assault (Cleere & Lynn, 2013), and others may place blame on the victim for the experience. Both of these consequences have negative implications for the psychological well-being of the victim. This study examined certain facets of the aftermath of unwanted sexual experiences. It explored the impact on victim blaming and victim distress of the type of relationship between the victim and perpetrator (i.e., friend, family member, partner, etc.), the potential differential impact of who is doing the blaming of the victim (e.g., friend, family member, etc.), and the assessment of potential differences among these processes for male versus female victims. This study also measured the impact of beliefs and attitudes about rape, and attachment to important others, as potential moderators of psychological well-being following unwanted sexual experiences. College students from a Northern California University completed the Adult Attachment Scale, Rape Attitudes and Beliefs Scale , Sexual Experience Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, and Positive and Negative Affect schedule. The implications of the type of unwanted sexual experience, victim blaming, and negative psychological consequences are discussed in the context of interventions designed to highlight the multifaceted forms and negative effects of sexual assault, and to improve the low rates of reporting by victims of unwanted sexual experiences. . Keyword(s): victim blaming; unwanted sexual experience; rape myths


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Redwood

3:45pm

Creating A New Direction Towards Healing with Art and Advocacy for Adolescent Victims and Survivors of Sexual Exploitation and Human Trafficking
The purpose of this structured discussion is to address the issue of sexual exploitation and trafficking among young women in the Bay Area, and explore potential ideas for creating opportunities for healing, restorative justice, and social change that meet this population’s unique needs. “Every day of the year, thousands of America’s children are coerced into performing sex for hire. Some of these children are brutally beaten and raped into submission. Others are literally stolen off the streets, then isolated, drugged, and starved until they become “willing” participants” (California Child Welfare Council (CCWC), 2013, p.5). The presenter will discuss her experience working with these young women and the therapeutic benefits she has observed when incorporating art therapy with the feminist approach and survivor-informed practices to facilitate empowerment and healthy expression. According to Riley (1990), art therapy is helpful with adolescents because the problem becomes externalized within the art image, which shows that the problem is the problem and not the client (p. 249). This discussion will focus on the systems of oppression related to the victims and survivors of sex trafficking in response to race, gender, age, socio-economic status, and psychological resources. Victims whom are forced into captivity and continually abused after previously being abused, induce more harm and trauma to the body, mind, and soul (Herman, 1997, p. 18). Many of them return back to the streets because specialized services are not in place and majority of victims do not have supportive families to return to (CCW, 2013). Participants will explore ideas of community-based interventions and incorporating art as part of the healing process. The goal of this structured discussion is to collaborate with women in the field of psychology and explore therapeutic practices that will aid this unique population in restorative justice, healing, and community change.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Gold Rush A

3:45pm

Fulfilling the promise; AWP at the united nations.
More than ever, our work as Non-Government Organizations at the United Nations is valuable. We have been consulted on UN policies and practices, encouraged to network with UN agencies, and included in some programme matters. in this session, we would like to highlight some of those activities.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Gold Rush A

3:45pm

Goddesses of Mercy and Strength: A Conversation about the Restorative Images that Guide Doctoral Students
In this conversation hour, we will open with a brief meditation that invites imagery around Goddesses of mercy and strength. Examples will be provided in regard to distinct ways that Goddess images and one’s relationship with such can foster solace and strength in difficult times of uncertainty and stress for doctoral students. In addition, we will discuss how the use of images of the Goddess from diverse cultures, historical periods, and religious traditions can be used to provide a standpoint for women from multicultural backgrounds and foster a dynamic community. A discussion about nuances of experience around how the embodiment of such qualities may serve a restorative function for one’s relationship with self and others will take place. The humanistic/depth foundations of a feminist and contextual approach to pedagogy will also be discussed. Personal sharing will follow. The conversation hour will close with another brief meditation to ground participants in embodying representative qualities of mercy and strength that have been shared in the conversation circle.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Gold Rush A

3:45pm

Hurt People Hurt People: Courageous Conversations for Jews about Israel-Palestine, including the 2014 Gaza War
This open-hearted invitation for Jewish women will consider: “It was not enough to take the Jews out of Egypt; it was also necessary to take Egypt out of the Jews.” We will compassionately challenge ourselves to confront fears, face discomfort, and envision just, peaceful and secure futures for Palestinian-and-Israeli peoples.

Speakers
PR

Penny Rosenwasser

City College of San Francisco


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Gold Rush A

3:45pm

International Students: Barriers, supports, growth and development
The present discussion will explore (1) the difficulties faced by international students, (2) the function of clinical supervision and academic advising to help reduce and manage the stressors and discrimination experienced by international students in counseling psychology, and (3) discuss the multicultural differences that affect professional and personal identity of the students.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Gold Rush A

3:45pm

Middle Eastern Women and Sexuality
The interaction of the Middle Eastern culture and its constrained depiction of sexuality has brought oppression to women and non-heteronormative sexualities. Middle Eastern women have been desexualized, and this creates an imminent need for a platform for Middle Eastern women to voice and begin a dialogue to reframe their sexuality.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Gold Rush A

3:45pm

Mourning, Transformation, and Growth: Reflections of Immigrant Women Therapists Inside and Outside Clinical Space
As greater numbers of immigrant women enter training and practice of psychology in the United States, their voices and experiences may have a limited representation within Western psychological literature (Yakushko, 2009). Writings on immigrant experiences within Western scholarship often focus on such concepts as acculturation; frequently, this discourse dictates to immigrants what type of acculturative paths are most appropriate or “healthy” rather than allowing immigrants to pursue their own goals and pathways of adaptation (Yakushko & Consoli, 2014). In addition, immigrant literature often subsumes gender-specific aspects of migration within overall dialogue on migration that emphasizes experiences of men and those who have access to power (e.g., resources, education) over experiences of women (Yakushko & Espin, 2010). Moreover, the literature on migration often ignores the profoundly personal and contextually dynamic aspects of both the decision to relocate and integration within the new culture, including in the culture of Western psychology. For many, move to the United States spurs renegotiations of personal and professional selves. Differences in work culture, relationships, and perceived gender roles may bring on challenges, unexpected discoveries as well as new kind of resilience. The period of cultural splitting, mourning, and nostalgia (Lijtmaer, 2001) can resulted in the reuniting of cultural roots and a new appreciation of their significance in the re-formation of identity. A new type of “going on being” can emerge (Winnicott, 1956): living in two cultures simultaneously and drawing from each one to create a sense of united self. Therefore, the proposed discussion will briefly introduce participants to psychological experiences of several immigrant women in psychology, including women from Iran, Lithuania, Russia, Brazil, and Ukraine. The discussion will focus on vicissitudes of integrating the personal, the political, and the professional within psychological space with the goal to challenge and transform not only ourselves but also the field.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Gold Rush A

3:45pm

Restoring agency and maintaining the family: Moving from Mandated Reporting to Therapeutic Reporting
Mandated reporting in psychotherapy is a frequently used intervention. Though the intent of the practice is to be therapeutic in its aim to protect children from inadequate or harmful care, the consequences of its execution can contradict its intent. This presentation will examine these contradictions and the ways in which dynamics of oppression, re-traumatization, and colonization are being expressed through mandated reporting laws. Using post colonial race theory, along with relational and social justice perspectives I will discuss the perpetuation and maintenance of a pervasive culture of oppression, where families of color are intruded upon, separated, and demeaned, in a disabling dynamic of powerlessness. The relationships between corporal punishment and discipline, and between families of color and institutional intervention will be observed through a historical lens. The instillation of fear and exhibition of power for purposes of control and capital are tactics that are still preserved in more subtle and nuanced way. This has been observed in my work in school-based and outpatient community mental health settings with primarily African American children and their mothers. Fear and distrust of the “system” (i.e. Therapists power/privilege to report abuse, threat of removal of children form home, the) in the context of therapy displayed by child clients and their mothers often complicates and slows an already vulnerable process of entering and remaining open through treatment. Consideration of the entire family system receives little attention or clinical thought, when reporting situations arise. Emphasis will be given to finding space to think about the impacts of this practice, while considering alternatives and/or modifications to approaching and implementing this intervention, with an interest in portraying and offering a less threatening, more therapeutic stance for families.

Speakers

Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Gold Rush A

3:45pm

Feminist interventions and restorative justice: Research, reflexivity, therapy and performance
This symposium explores applications and implications of restorative justice in various contexts, including research, therapy and performance. Presenters explore interventions that address social change, privilege and oppression, feminist consciousness and responsibility. These presentations contribute an innovative and multicultural approach to notions of restoration, healing, and obligation. Integrating analyses of race, class, gender, and sexuality, panelists contextualize their respective interventions within institutional and political structures. Presenters will tackle central thematic questions including: What is restorative justice? What is intended to be “restored”? What does it mean to be concerned about restorative justice in areas of research, psychotherapy, culturally sensitive activism and health? How do we situate ourselves as knowledge producers in discourses of restorative justice? One presenter examines cycles of violence against women and ways in which performance can disrupt systems of domination. Describing an intervention in Argentina, the presenter explores how rurality, tribal culture, the Catholic church, and militarism intersect in the lives and work of a group of feminist activists. A co-authored presentation explores how reflexivity and reflexive practice might be conceived as political action, and how it shapes each step of the academic research process. Presenters critically examine reflexivity in the context of producing scholarship, teaching, and higher education administration. Another presenter asks: How is therapy a tool of restorative justice? Another examines poetry as a tool for social change. Finally, one presentation addresses evidence from repeated population-based samples of high school students to show that, contrary to common opinion, sexual minority adolescent girls actually have a higher incidence than their completely heterosexual counterparts of both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Some of the potential factors and influences that may lead to these outcomes will be discussed, alongside information on recent efforts in public schools to foster the sexual health of sexual minority girls.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Gold Rush B

3:45pm

Lesbians Should Take the Lead in Removing the Stigma Associated With Body Weight
Paralleling the early research and unsuccessful attempts to change sexual orientation, clinicians and researchers continue to attempt to permanently change body weight. This symposium discourages lesbians to submit to the weight loss industry by reviewing studies on lesbians and weight, health, weight loss, and body satisfaction.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
California

3:45pm

Peacekeeping circles: A unique method in counseling training and supervision
The purpose of this workshop is to provide an overview of the use of peacekeeping circles as a unique supervision and training approach for therapists-in-training. The workshop will describe the peacekeeping circle process, its history, and its roots in the Restorative Justice model. Then, we will overview the model adopted by Northwestern University’s Mental Health Human Rights Clinic (MHHRC) as an example of peacekeeping circles in supervision and training. The MHHRC primarily serves clients who are immigrants, political refugees, and asylum seekers and who have survived traumatic histories by providing psychological evaluations and culturally sensitive counseling. Peacekeeping circles are utilized in supervision and training as a mechanism to build trainees’ awareness, skills, and confidence in order to increase comfort and competence in providing services to the clients. In this workshop, we will describe the structure and process used in the weekly healing circles as a mechanism by which trainees are able to explore their clinical work and experiences with clients. We will also overview current adaptations in different settings and the benefits and limitations of using peacekeeping circles as a clinical supervision and training model. Its target audience includes clinical supervisors, clinical trainees, educators, and individuals interested in the application of restorative justice based practices in counseling. The content will be presented via an interactive workshop with didactic and experiential components.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Oregon

3:45pm

That’s déclassé!: Recognizing class bias in cross-class interactions
Helping professionals may (unknowingly) hold certain stereotyped views towards specific social class groups. These types of beliefs can have a significant impact on one’s work with an individual in a helping relationship. This workshop is designed to help working professionals, such as psychologists, social workers, and other helping professionals become aware of the importance of social class during cross-class encounters. Diversity training frequently focuses on race, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation; diversity training typically fails to acknowledge the importance of social class, and the intersection of class, race, and gender. Class is at best acknowledged as impacting the individuals’ access to resources; the culture of class is not acknowledged or examined. Social class can be signaled in interpersonal interactions, through language, dress/appearance, and values (Fiske & Markus, 2012). Differences in social class can impact how one treats an individual during cross-class encounters. This workshop examines the culture of class and how this culture influences one’s understanding of the world and interactions with others. This workshop will consist of interactive activities, discussion, and role plays. Participants will generate stereotypes of 4 class groups, and discuss the origins and consequences of such stereotypes. A short presentation on the myth of meritocracy will be followed by a discussion of how this ideology impacts interactions across class boundaries. A series of role play will be used to demonstrate the role of social class and class-based micro-aggressions that might occur in helping relationships. The workshop is designed to help mental health professionals to have insight into their own beliefs about members of specific class groups, and will be better able to navigate cross-class encounters.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Nevada

3:45pm

Film Festival - Feminist: Stories From Women’s Liberation A film by Jennifer Lee

Structured as a personal journey of rediscovery by filmmaker Jennifer Lee, this documentary brings the momentous first decade of second-wave feminism vividly to life. A wealth of period footage captures landmark events and the pivotal roles of NOW, the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission (EEOC), the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Redstockings, and other organizations. Thirty-five diverse interviewees, including rank-and-file activists along with well-known feminists Betty Friedan, Florence Beale, Gloria Steinem, Robin Morgan, Ti-Grace Atkinson, and others, share memories of the period as well as issues and challenges that still resonate today. 

Women Make Movies (c)

Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Arizona

5:00pm

6:00pm

6:00pm

Coming Out Ceremony
Speakers

Friday March 6, 2015 6:00pm - 7:00pm
Oregon
 
Saturday, March 7
 

8:30am

Saturday Opening Remarks
Saturday March 7, 2015 8:30am - 8:45am
Emerald

8:45am

Honoring the Work of Sandra Bem
Speakers
CG

Carla Golden

Ithaca College


Saturday March 7, 2015 8:45am - 9:00am
Emerald

9:00am

Keynote: Janetta Louise Johnson, Sonya Shah & Malachi Scott

Janetta Louise Johnson … is the Program Director at TGI Justice Project. TGI Justice Project is a group of transgender people—inside and outside of prison—creating a united family in the struggle for survival and freedom. Janetta Louise Johnson is an Afro-American Transsexual from Tampa, Florida. She moved to San Francisco in 1997, where she has worked in various capacities at non-profits and social service agencies. She recently survived 3 years in federal prison and is committed to developing strategies and interventions to reduce the recidivism rate of the transgender community. 

Sonya Shah … is the Justice Program Director at Insight Prison Project and responsible for the oversight of the Victim Offender Education Group (VOEG) program statewide and nationally. She serves on the leadership team for Californians for Safety and Justice. Sonya has served on the advisory board for Restorative Justice for Oakland Youth and the board of trustees for the California Institute of Integral Studies (CIIS), where she is an Associate Professor.  Sonya is actively immersed in seeding restorative justice practices locally and nationally and ending the charity based model of working in communities Sonya has been teaching social justice education for 20 years. In all group facilitation, Sonya creates learning environments that: reflect values of equity; nurture the unique perspective of each participant; build collective and community-based knowledge; challenge oppressive assumptions and structures; and expose students to new ways of thinking through contact with new knowledge, belief systems, theories and practices. Sonya was awarded the prestigious Fulbright fellowship and Jacob Javitz fellowship.

Gary “Malachi” Scott … paroled after 15 years of incarceration for second-degree murder. He was tried as an adult at the age of 15 and sentenced to 15 years to life. While incarcerated he was involved with Restorative Justice in various capacities, from participation, trainings, stewardship, and co-founded San Quentin Kid C.A.T. (Creating Awareness Together) who’s curriculum is driven by restorative practices. He was the Sports Editor for the San Quentin Newspaper and published a New York Times article titled, "Prison is to Violent for Young Offenders."  “Malachi” currently does youth outreach for west side clinic and also leads healing circles and peace and justice community walks in North Oakland.

 

Saturday March 7, 2015 9:00am - 10:25am
Emerald

10:45am

Women of Color Psychologies Award: Adolescent Gender-related Abuse, Androphilia, and HIV Risk Among Transfeminine People of Color in New York City
Introduction: Public health research has indicated extremely high HIV
seroprevalence (13-63%) among low-income transfeminine (MTF) people of color
of African, Latina, and Asian descent living in the U.S. Much of the high HIV
seroprevalence has been attributed to participation in survival sex work and
infection from primary male partners. Public health discourse has also often focused
on health behavior change without understanding cultural contexts. In addition,
negative mental health outcomes as comorbidities of HIV have also not been greatly
examined.
Methods: This paper combines two data sets. One set is based on an 18-month
(2005-06) ethnographic study of HIV risk among MTF communities in NYC (N=50,
120 hours of participant observation). The other set is a five-year (2004-09)
National Institutes of Health-funded longitudinal quantitative study examining MTF
people in NYC (baseline N=600, N=275 followed for 3 years).
Results and Discussion: Transfeminine people of color are much more likely to be
androphilic and at high HIV risk than white transfeminine people. Depression is
high among all transfeminine people, but for transfeminine people of color,
depression is strongly correlated with gender-related abuse experienced as
adolescents. Depression may be one of several effects resulting from trauma
experienced during adolescence; subsequent adolescent and adult revictimization
may manifest as “trauma-impacted androphilia” in primary non-commercial
relationships. A greater understanding of adolescent gender-related abuse and
trauma-impacted androphilia among transfeminine people of color may be essential
for more efficacious HIV prevention, and this understanding contributes towards a
holistic conceptual model of HIV risk.

Speakers
avatar for Sel J. Hwahng

Sel J. Hwahng

Co-Investigator, Mount Sinai Beth Israel
LGBT public health research, HIV research, drug use research, social and behavioral sciences, intersectionality, resiliency, women of color, social justice, vectors of oppression


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Nevada

10:45am

10:45am

10:45am

Film Festival - Private Violence A film directed and produced by Cynthia Hill

PRIVATE VIOLENCE explores a simple but deeply disturbing fact of American life: the most dangerous place for a woman in America is her own home. Every day in the U.S., at least four women are murdered by abusive (and often, ex) partners. Through the eyes of two survivors—Deanna Walters, a mother who seeks justice for the crimes committed against her at the hands of her estranged husband, and Kit Gruelle, an advocate who seeks justice for all women—we bear witness to the complex realities of intimate partner violence. Their experiences challenge entrenched and misleading assumptions, providing a lens into a world that is largely invisible; a world we have locked behind closed doors with our silence, our laws and our lack of understanding. 


Women Make Movies (c)

Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Arizona

10:45am

A new look at well-being: Assessing positive well-being among lesbians of color
The process of restorative justice involves healing and creating conditions for optimal well-being. Merely the presence or absence of mental illness does not accurately gauge the presence or absence of optimal health or well-being, as mental health and mental illness are posited to be along two separate continua (Keyes, 2005; Bhullar et al., 2013). While research on well-being in a psychological context has become an increasingly visible topic in the last 30 years (and has been particularly burgeoning in the positive psychology literature since 2000); Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000), human diversity has received little attention. Cross-cultural differences between countries accounts for most of the studies incorporating diversity. However, well-being and resiliency in an intersectional identity context has been the focus of very few studies. Therefore, this research study examines the construct of well-being utilizing a recently developed instrument, the Multidimensional Well-being Assessment (MWA; Harrell, 2013), in an ethnically diverse lesbian sample. The preliminary study sample consists of a minimum of 32 self-identified multicultural (primarily identifying as non-Caucasian) lesbian or queer females over 18 years of age. Data analysis will include descriptive and correlational analyses to examine at five dimensions of well-being (psychological, physical, relational, collective, and transcendent) within a sample of adult lesbians of color (LOC). Descriptive statistics will present levels of well-being for the total sample, as well as across demographic variables. Correlational analysis will be performed to identify significant correlates of well-being among lesbians of color in this sample. Extant literature and resilient and risk factors for this population will be discussed. Implications for the facilitation of optimal well-being among lesbians of color will also be presented.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Washington

10:45am

Cognitive flexibility as a predictor of reduced sexism and homophobia
Cognitive flexibility is conceptualized as the ability to perceive options and alternatives in a given situation (Martin & Rubin, 1995). While linked with a variety of positive outcomes, including mental health and life satisfaction (Konik & Smith, 2011), there has been no published research regarding the relationship between cognitive flexibility and attitudes toward gender and sexuality. This present study uses the conceptualization of ambivalent sexism proposed by Glick and Fiske (1996), who view sexism as consisting of both hostile sexism (i.e., “traditional” views of women as inferior to men) and benevolent sexism (i.e., viewing women in a constricted gender role that ostensibly seems positive). Our research proposes that cognitive flexibility promotes favorable attitudes toward both women and sexual minorities. Perhaps individuals who imagine many options for themselves and the world in general are less constrained by traditional ideologies concerning gender and sexuality. This hypothesis was tested with a sample of 75 women and 20 men recruited through an online survey. Their mean age was 36 and they were predominantly Euro-American (92%) and heterosexual (89%). Standard measures of cognitive flexibility (Martin & Rubin, 1995), sexism (Glick and Fiske, 1996), and homophobia (Wright, Adams, & Bernat, 1999) were administered. Using regression, our hypothesis was largely supported. Women who reported greater levels of cognitive flexibility scored lower on measures of both hostile (b=-.36, p

Speakers

Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Monterey/Carmel

10:45am

Gender Socialization Among Hip-Hop Identified Youth: Culturally and Contextually Mindful Programming
Attendees interested in developing and evaluating culturally and contextually mindful programming (CCMP) for youth will gain from this interactive presentation. The theory, process, results, and examples of youth work produced in an efficacious resilience-raising intervention will be used as a framework to help attendees conceptualize their own CCMP.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Monterey/Carmel

10:45am

Identity as a Predictor of Psychosocial Well-being in Young Breast Cancer Survivors
One of the most devastating and often persistent challenges facing breast cancer survivors involves coping with changes to their functioning and appearance. These challenges are more pronounced in younger breast cancer survivors who are at an increased risk of poor quality of life (QOL). The illness can disrupt the connection between survivors’ pre-illness identities and post treatment self-perceptions, and challenge survivors who feel unable to live up to their pre-illness ideals. To date, no studies have investigated identity as a predictor of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this investigation is to examine whether identity integration, defined as the reformation of post-illness identities in a way that integrates the illness experience and allows for constructive shifts in one’s identity, especially in relation to traditional gender roles, is a significant predictor of psychosocial adjustment among young breast cancer survivors. As a first step, a pilot qualitative study explored survivors’ self experiences in relation to the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer with ten young women. An ongoing study, using a mixed methods design has further assessed identity integration as a predictor of psychosocial adjustment. To date, the findings reveal that women who are supported, and able to develop a critical gender perspective on societal beliefs surrounding gender role and appearance “norms”, have greater opportunities to engage with the world adaptively after a mastectomy. By exploring innovative research on identity integration as a predictor of adjustment, this research can aid health practitioners in providing counselling and educational services that empowers young women to learn to maximize their health, QOL, and longevity. In turn, these services may support and foster self-nurturing appraisals for young women that build self-worth, increase acceptance of past trauma, and grieve for aspects of a former self to make room for a reintegrated self.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Monterey/Carmel

10:45am

LGB Experiences in Cross-Orientation Therapeutic Dyads: Discussion & Recommendations for Practice
Despite some indications that treatment experiences have been improving (Liddle, 1999), lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) clients still receive discriminatory and inadequate treatment (Bieschke, Paul, & Blasko, 2007). Because of the continued prejudice and discrimination that LGB individuals experience, facilitation of safe and affirming therapeutic encounters is among key social actions that can be undertaken by feminist psychologists. However, little continues to be known about how LGB individuals themselves perceive their experiences of therapy, and ways that they themselves define their therapeutic encounters. This presentation will highlight results of a study regarding experiences in therapy from the perspective of LGB clients. Specifically, I focus on therapeutic dyads that represented divergent sexual orientations, although experiences in therapy with shared-orientation dyads have also been also examined. Therefore, this paper presentation will provide suggestions for facilitating effective therapeutic work with sexual minorities, regardless of the clinician’s sexual orientation. Key factors discussed in this presentation will be (1) reflections on the impact of categorical views of sexual identity, (2) the influence of heterosexism on expectations in the therapy, and (3) ways in which clients tend to assess the safety and acceptance of their practitioners. Furthermore, underlying principles of competent cross-cultural therapy with LGB clients will be shared, emphasizing the importance self-reflective work on the part of the clinician in order to provide nonjudgmental acceptance, discuss sexuality with ease, value different ways of approaching relationship, and decrease therapeutic defensiveness. This presentation will also introduce the notion of the reparative potential embedded in cross-orientation therapeutic dyads. Participants who described transformative therapeutic experiences with heterosexual therapists discussed the benefit of experiencing an accepting member of the dominant culture. This experience provided a counterbalance to internalized homophobia and a corrective emotional experience to familial rejection based on sexuality. Thus, therapeutic dyad work will be viewed as holding potential for restorative justice in the microcosm of the therapy room through witnessing and acceptance.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Washington

10:45am

The importance of gender in examining depression and somatic symptoms among Chinese American and European American college students
The topic of culture and depressive experience has attracted a large number of theoretical and clinical publications (e.g., Chentsova-Dutton & Tsai, 2009). Although depression has been found cross-culturally, the symptoms of major depression that are described by the DSM and measured by clinicians may not be equally culturally sensitive to depressive experience in all populations in the U.S. (Kalibatseva & Leong, 2011). Somatization refers to “complaints about, or the appearance of, physical symptoms such as headaches, stomach pains, inability to concentrate, chronic fatigue, sleep difficulties, loss of sensory functioning, and so on that have a strong psychological basis” (p. 348, Chun, Enomoto, & Sue, 1996). A common pattern that has been proposed in cross-cultural psychopathology is that people of Asian descent somatize psychological distress, and depression, in particular. This proposition has been mostly researched with Chinese, Chinese Americans, and Chinese Canadians. The current study investigated the relationship between culturally relevant factors, such as independence, interdependence, loss of face, and emotion regulation, and depression and physical symptoms among Chinese American and European American students. The study examined whether Chinese Americans report more somatic and depressive symptoms than European Americans and the role of gender as a moderator. The sample consisted of 521 participants from two large Midwestern universities. There were 205 (39.3%) participants who self-identified as Chinese American and 316 participants (60.7%) who self-identified as White or European American. An independent t-test revealed that European Americans reported higher scores than Chinese Americans in physical symptoms but not in depressive symptoms. A 2x2 ANOVA with gender and ethnicity as independent variables and somatic symptoms as a dependent variable revealed main effects for gender and ethnicity and an interaction. Post-hoc analyses showed that European American women reported the highest level of somatic symptoms. The importance of examining gender in cross-cultural phenomena is discussed.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Monterey/Carmel

10:45am

Voice of the Mind: Heterosexual Male Subjectivity During Sex
Based on the depth interviews with 13 heterosexual men, we studied masculine sexual subjectivity through exploring the discourses that men draw on during sex. The rationale of our study is based on the theory of “voices of the mind” of Wertsh (1991), work of Hollway (1984) and Wetherell and Edley (1999) on masculine subjectivity and discourses of masculinity employed by men while talking about sexual experiences. Our approach to studying male sexual subjectivity is based on the idea that men engage in an active process of positioning themselves as masculine and reflecting on their subjectivity during sexual experience. We also see subjectivity as constructed through the interviews that we conducted. The themes that appeared in our analysis also reflect the ways men make sense of their subjective experiences. We asked men questions relating to three descriptions of sexual experiences with another person: recent, adolescent, and troubled. The questions included one specifically on masculinity: “Did any thoughts and feelings you had during sex relate to your being a man?” The discursive themes we found are: “sex as performance,” “knowing without communicating,” “male desire is natural,” “control over the female and the sexual act,” “others in the head,” and that “intimacy is not masculine”. Of interest to women at this conference, may be insight into the way hegemonic masculinity ideals as well as the social demands of adjusting to contemporary views on gender equality produce “voices in the mind” that determine and reproduce heterosexual sex. We offer insights into how this knowledge can be used to inform social change to benefit women and men.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Washington

10:45am

“Girl’s Like Talking About Serious Things”: Sex Segregation in Lesbian Emerging Adult’s Friendships
Sex segregation refers to the tendency for men and women to primarily associate with same-sex peers. Sex segregation is perpetuated by the homosocial norm that suggests “appropriate” friendships are same-sex friendships (Werking, 1997). Consequently, heterosexual emerging adult women have more same- than cross-sex friends (Didonato & Strough, 2013). As the majority of sex segregation research has focused on the experiences of heterosexuals, little is known about the homosocial norm and sex segregation in lesbian emerging adults. In the present study we qualitatively investigated sex segregation in 15 lesbian emerging adult women aged 20-23. Women were asked about the sex of their friends, friendship enjoyment, and preferred activities with their friends. Themes were extracted from the data using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Four main themes were extracted from the data (representative quotes are in parentheses). First, women discussed having sex segregation in their friendships (“My friends are mostly female”; “I have a bunch of friends, they are obviously mostly girls”). Second, women reported feeling more comfortable with same-sex friends (“I am more outgoing around girls because they understand me better than guys”; “I feel like they (women) are easier to talk to”). Third, while women preferred same-sex friends, they also reported enjoying their cross-sex friendships (“Guys just want to chill and do things”; “Its never a stressful hang out”). Fourth, and finally, women discussed the impact that their feminist beliefs had on their friendships (“I can like see now how sexism has, like, impacted our friendships”; “Men that I am friends with are men that are incredibility vocally interested in talking about gender”). Overall, our qualitative study suggests that sex segregation exists in lesbian emerging adult women’s friendships. Similar to heterosexual emerging adults, sex segregation in lesbian emerging adult’s friendships may contribute to the socialization of gender-stereotyped attitudes and interests.

Speakers
CM

Clare Mehta

Emmanuel College


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Washington

10:45am

Can Emotional Intelligence, Coping Style, and SPonsorship Predict Sobriety Through a 12-Step Program?
This study aims to predict whether or not a person will obtain sponsorship through the 12-step program based on Emotional Intelligence (EI) and coping style. The study also aims to predict whether quality of relationship with sponsor, along with EI and coping style, can predict alcohol and substance use outcomes. This is an important area of research because the existing literature support the notion that avoidant and poor interpersonal coping, low EI, and lack of sponsorship are associated with relapse for people trying to abstain from drugs and alcohol. Therefore, it is important to examine whether these traits make it more difficult to have a relationship with a sponsor and if, in turn, it becomes more difficult to stay sober without this relationship. The literature on sponsorship is sparse and those articles that do exist do not examine differences that may occur from sponsor to sponsor or within the sponsor-sponsee relationship. It is also important to examine whether EI, avoidant coping, and interpersonal coping skills directly relate to abstinence goals. This study will employ multiple regression analyses with EI, interpersonal coping, and avoidant coping acting as predictor variables and frequency of contact with sponsor acting as a moderator variable. A separate analysis will be run to determine if quality of relationship with sponsor can predict alcohol and substance use outcomes, with quality of relationship with sponsor acting as a predictor variable. All participants must be at least 18 years of age and meet the criteria for alcohol or substance abuse or dependence via self-report. Participants must also have been sponsored at some point, although current sponsorship is not necessary. This study also aims to create a reliable measure that will examine the quality of relationship with sponsor through a 12-step program.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Embracing the Mother: The importance of ecopsychology in counseling psychology doctoral training programs for social and restorative justice.
The American Psychological Association mandates providing culturally competent training, and counseling psychology training programs have embraced a leadership role in focusing on social justice as a “fifth force” (Smith, Constantine, Dunn, Dinehart, & Montoya, 2006; Miller & Sendrowitz, 2011; Ratts & Hutchins, 2009). Ecopsychology can help in developing culturally competent psychologists by providing additional cultural context related to client relationships with nature, as well as addressing ecological social injustices that negatively impact mental health such as proximity to toxic industries (Sicotte & Swanson, 2007). Ecopsychology examines human relationships with the environment, and the degradation of the environment, which impacts human mental health and mental health treatment provided by counseling psychologists and trainees. A lack of research related to the incorporation of ecopsychology into counseling psychology training programs could possibly indicate that training programs have yet to provide training in ecopsychology or offer ecopsychology courses. The purpose of this study was to assess inclusion of ecopsychology in APA-accredited counseling psychology doctoral programs, as well as attitudes, familiarity, and interests toward ecopsychology. As ecopsychology is a recently developing area of study, research is needed to understand its presence in counseling psychology (Roszak, 1992). This assessment helps identify the current role of ecopsychology in counseling psychology social justice training and inform future directions for increased inclusion. Suggestions for training, therapy, and community engagement are examined as well.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Feminism, Relationship Satisfaction, and Communication: Can Feminism and Romance Coexist?
Many people are reluctant to endorse feminist beliefs or to identify as feminists because of the social stigma attached to feminism. Feminist women are often criticized as ugly, aggressive, and man hating (Banziger & Hooker, 1979; Buschman & Lenart, 1996; Goldberg, Gottesdiener & Abramson, 1975; Griffin, 1989; Kamen, 1991; Rudman & Fairchild, 2007). Heterosexual women in particular are reluctant to embrace the label because of the implications such negative attributes could have in their relationships with men. Feminism, however, has been found to have positive effects for individuals and for interpersonal relationships. In particular, feminism has been associated with satisfaction in heterosexual relationships (Hurt et al., 2007; Rudman & Phelan, 2007; Saunders & Kashubeck-West, 2006; Yakushko, 2007; Yoder et al., 2007). This study was designed to explore the role of feminism in heterosexual relationships by assessing participants’ and their partners’ feminist beliefs and identities, and correlating them with scores on the Relationship Satisfaction Scale (McKibbin, Bates, Shackelford, Haken, LaMunyon, 2010), the Primary Communication Inventory (Navran, 1967), and the Sexual Communication Apprehension Scale (Babin, 2012). Overall, it was found that liberal feminist beliefs are particularly influential in heterosexual relationships and related to increased satisfaction and communication, whereas conservative beliefs show the opposite trend. On the other hand, radical feminism, and other types of feminism that similarly focus on societal structures, is related negatively to relationship variables. The effects of gender, experience of sexual harassment, and experience of sexual assault on willingness to endorse feminist beliefs are also evaluated. Although this study indicates that feminism’s role in romantic relationships is complex, it suggests that there are some aspects of feminism that both men and women would be wise to embrace.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Getting Men through the Door: Masculinity and Working with a Female Therapist
As the number of women in the mental health professions has increased, so has the likelihood that men seeking therapy will be seen by women therapists (Johnson, 2005). Few studies have examined men’s therapist gender preferences or the impact of men’s adherence to traditional masculine ideology on their willingness to attend and engage in therapy with women therapists. This study explored the relationship between men’s adherence to traditional masculine norms, their attitudes toward therapy, and their perceived competency of a woman therapist. Using the Masculinity Attitudes, Stress and Conformity (MASC) Questionnaire (Nabavi & Green, 2004), 319 men reported attitudinal and behavioral conformity to traditional masculine norms, as well as the degree of stress they experienced from adhering to these norms. They also reported their attitudes toward seeking psychotherapy. Participants then watched a 10-minute vignette of a female therapist conducting therapy with a male client and evaluated the therapist’s competency. Results found the more that men endorsed traditional masculine norms, and reported that their behavior conformed to these norms, the less likely they were to rate women therapists as competent. However, the more they experienced stress about their adherence to masculine norms, the higher they rated their likelihood to seek therapy and consider women therapists competent. Clinical implications suggest men who adhere to traditional masculine norms are less likely to address mental health issues, because of their reluctance to seek help or work with women therapist. However, increased stress caused by adherence to these norms lessens this reluctance. Continuing to systemically address problems caused by strict norm adherence, and opening men up to alternative masculine norms, is essential for their well-being.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Recent Immigrant Therapists: Lived Experiences, Divergent Voices
As immigration and globalization continue to alter the ethnocultural landscape in the United States of America, it becomes increasingly important to understand how these phenomena impact psychology, and specifically the psychotherapeutic situation, from both the therapist’s and patient’s perspectives. To date, there have been very few qualitative inquiries into the experience of being a non-native or recent immigrant psychotherapist practicing in the United States of America with predominantly native clients (Iwamasa, 1997; Nezu, 2010). For the purposes of our study, “non-native” was defined as not born in the USA and self-identified as a member of a cultural or ethnic minority group, and “native” was defined as born in the USA and self-identified as a member of a cultural or ethnic majority group. In the interest of exploring this increasingly relevant area of psychological study in greater depth and breadth, we interviewed eight non-native psychotherapists hailing from eight different non-American backgrounds using a semi-structured interview approach, the results of which we collaboratively interpreted using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA; Smith, Flowers, & Larkin, 2009). Through this interpretive method, we identified four major themes that were central to the experience of non-native psychotherapists practicing with native-born patients in the United States: (1) awareness of differences between self and patients, (2) manifestations and impacts of power on the psychotherapeutic relationship, (3) the impact of differences on therapists’ identity, and (4) from separateness to cultivating belongingness in clinical work. Proposed poster presentation will elucidate further the results of the study as well as highlight implications for social justice and social action in psychology.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

The Benefits of “Rewriting” Life Events: Counterfactual Trees as a Therapeutic Tool
When thinking about past events, individuals commonly construct “what if” scenarios. Such imagined alternatives, or counterfactuals, take two main forms, upward (e.g., life could have been better) or downward (e.g., life could have been worse; Wong, Hasselhuhn, & Kray, 2012). Research suggests that, while the construction of upward counterfactuals can be related to negative affect and feelings of regret (Boninger, Gleicher, & Strathman, 1994), it is also related to future problem solving and the motivation to do things differently in the future. On the other hand, downward counterfactual thinking is related to enhanced meaning-making and positive emotions (e.g., Kray et, al., 2010; Ruodrlova & Prokopcakova, 2010). Surprisingly, except for a few studies examining the relationship between counterfactual thinking and well-being among women who have been raped (Branscombe et al., 2003) or who have had recurrent miscarriages (Callander et al, 2007), most research in this area has utilized experimental methods in laboratory settings. Our paper will build upon this work to describe how the construction of counterfactual narratives in a therapeutic setting can empower women to derive greater meaning from their experiences and learn from the past. Specifically, we will describe how clients can benefit from constructing counterfactual trees (i.e., unstructured diagrams of alternative outcomes) that explore the diverse ways in which meaningful events could have turned out differently. This will include a discussion of how women construct life narratives, fate perceptions, and locus of control. We will end with consideration of counterfactual narratives as a form of restorative justice for victims, perpetrators, and communities.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

The Experience of Working With Native American Mothers with Postpartum Depression
Postpartum Depression (PPD) occurs in 10-20% of mothers globally; cultural attributions about PPD differ. This study used qualitative, phenomenological methodology, interviewing six dominant culture caregivers, to investigate how Native American women in the Southwestern United States understand the transition to motherhood and caregivers’ experiences working with the mothers. Results indicate that many Native American women experience multiple life stressors, often PPD risk factors: poverty, substance abuse, teen pregnancy, sexual abuse, incarceration, gang activity, and domestic violence. Mothers are often overwhelmed and do not reflect on the meaning of motherhood. It is an expected life event. Results indicate that Native Americans define motherhood in broad, fluid terms. If a biological mother cannot care for her child, family may appoint a woman as the child’s mother. Most women accept the responsibility but the transition can be difficult. Helping both birth mothers and socially appointed mothers requires a broader perspective than the PPD diagnosis. Historically, Native American children were forcibly removed from their families and placed in boarding schools. The resultant loss of identity, family connections, access to traditional teachings, and exposure to trauma, have had lasting effects. Results indicate that the boarding school years continue to directly impact motherhood and parenting. Participants described a need for self-awareness about judgments and assumptions, and patience in rapport building. Consistency is key to building trust. Clients who miss appointments, the multiple needs of families, and challenges of systems work, create difficulties that may lead to burn out. Native American mothers may benefit from connecting to traditional elders and to other mothers, creating a circle of support. Advocacy and referrals can address life stressors. Direct exploration of historical trauma may reduce self-blame and build hope. Caregivers need self-awareness and good self-care to reduce burn out. Dominant culture caregivers can promote social justice for Native American people.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

The Phenomenological Investigation of Women’s Experiences in an Extramarital Affair
Infidelity is a culturally sensitive topic often viewed with an overarching shadow of secrecy and shame for the individuals involved. Betrayal is estimated to be one of the most substantial threats to marriage in addition to being considered immensely complicated to treat in couples counseling (Atkins, Baucom, & Jacobson, 2001; Jeanfreau, Jurich, Mong, 2014; Leeker & Carlozzi, 2014; Mark, Janssen, & Milhausen, 2011). Statistically, a significant portion of society is affected by infidelity. Studies by Ciarocco, Echevarria, and Lewandowski (2012) and Sharpe, Walters, and Goren (2013) estimate 30%-60% of individuals will be unfaithful in their marriage. Furthermore, the statistics vary among genders. The number of men who reported being unfaithful was 33% to 75%; while women reported infidelity rates of 26% to 70% (Drigotas & Barta, 2001; Jeanfreau, et al., 2014; Orzeck & Lung, 2005; Sharpe, et al., 2013). The possible reasons for the wide statistical variability can be attributed to the secret nature of the relationships, the limited research due to the anonymity of “the other woman,” and the possible ramifications of discovery for all individuals involved. A taboo regarding this topic has existed throughout history resulting in insufficient examination of causes explaining why single women become involved with married men (Richardson, 1979; Tuch, 2002). This poster will provide the results of a phenomenological study of lived experiences of five women’s journey as “the other woman” in an extramarital affair. Utilizing Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (Smith, 2010) and building on a pilot study, I will seek to provide contextually rich and participant-focused information about ways women themselves understand their relational patterns. The goals of this presentation are to provide evidence as to the function and motivation an affair has in “the other woman’s” life, identify commonalities in meanings ascribed to these experiences, describe relationship lessons learned, and explain how the relationship may affect women’s sense of self. Additionally, exploration of the women’s identification and transformation from a Jungian perspective will be addressed throughout the course of the relationship as they describe it. The presentation will seek to give voice to women, present their experiences from their own perspective in order to offer clinically relevant information.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Treatment adherence for culturally adapted treatment for Latino adolescents
Substance abuse court-mandated treatment for Latino adolescents may provide an opportunity for restorative justice, especially if the treatment takes into consideration the culturally specific needs of Latino adolescents. Culturally adapted treatment is the term used to define treatments that meet culturally specific needs. The empirical development of culturally adapted treatment is still emerging, especially in the area of substance abuse treatment for adolescents. Treatment adherence research promotes further development of culturally adapted treatment, which ultimately better serves clients. Treatment adherence examines the mutual influence of therapist and clients on session content. As such, therapist delivery, client response, and interactions are considered part of treatment adherence. Ethnic identity is a primary developmental concern for adolescents. Relevant questions include: (a) How does my ethnic identity contribute to who I am? (b) To what extent do I belong and feel pride about my ethnic group? (c) How do I cope with racism and discrimination? Latino adolescents with healthy ethnic identity development tend to experience enhanced psychosocial outcomes. Prior research asserted the importance of ethnic identity and acculturation in culturally adapted treatment. Given this research, culturally adapted sessions were developed to address ethnic identity, acculturation, and racism. These culturally adapted sessions were purposively sampled for the current study. The current study aimed to examine the degree of treatment adherence in ethnic identity session of culturally adapted treatment. The research team qualitatively analyzed transcripts of 6 ethnic identity sessions with 30 Latino adolescents who were court-mandated for substance abuse treatment. Several components of treatment emerged, including: ethnic pride and stereotypes. In terms of ethnic pride, participants tended to (a) assertively self identify with an ethnic identity label and (b) minimize the impact of racism to demonstrate ethnic pride. In terms of stereotypes, participants tended to (a) be aware of stereotypes targeting Latinos and (b) assume that they were in Latino-only treatment due to stereotypes (i.e, Latinos have more drug problems). Qualitative results are interpreted in the context of treatment adherence. Recommendations for how to therapeutically address ethnic identity, acculturation, and racism with Latino adolescents are provided.

1st Author
AJ

Annika Johnson

Western Oregon University

Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Gender Roles Within the Context of Violence: How Feminist and Multicultural Psychology Can Inform Practice
This structured discussion will explore how we as mental health professionals can utilize feminist and multicultural psychology to engage clients in awareness of gender role socialization in ways that increase clients’ empowerment and promote restorative justice, particularly in the face of violence. Drawing on clinical experience and relevant literature, facilitators will consider ideas for effective therapeutic intervention and potential avenues for enhancing clinical training. Gender roles are the behaviors that individuals perform based on socially constructed expectations about what constitutes masculinity and femininity (Mahalik, Cournoyer, DeFranc, Cherry, & Napolitano, 1998). Recent literature on the topic emphasizes the effects of socialization that lead to adoption of gender roles and addresses the need to redefine power-based constructions of gender (Enns, 2004; Jones, 2003). Research has also begun to acknowledge the differences in gender roles across race and ethnicity (Crawford & Unger, 2004; Miville, 2013). In some cultures, unquestioned adaptation of prescribed gender roles, especially when they have power-based sociopolitical implications, can affect a person’s physical and mental wellbeing (Miville, Bratini, Corpus, Diaz, 2013). Using therapy to address such dynamics, clients may be better able to develop a fuller sense of themselves as gendered beings, which in turn may foster greater psychological health (Miville, Bratini, Corpus, & Diaz, 2013). In working with clients from a feminist perspective, special attention should be placed on the impact of gender role identity on physical and emotional violence, which requires therapists to explore clients’ beliefs related to masculinity and femininity (Sokoloff & Dupont, 2005). Special attention should be placed on how a female client’s gender role identity may impact her experience and understanding of physical and emotional violence (Crenshaw, 1991). In addition, when working through experiences of violence in therapy, an examination of gender role expectations may provide female clients with a deeper understanding of such experiences. It may also facilitate an opening to explore novel ways of developing restorative empowerment as clients heal from violence-related experiences. Per recent feminist literature, as instances of violence around the world increase, it becomes ever more imperative that the racial, ethnic, and gendered differences of such experiences are addressed (Crawford & Unger, 2004). It is therefore vital for therapists to gain an awareness of the influence of gender socialization on their clients’ lives and frame the context of therapy from this lens (Steigerwald & Forrest, 2004). Therapists should also evaluate how their own gender-based beliefs may contribute to their conceptualizations of the issues presented by their clients (Steigerwald & Forrest, 2004).


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Gold Rush A

10:45am

Reclaiming a Stolen Maternal Identity: Restorative Practices for Mothers with Disabilities in the Historical Context of Forced Sterilization
Forced sterilization of women of color, including women with disabilities, has been an ongoing—though seldomly discussed—practice within the United States from the late 1800s through the present day (Lawrence, 2014). As recently as September 2014 , Governor Jerry Brown signed a bill banning California prisons from forcibly sterilizing women (Bhattarcharjee, 2014). The forced sterilization of women with disabilities is part of a larger historical trend within the U.S. that has used social policies, such as institutionalization and termination of parental rights, to regulate the mothering of women with disabilities (Lightfoot & LaLiberte, 2010). Additionally, women with disabilities contend with norms of femininity including idealized motherhood (Malacrida, 2009). In such a sociocultural atmosphere that condones the forced sterilization of women with disabilities, how do women cope with the psychological repercussions of sterilization and how do institutions that have been responsible for violating the reproductive rights of women begin to repair damage they have caused? How does this history of oppression influence the maternal identity development (Meighan, 2006) and reproductive story development (Jaffe & Diamond, 2010) of women with disabilities? The purpose of this purposed structured discussion is to examine restorative practices such as community, restorative circles, conflict management, and shame management (Wachtel, 2013) that will bring healing to the community of women with disabilities given the history of forced sterilization (Cohen & Bohifield, 2012; Nicholson, 2014) and facilitate a more positive maternal identity development. Two of the three presenters are mothers with disabilities. Through case studies of women who have experienced forced sterilization and mothers with disabilities, participants will explore and discuss issues of sexuality, maternal identity development, and the development of the reproductive story in the context of health disparities, especially with regard to obstetric/gynecological health of women with disabilities. References Bhattarcharjee, R. (2014, September 26). California bill bans forced sterilization of female inmates. September 26, 2014. NBC Bay Area. Retrieved from: http://www.nbcbayarea.com/news/local/Gov--Jerry-Brown-Signs-bill-to-End-Forced-Prison-Sterilization--277229702.html Cohen, E. & Bonifield, J. (2012, March 15). California’s dark legacy of forced sterilizations. CNN Health. Retrieved from: http://www.cnn.com/2012/03/15/health/california-forced-sterilizations/ Jaffe, J. & Diamond, M.O. (2010). Reproductive trauma: Psychotherapy with infertility and pregnancy loss clients. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Lawrence, M. (2014). Reproductive rights and state institutions: The forced sterilization of minority women in the United States (Senior Thesis). Retrieved from: http://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu/theses/390 Lightfoot, E. & LaLiberte, T. (2010). The inclusion of disability as a condition for termination of parental rights. Child Abuse and Neglect, 34, 927-934. Malacrida, C. (2009). Performing motherhood in a disablist world: Dilemmas of motherhood, femininity, and disability. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 22(1), 99-117. Doi: 10.1080/09518390802581927 Meighan, M. (2006). Ramona T. Mercer: Maternal role attainment – becoming a mother. In A.M. Tomey & M.R. Alligood (Eds.), Nursing theorists and their work (pp. 605-622). St. Lous, MO: Mosby Elsevier. Nicholson, L. (2014, June 22). Confirmed: 39 women illegally sterilized in California prisons. Reuters. Retrieved from: http://rt.com/usa/167660-california-illegal-sterilization-women/ Wachtel, T. (2013). Defining restorative. International Institute of Restorative Practices. Retrieved from: http://www.iirp.edu/pdf/Defining-Restorative.pdf


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Gold Rush A

10:45am

Social Justice and Duality: Treatment Implications for Survivors of Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault
Current Research highlights the discrepancy of treatment programs offered for incarcerated domestic violence and sexually exploited victims. New data on traumatic brain injury has highlighted the commonalities between victims and perpetrators in trauma history and social and emotional functioning. Social Justice measures of treatment propose the importance of treating and healing both the victim and the perpetrator through honesty and investigation of the ways in which society fails victims of intimate partner violence and sexual assault. This societal systemic failure leads the researcher advocate to the importance of early intervention and the inability to reach victims within the multilayered systems of education, legal, and foster care. The facilitators of this structured discussion will present case studies from the Margaret J. Kemp Girls Camp in San Mateo, CA, offering gender responsive programs to encourage rehabilitation for incarcerated adolescent girls and girls who are on probation. Young girls in this program hold current and historical dual roles of both perpetrator and victim. Current research shows young girls who suffer from traumatic histories find themselves vulnerable to becoming further victimized or becoming perpetrators in an effort to gain control and manage the environments they find themselves in. This experience ultimately increases the possibilities for violence, increasing the chances of extreme injury and acquired disability. The presenters will discuss how working with this culturally diverse and socially and economically disadvantaged population informs more appropriate treatment guidelines and intervention strategies. The discussion will open a space for dialogue around the provision of ethical client centered, feminist treatment interventions. Strategies for increasing educational programs in multilayered systems will also be explored.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Gold Rush A

10:45am

Structured discussion: Training feminist therapists to work in correctional settings
During the past few decades, criminal justice policies have led to a dramatic increase in women behind bars (Willmott & van Olphen, 2005). Many women enter prison from a position of disadvantage and marginalization (Corston, 2007) due to past trauma, disempowerment, and poverty. Incarcerated women need mental health care which takes into account these interconnected environmental factors (Moloney & Moller, 2009). Instead, they often receive programming based on gender-based stereotypes (Chesney-Lind, 2003; Morash, Haarr, & Rucker, 1994) or on an adapted version of programming developed for men. Feminist therapy offers a way of helping incarcerated women deal with both past and current issues that are tailored to women. In addition, incarcerated men may also benefit from services grounded in a feminist model. Based on feminist tenets such as resistance, diversity, mutuality, and empowerment, it takes into account the unique needs of individuals in a social and political context (Marcus-Mendoza, 2004). Although feminist therapy can help incarcerated persons live and grow in a healthy manner, it can be difficult for professionals and graduate students alike to practice feminist therapy in correctional settings and to negotiate conflicts between the theory and the correctional system. Faculty, students, and alumni from Wright State University School of Professional Psychology propose hosting a structured discussion to explore the use of feminist therapy with incarcerated persons and how we can help psychology trainees to work from this model. We invite the audience to participate in our discussion about how we can better assist trainees to use feminist therapy within this setting by exploring the following challenges: educating corrections staff of effectiveness of feminist therapy; developing egalitarian therapeutic relationships; examining and resisting harmful social structures; advocating for gender-specific and/or trauma informed programming; exploring biases that impact clinical work; and advising students through the graduate training process (e.g., internship).


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Gold Rush A

10:45am

Tending the World’s Soul: The Intersection of Depth Psychological and Feminist Approaches to Social Justice
Depth psychological theories, which honor the reality of the unconscious, often hold the reputation of an individualistic psychology, one in which the external realities of oppression may be overlooked in favor of one’s inner landscape (Altman, 2004; Layton, 2009; Watkins, 2000) This dialogue endeavors to challenge the binaried reputation and highlight the unique position a depth perspective holds; one of psyche in the world, where dreams and images co-mingle with the distinctive external realities of daily living particular to each person. Feminist psychological theories provide a framework for encountering privilege, marginalization, and the socially constructed differences that make up the world we share (Butler, 1990). By fostering a dialogue in which the tension between self and other is deconstructed we will enable a subsequent exploration of intersectionality as a point of convergence and elaboration for feminist depth practices. Through the exploration of historical to present day activism within depth psychological practices participants will discover ways in which social justice was an integral component of the early approaches to psychoanalysis and played a formative role in the shaping of psychological theories such as Freudian, Jungian, and Adlerian as well as contributed to contemporary theories within humanistic and feminist theoretical approaches (Layton, 2000; Watkins, 2000). Additionally, a critical exploration of the ways in which depth psychologists have turned away from the realities of injustice in favor of the sanctified consulting room will be addressed. This relevant critique will serve to foster intentionality and the valuing of differences by creating community that is meaningful and edifying for all beings. The dialogue will culminate in a collaborative envisioning of the ways in which depth psychologists can engage more deeply in tending to the healing of both the individual patient as well as this dynamic shared world. References Altman, N. (2004). History repeat itself in transference: Countertransference. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 14(6). Butler , J. (1990), Gender trouble, feminist theory, and psychoanalytic discourse. In: Feminism/Postmodernism, (Ed.). L. J. Nicholson. New York, London: Routledge, pp. 324-340. Layton, L. (2000). Identity, and sexuality: Discourses of fragmentation. In Rudnytsky, P.,Gordon, A. Psychoanalyses/Feminisms. New York, NY: State University of New York Press. Layton, L. (2009). Who’s responsible? Our mutual implication in each other’s suffering. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 19:105–120. doi:10.1080/10481880902779695. Watkins, M. (2000). Depth psychology and the liberation of being. In R. Brooke (Ed.), Pathways into the Jungian World: Phenomenology and Analytical Psychology. London: Routledge.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Gold Rush A

10:45am

When the Son Sets: Exploring Mothers’ Loss and Ways of Healing
The role of mothers is pivotal in the development of children (Ambert, 1994). The importance of the African American mother-son relationship is exemplified within many African American cultural by products. Seminal works such as Langston Hughes’ poem, “Mother to Son,” and Tupac’s song, “Keep Ya Head Up,” highlight the importance of the mother-son relationship within the African American community. Despite the embedded cultural significance of this relationship, psychological research frequently undermines and stereotypes the role of African American mothers in the development of their children (Bush, 2000). Thus, there is a paucity of research that explores the specific feelings of loss that women may feel when they lose their sons to community violence. Women may find themselves particularly distressed by community violence (Jenkins, 2002). They may suffer disproportionately as they lose sons not only to community violence but also to high rates of incarceration (Jenkins, 2002). The threat of community violence may drastically change the way in which Black women parent their children due to fear and worry they experience (Jenkins, 2002). Although women are often victimized by community violence they are not actively represented in the arena of restorative justice. The notable community leaders with the African American community are often men. This presentation will use feminist theory and concepts of restorative justice to understand the struggle that women go through in losing their sons to community violence. It will also reframe the significance of African American mothers in the lives of their sons. Through feminist perspectives, we will discuss interventions that can be geared at restoring mothers after loss, and empowering these women to themselves become activists. Through the utilization of current victims, we will provide examples to how these interventions may be implemented within our individual communities.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Gold Rush A

10:45am

Women and Therapy: Pioneers
For over 100 years, from Freud’s couch to the 1960’s, gender related inequality was the norm both inside and outside the therapists’ office. Though disparities are present in various forms today, we owe a debt to the feminist therapy pioneers of the 1970’s who through radical action, moved the mental health establishment, from within and without, to consider women as fully human. As we move into the current manifestation of feminism and work for justice, it seems imperative to pause to consider how these “second wave” pioneers gave us the beginnings of feminist therapy. These women, starting from the earliest stages of the movement, gave us consciousness raising, the notion of the egalitarian therapy, female empowerment, the groundswell of women into clinical psychology programs, and many other positive changes. They impacted systems such as criminal justice, divorce, domestic violence, education, medicine and banking to name but a few. We are honored to have Dr. Oliva Espin, Professor Emerita of San Diego State University and the California School of Professional Psychology, and one of our foremost pioneers, to join us in this discussion. It is to honor and record the achievements of these innovators that we are creating a special edition of Women and Therapy: Pioneers. We are looking to have a conversation about and with women who were practicing feminist therapy in the early 1970’s. We are hoping to have some of the pioneers, in addition to Dr. Espin, attend, as well as those who worked with or were influenced by their writings, teaching or supervision. We are hoping to take this conversation forward to develop criteria for defining a pioneer, and forming a list. We will also be recruiting interviewers/writers, preferably early-career, who would be interested in writing an article with or about a pioneer.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Gold Rush A

10:45am

If These Streets Could Talk: Narrative Intervention with African American Mothers in Psychologically Traumatic Communities
Deane Metzger (1992) writes "when it is our own life story that we are telling, we become aware that we are not victims of random and chaotic circumstances, that we, too, despite our grief are living meaningfully in a meaningful universe" (p. 55). This workshop will work to facilitate conversations and teachings about feminist narrative therapy and the possibilities it offers for trauma work. We will explore the importance of storytelling and personal narrative in the lives of African American mothers living in toxic traumatic neighborhoods and interventions used to unearth these narratives. We will discuss the personal and collective narratives produced by mothers who experience chronic violence and loss. This presentation is not only intended to explore the various ways in which narrative plays an important role in the lives and treatment of black mothers who are suffering from PTSD, depression, and grief, but also to spark discussion about how stories work in relationship with restorative justice to provide the optimal means of expression and healing. Narrative conversations about violence and loss are less about the passive suffering of trauma and more about growing invigorating identity stories amid the ongoing transitions that trauma occasions. The role of the narrative therapists is as a collaborator or co-author with the client. The narrative frame involves opening space for the authoring of alternative stories, the possibility of which have been previously silenced by the dominant oppressive narrative which maintains the problem. The collaborative approach of the narrative practitioner can be useful for accessing the mother's spiritual strengths by respectful inquiry into her worldview and its nuances of meaning. Attending this workshop will foster a sense of cultural sensitivity and provide a new way to think about black mothers and trauma, professionally and personally with practical applications and skills to be immediately incorporated. Metzger, D. (1992). Writing for your life: A guide and companion to the inner worlds. Harper Collins Publishers: New York

Speakers

Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
California

10:45am

Invited Workshop: The Emerging Field of Restorative Justice

Restorative Justice is quickly emerging as a desired set of principles and practices to mediate conflict, strengthen community, and repair harm in multiple contexts. It is currently practiced in schools, community groups, and along the entire continuum of the justice process, whether as an alternative to incarceration, education program in prisons or for re-entry. It is used by social workers, students, justice advocates, professors, school teachers, psychologists, community activists, and others in the U.S. and around the globe, most notably in South Africa and New Zealand. This session is a continuation of the morning keynote panel. In the first half of the session, Sonya Shah will offer a deeper overview of restorative justice — its history, current applications and evidence-based successes and continue to explore the most critical questions emerging in the field of restorative justice. In the second part of this session, Gary Malachi Scott will engage the group in a circle process — utilizing the heart of a restorative justice practices.


Speakers
GM

Gary “Malachi” Scott

Gary “Malachi” Scott … is a 32 year old African American male who works as a Peer Community Liaison and a Restorative Justice Coordinator. During his childhood he resented his poor single parent mother for neglect and allowing one of her boyfriends to physically abuse not only her, but him and his brother, therefore he was disconnected emotionally from his home life. He eventually fell behind in school, started skipping school altogether... Read More →
SS

Sonya Shah

Sonya Shah is the Justice Program Director at Insight Prison Project and responsible for the oversight of the Victim Offender Education Group (VOEG) program statewide and nationally. She serves on the leadership team for Californians for Safety and Justice. Sonya has served on the advisory board for Restorative Justice for Oakland Youth and the board of trustees for the California Institute of Integral Studies (CIIS), where she is an Associate... Read More →


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Oregon

1:05pm

1:05pm

1:05pm

1:05pm

Film Festival - Double Feature - Maestra & Slaying the Dragon: Reloaded

Maestra
A film by Catherine Murphy – 1:05pm
Narrated by Alice Walker, Maestra (Spanish for teacher) explores the experiences of nine women who, as young girls, helped eradicate Cuban illiteracy within one year. Interweaving recent interviews, archival footage, and Campaign photos, this lively documentary includes one of the first Cubans of her generation to call herself a feminist and one of the first openly proud members of Cuba’s LGBT community. With wit and spirit, all recall negotiating for autonomy and independence in a culture still bound by patriarchal structures.

SLAYING THE DRAGON: RELOADED

A film by Elaine Kim– 1:35pm

SLAYING THE DRAGON: RELOADED is a 30-minute sequel to SLAYING THE DRAGON. RELOADED looks at the past 25 years of representation of Asian and Asian American women in U.S. visual media — from blockbuster films and network television to Asian American cinema and YouTube — to explore what’s changed, what’s been recycled, and what we can hope for in the future.



Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Arizona

1:05pm

Challenging sexuality stereotypes through ambivalent consent episodes
Research on female sexuality argues against a centuries old culturally constructed idea of female sexuality as more passive and less desirous than males (Fine, 1988; Fine & McClelland, 2006; Tolman, 2012). As a reaction to this expectation, women who express agentic sexuality draw on male expectations or assumptions about sexuality (Holland, Ramazanoglu, Sharpe, & Thomson, 2004; Lamb, 2010; Lamb & Peterson, 2013). These restrictions around female desire have been implicated in producing a type of ambivalence, “wanting it and not wanting it” (Lamb, 2002; Peterson & Muehlenhard, 2005; 2007). When working inside these restrictions, they can reenact the aforementioned stereotypes. The opposite can be true for men. Public representations of masculinity show a cultural expectation that men are always ready for “action” (Brown, Lamb, & Tappan, 2010). This is “libidinous heterosexuality” (Attwood, 2005) and is a trait of hegemonic masculinity, which also includes physicality, homophobia, violence, misogyny, and control (Kimmel, 2007). Connell defines masculinity more simply, as power in relation to others (1995, 2012) positioning “always wanting it” as empowerment. Researchers have countered this through research on regrettable sex with both genders (Caron and Moskey, 2002; Oswalt, Cameron, & Koob, 2005; Fisher, Worth, Garcia, & Meredith, 2012) and research about male adolescents’ longing for relationship (Giordano, Longmore, & Manning, 2006). To address stereotypes and undo the restrictive binary of agency for men and women, we examine interviews of 18 men for moments when participants disrupted the assumption of men always wanting and ready for sex. We explore their thinking during sex (as related to us) to address hegemonic masculinity. We also make comparisons to women’s reasons for engaging in sex that they did not want to have (see Impett & Peplau, 2002). A discourse and content analysis showed four themes: preserving agency, performing well, challenging masculinity, and negative character evaluation.

Speakers
MB

Madeline Brodt

University of Massachusetts Boston


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Nevada

1:05pm

Positive Womanist Psychospirituality: Life Principles for Healing, Empowerment, and Wellness
Within womanist theory, there is an ultimate concern for the liberation and optimal development of all of humanity across gender, ethnicity, race, religion/religiosity, ability status, social class, and sexual orientation. The paper aims to provide a framework for identifying strengths and facilitating wellness for women from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. The paper provides an overview of the Positive Womanist Life Principles (PWLP) framework, a culturally embedded reframing of the six Values-In-Action strengths and virtues from positive psychology (e.g., Wisdom, Transcendence, Humanity, Temperance, Justice, and Courage). This reframing reflects an integration of contemporary womanist theory, feminist writings, and multicultural psychology research within a positive psychology orientation. The 6 Positive Womanist Life Principles are: (1) Extended Ways of Knowing (Wisdom), (2) Spirited and Inspired Living (Transcendence), (3) Interconnected Love (Humanity), (4) Balance and Flexibility (Temperance), (5) Liberation and Inclusion (Justice), and (6) Empowered Authenticity (Courage). Forty specific strengths and gifts are organized within the six life principles. The PWLP framework provides a structure for facilitating healing, empowerment, and wellness grounded in the culturally-embedded experiences of women of color that inform contemporary womanist theory. The paper briefly describes a PWLP-based intervention inspired by the life and work of Maya Angelou. The group intervention, “Phenomenal Women Rising” (after Angelou’s poems) is organized around the six principles within a broader wellness promotion approach. Wellness is conceptualized as an emergent property of ongoing interactions between (1) the intersectional dynamics of culture, (2) the multiple dimensions of the socioecological context (e.g., group dynamics, societal institutions, oppression, generational issues), and (3) the culture-infused biopsychorelational processes of the person (e.g., somatic, emotional, self-construction, relationality). As such, the promotion of wellness involves the healing of collective and historical status-based traumas, as well as the promotion of liberatory consciousness and practices that facilitate empowerment, both of which are foundational for processes of restorative justice.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Nevada

1:05pm

Women in the military: the critical analysis of societal stereotyping and attitude towards female soldiers and veterans
Female soldiers are still an extreme minority in the military, constituting approximately 14.5% of the total US Armed Forces. Thus, regardless of the official policy of nondiscrimination, they are often treated differently than man, both socially and professionally. They are not, almost by definition, “brothers in arms” and this kind of societal attitude continues after they leave military service. Multiple research shows that even though war has a traumatic impact on soldiers regardless of their gender, women are more likely to be homeless, divorced, or raising children as single parents (Gamache, 2003) and are at a higher risk to commit suicide (McFarland, 2010). Women-veterans are one of the fastest growing segments of the veteran population, yet, their needs are habitually overlooked. The consequences of prevailing stereotype that suggests all veterans are men are emotionally devastating for women who sacrificed so much for their country. Disabled women veterans are not perceived as wounded warriors and they are told to cover their prosthesis because they are scaring children. A woman-veteran is informed that she is not a ‘real’ veteran, simply because she is a woman. Some women veterans who display their pride of the service (T-shirt, bumper-sticker) are told by strangers to say “thank you for your service” to their (civilian) husbands. Yet another are automatically assumed to be civilian military dependents when they come to the VA hospital (all examples are real stories shared by women-veterans). Such a negative stereotype was already acknowledged by VA, which attempts to change it through their “Please, don’t call me Mister” campaign. In addition, the amount of research on both active duty and veteran women steadily increases. The goal of the current review is to summarize the works in this vitally important area and identify remaining gaps and needs for future empirical work.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Nevada

1:05pm

Culture, Body Size Discrepancy, and Disordered Eating Among Asian American Women
A community sample of 241 Asian American women (AAW) of varied immigration generational status participated in an online survey regarding their traditional cultural beliefs and disordered eating behaviors and attitudes. While there were no generational differences in their endorsement of traditional cultural beliefs, second-generation AAW reported significantly more disordered eating behaviors and attitudes compared to their first- and third and above-generation counterparts. The role of body size discrepancy (actual-ideal BMI) was explored, and it was found to be a much better predictor than actual BMI. After BMI was controlled, body size discrepancy was predictive of AAW’s Bulimia and Dieting disordered attitudes and behaviors, and compensatory behaviors when uncomfortably full, worry of losing control of how much food one eats, self-perception of being fat, and the feeling of food dominating life. Results of this study may suggest that BMI is less useful as a risk factor for many AA women, or that what mainstream researchers and clinicians consider to be normal weight may not be perceived as slim enough in the context of AA culture. Different patterns also emerged between the EAT-26 and SCOFF, two common instruments used to assess disordered eating behaviors and attitudes. Even though almost 90% of the women in this study were of normal or low weight according to US BMI standards, 7.5% of our sample was at risk for EDs using the EAT-26 criteria, and 21% using SCOFF. Endorsement of Family Recognition through Achievement was the only significant predictor in overall disordered eating assessed by SCOFF, and both the Dieting and Bulimia subscales of the EAT-26. In addition, participants were approximately 1.6 times more likely to endorse worrying about losing control over how much one eats (SCOFF 2) than were those who did not identify with family recognition through achievement. Clinical and research implications are discussed.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Disability and Multiple Sclerosis: Stigma, Outness, and Links with Psychological Well-Being
The present study tested the tenets of minority stress theory with a sample of 446 individuals living with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The study extended prior bodies of research conducted with individuals who have concealable identities (e.g., LGBTQ) and the impact of distal and proximal minority stressors on mental health (Hatzenbuehler, 2009; Meyer, 2003). In this study, the mediating roles of two proximal minority stressors (stigma consciousness and disclosure/concealment of one’s ICI) on the link between a distal stressors (perceived social support and discrimination) with perceived well-being (PWB) will be examined. The authors hypothesize that perceived social support and outness each would be related positively with perceived well-being and negatively with psychological distress, and that stigma would be related negatively with psychological well-being and positively with psychological distress. The second set of hypotheses involved the mediation patterns proposed in the minority stress literature. Specifically, it is predicted that proximal or external minority stressors (i.e., expectations of stigma, and outness/concealment) would mediate the relations of the distal or internal stressor (i.e., perceived social support) with psychological well-being and psychological distress.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Experiencing Microaggressions: Women with Apparent and Nonapparent Disabilities
Microaggressions have been defined as verbal, behavioral, or environmental slights or insults that communicate a derogatory message to the recipient. Despite the growing body of research on the effects of microaggressions based on race/ ethnicity and sexual orientation, there are only two studies on microaggressions against people with disabilities. This is the third such study, which focuses on the specific experiences of women who have disabilities visible to others, and women who have a nonapparent disabilities. Through focus groups and an online survey, we explored these women's experiences of microaggressions in various domains of life, based on the previous work of Keller & Galgay (2010) with both men and women.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Food Allergies Summer Camp
One out of every thirteen children will experience a food allergy reaction during their childhood. This equates to roughly two children in each classroom. Of those, 25 percent will experience a severe anaphylactic reaction; this means one person experiences anaphylactic shock every six minutes. Fear, anxiety, and depression are common symptoms of living with food allergies. To date, the focus of the research has been on curing food allergies, rather than living with a food allergy. Allergies are the new excuse to segregate. Protocol, or standards of practice, in some cases are to discriminate or separate by having a designated food allergy table. Shemesh, et al (2012) found that 31.5 percent of children in their study were bullied due to their food allergy. Of those children bullied, 80 percent of the offenders were fellow classmates threatening contact with the problematic food. Societies are beginning to realize that they are creating communities of children without a voice. These children have been marginalized and have not experienced normalcy. Many of these children live in states of heightened awareness and isolation. West, Denzer, Wildman, and Anhalt (2013), learned that although a majority of teachers felt they possessed sufficient knowledge of food allergies, they feel burdened to accommodate the children’s needs. A response to segregation is to offer children with food allergies a new experience. Camp Blue Spruce was created two years ago for this specific purpose. Data was collected on the impact this camp has on the mental health of its participants. Neuroscience has established that a positive camping experience helps children’s developing brains (Bryson, 2014). This poster highlights how inclusive camp models serve as a restorative practice for children with severe food allergies.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Gender and Psychiatric Drug Prescriptions among Intellectually Disabled Individuals
The general use of psychopharmacological methods in America has been increasing over the last decade (Medco, 2011). Within the population of intellectually disabled (ID) individuals, the use of psychotropic medications has been used for those with psychological disabilities, but also as a means to subdue those who were merely difficult to manage (Tsiouris, Kim, Brown, Pettinger, & Cohen, 2012). Additional factors may also increase the use of psychotropic medications. For example, gender has often been found to influence the diagnosis, treatment, and medication of psychiatric disabilities (Bentley, 2005; Medco, 2011; Smith, 2010). The Department of Developmental Services (DDS) assists ID individuals and their families using various methods. One such method is support via assisted living residences. Within the population of those living in either state- or privately-run homes and who are taking advantage of DDS services, we examined how patterns of medication prescription according to race and gender are indicative—or not—of the US population at large. This paper is part of a larger research project examining the relationships between race, gender, and medication prescription; medications include antipsychotics, antidepressants, and anti-anxiety medications, and all prescription values refer to the quantity of drugs prescribed, but not the prescribed dosages. This presentation will focus on the findings regarding how gender appears to be related to the number of medication prescriptions within the population of ID individuals in DDS homes in Connecticut in 2013 (n = 16,694). In addition, gender can be examined with regard to only those prescribed medications. While the majority of the population was not prescribed medication, chi square analyses point to significant relationships between gender and prescriptions for antipsychotics, antidepressants, and antianxiety medications, but not for anti-mania medications or sedatives. This knowledge will help advocates better serve the ID community.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Gendering revolt: Understanding women's constructions of 'dirty' and 'disgusting' bodies
When thinking about the term “revolting,” two different ideologies are: first, something disgusting or dirty; second, something rebellious and unsettling. This project seeks to look at both iterations of revolt by examining disgust and the potential ways that bodies can be rebellious, disobedient, and disorderly. When thinking more closely about disgust, it is clear that disgust is a prevalent and bodily visceral emotion; it also drives much of what we consider to be morally problematic or revolting, and as such, has great relevance to intersections with women and gender studies research. For this poster presentation, I will be presenting the qualitative data of a research study that was conducted by Dr. Breanne Fahs during the fall of 2014 on women’s beliefs and practices about women’s bodies and sexualities. Within this study, twenty women of different racial backgrounds and sexual orientations with ages ranging from 18-59 were asked several questions pertaining to disgust towards their own bodies and disgust towards the “Othered” body. A qualitative thematic analysis from a feminist poststructuralist framework was applied to the data. Results showed that women’s ideologies about their own bodies were directed to sites of excess (i.e., fatness) while other women’s bodies were framed in more racialized and gendered ways. Through a moral perspective, people who inhabit an “Othered” body have been labeled as “bad” or “unclean” people. The social justice implications of these findings deserve more close attention, particularly in terms of how a feminist politics might understand and utilize notions of disgust to advance a more egalitarian, progressive, or even radical agenda in the world of identity and body politics. With clear notions of “likeable” or “preferred” body types, those who are placed in the disgust category are the body types—and, in a broader sense, the people--that become oppressed and marginalized.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Moving Disability from the Margins: The Representation of Disability in Psychology of Women Textbooks
Scholars have analyzed representations of people with disabilities in diverse media from fairy tales (Franks, 2001) to textbooks (Goldstein, Siegel, & Seaman, 2010). When present in media, disability is often depicted solely as a medical issue with little focus on social dimensions of this axis of diversity, identity, and marginalization. Prompted by calls for the integration of disability into psychology and psychology of women (Asch & McCarthy, 2002; Banks, 2010; Olkin, 2014a), this paper presents a qualitative content analysis of 15 psychology of women/gender textbooks to determine what representations of disability are present and whether these texts provide more positive depictions and discourses with regard to disability when compared to other studies. Our analysis found a focus on physical disabilities discussed mainly in chapters on mental and physical health often conforming to a social model of disability. We conclude with how disability studies might enhance psychology of women courses, particularly discussions of mental health, and topic areas that may require supplemental materials provided by instructors.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Problematizing (the lack of) eating disorders research exploring diversity: A critical review
Although the eating disorders (ED) field boasts an expansive body of literature, relatively few studies have centered on the experiences of diverse groups. Of the extant research exploring EDs among women with diverse backgrounds/identities, there has been a predominant focus on ethnic and racial diversity, while other groups such as the lesbian, bisexual and transgender communities, women with disabilities, women from less privileged socioeconomic backgrounds, and mid-life and older women have been largely excluded. Broadly speaking, research exploring EDs has been primarily focused on women of European descent (Talleyrand, 2012). In addition, the extant literature in this area is mixed, with some studies providing evidence of the increasing prevalence rates of EDs among minority women (e.g., Franko et al., 2012), and others pointing to the protective factors inherent in certain minority cultures against the development of EDs (e.g., Warren et al., 2001). Nonetheless, it appears as though EDs are no longer “just a white girl’s thing” (Bordo, 2009). Findings from recent research suggest that EDs are affecting the lives of women from increasingly diverse backgrounds, including those identifying with racial, ethnic, sexual, and religious minority identities (e.g., Clark & Winterowd, 2012; Feldman & Meyer, 2007; Forbes et al., 2012). However, there continues to be a relative paucity of literature addressing the experiences of diverse women living with eating challenges. As such, the current project includes a comprehensive review of the extant literature exploring diversity among women living with EDs. Specific areas of diversity that continue to require further attention in ED research will be identified. Lastly, a qualitative analysis of the last five years of published ED research will be executed in order to ascertain the prevalence of diverse women’s participation in ED research. Detailed information will be provided on the methodology utilized to identify relevant articles for this project.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Subcultured, Racialized, and Marginalized: The Thing that Binds you! LGBTQQII Women of Color
Women of color who are Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Questioning, and Intersex, (WOCLGBTQQII) are subject to the imposed worldview and are Subcultured, Racialized, and Marginalized within the culturally hegemonic workforce. Current research reveals that gender, sexual orientation, and race intersect with and are subject to consistent stigmatization in the heteronormative workplace. The WOCLGBTQQII populations are disproportionately burdened with workplace Stereotype Threat, pink ceiling barriers, hostilities, and systemic oppressions that limit their career options. Although there are multiple issues which adversely affect this population, for the purpose of this paper the main focus will be on workplace discrimination based on sexual orientation and race. This research will be framed by exploring Culturally Appropriate Career Counseling and Stereotype Threat theory. These two theoretical career counseling competencies will examine the world of the WOCLGBTQQII client by offering specific interventions which empower the individual client.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

The Mediating Effects of Objectified Body Consciousness On Personality and Disordered Eating Attitudes
A concerning maladaptive pattern of beliefs and behaviors among women is that of disordered eating. This often leads to serious health consequences and clinical eating disorders. Although extensive research has been conducted in order to attempt to understand the factors which contribute to disordered eating, its incidence continues to increase (Ferrier-Auerbach & Martens, 2009). Certain personality characteristics have been linked to eating habits and attitudes. For example, Conscientiousness and Neuroticism have been found to correlate with disordered eating attitudes and habits (Claes et al., 2005). Also, objectified body consciousness, a form of self-consciousness characterized by regularly monitoring the body's outward appearance (McKinley & Hyde, 1996), positively correlates with disordered eating and weight preoccupation (Tiggemann & Kuring, 2004). Previous research has found relationships between objectified body consciousness and disordered eating as well as with personality traits, but no known studies have investigated the relationship between personality and objectified boy consciousness nor all three factors combined. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether objectified body consciousness mediated the relationship between personality and disordered eating. One-hundred female psychology students from Southern Connecticut State University completed the NEO-Personality Inventory 3, the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, and the Eating Attitudes Test. Neuroticism facets (self-consciousness, anxiety, depression, and vulnerability) predicted oral control (anorectic behavior). Neuroticism facets (anxiety, impulsiveness) and the Conscientiousness facet (order) predicted bulimia and food preoccupation behaviors. Anxiety, depression, vulnerability and impulsiveness correlated with objectified body consciousness. Of these, objectified body consciousness mediated the relationship between anxiety and oral control; higher levels of Neuroticism (anxiety) was associated with more objectified body consciousness which predicted higher levels of oral control. The current study provides some evidence that the factors predictive of disordered eating are multidimensional and combine with each other to create complex sets of risk factors for unhealthy eating.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Beyond Ferguson, MO: Giving voice to Black female victims of murder and other atrocities
Michael Brown, Eric Garner, Oscar Grant, Sean Bell, Amadou Diallo, Trayvon Martin, and Jordan Davis are all Black men who were murdered unjustly either by the police or by a racially motivated white male. There names have made national headlines, and many Black communities and individuals have mobilized to call for justice in their honor, and in the honor and protection of all Black boys and men. The many protest and communal actions that have ensued are evidence of great acts of resistance and social justice mobilizing that proudly state “Black lives matter!”, however, when Black women—especially Black trans women—are slaughtered daily and by the dozens, these same acts of communal mobilizing and vigils of honor are non-existent. President Obama and many other political officials and scholars have righteously given support and condolences in the murders of the aforementioned slain men, yet, little to no consolation, acknowledgement, nor support have been given to Tarika Wilson, Aiyana Jones, Shantel Davis, Rekia Boyd, Islan Nettles, Chanelle Pickett, Nireah Johnson, Erica Keels, Dana A. Larkin, Duana Johnson, Brandy Martell, and Yazmin Sanchez, all Black females—both cis and transgender—who have been unjustly murdered and forgotten. This structured discussion is guided by a Black feminist framework (Collins, 1991) and also by W.E.B. DuBois’ double consciousness (1903). As Black feminist thought seeks to move the stories and experiences of Black women from margin to center, and Black women are simultaneously doubly conscious of the plights of Black men. Thus, our goal is not to create a hierarchy of oppression, but instead, to restore justice and equality to Black women. Moreover, the aim of this talk is to begin to think about how we as feminist psychologist can assist in restoration of justice and voice to Black women.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Gold Rush A

1:05pm

Bringing Awareness to Abuse Within the Disability Community
This interactive lecture format presentation will provide education concerning the growing social problem of abuse within the disability community to persons with disabilities, health care providers, educators and advocates. Research shows a 26% to 90% range for adults with disabilities who have experienced some form of abuse in their lifetime (Hughes et al., 2011). Children with a disability are 1.68 times more likely to have experienced abuse or neglect than children without a disability (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2006). Although it may be assumed that health care providers would be the first line of defense in this epidemic, it has been found that only 15% of women with disabilities report being asked by a healthcare provider whether abuse was a concern and/or if they wanted education on how they could be safer (Curry et al., 2011). When healthcare providers are not the primary advocates for abuse victims it may fall to persons with disabilities, and other allies, to begin to make changes within the system to help decrease the number of people who experience abuse. Isolation and attitudinal barriers increase vulnerability for abuse. To eliminate these unacceptably high incidence rates we must first have an understanding of the types of abuse which occur, the barriers to reporting abuse and the unique factors which cause increased vulnerability to abuse within the disability community. When people with disabilities attempt to seek assistance, services are often inaccessible to those with varying disabilities, leaving these individuals to stay in abusive situations (Beck-Massey, 1999). Through education people can begin to work together to eliminate barriers to reporting and increase the likelihood that abuse is eradicated. The presentation will end with an open conversation concerning ways in which we can all work together to decrease the frequency of abuse within the disability community.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Gold Rush A

1:05pm

Gender and Sexuality Diversity at AWP
The Bisexuality and Sexual Diversity Caucus will host a discussion on gender and sexuality diversity at AWP, paying particular attention to the visibility of trans* and gender nonconforming people and reviewing our history of welcoming people of all sexualities. Trans* and gender nonconforming people have been a part of feminism and AWP throughout its history, whether or not this has been discussed openly. We will open a dialogue about the needs of trans* and gendernonconforming feminists at AWP, and the continued needs for programming and visibility for people of all sexual orientations, particular bisexual, queer, and gay and lesbian people.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Gold Rush A

1:05pm

In Search of Justice: Exploring Restorative Justice, Survivor-Centric, and Culturally Informed Responses to Sexual Assault and Intimate Partner Violence
Restorative justice approaches to sexual assault and intimate partner violence move us away from a primarily punitive criminal justice model toward a more holistic focus on survivors, the community, and society. This structured discussion seeks to engage participants in conversations about the many ways that a restorative justice model could be applied to sexual assault and intimate partner violence in the US and abroad. Four guiding questions will be used to promote discussion: 1) What does restorative justice mean in the context of sexual assault and intimate partner violence?; 2) How do restorative justice approaches align with survivor-centric, trauma-informed models of intervention?; 3) What are the implications of a restorative justice approach for prevention efforts?; and 4) How can we ensure that prevention and intervention efforts are culturally informed and appropriate? Three speakers will lead the discussion by sharing lessons learned from their own work in the field. The first speaker will describe culturally responsive approaches to therapy and intervention for survivors of sexual assault and sex trafficking. The second speaker will consider the benefits of a public health perspective for framing prevention and intervention efforts for sexual assault and intimate partner violence. The third speaker will offer insights into community-based intervention, prevention, and research models to address sexual assault and intimate partner violence. Throughout the discussion, participants will be encouraged to address the root causes of violence; consider survivor-centric, trauma-informed, and culturally appropriate models of prevention and intervention; and discuss the myriad ways that we, as feminists, can be involved in restoring justice for those affected by sexual assault and intimate partner violence both at home and abroad.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Gold Rush A

1:05pm

Re-Imagining Multimedia Project: Transformative and Restorative Justice as Alternative Responses to Gender Violence
What is wrong with the current response to gender violence? How should that response be different? To answer these questions, the Re-Imagining multimediaproject will be launched as part of Media for Change’s (MfC, mediaforchange.org) series, Changing the Conversation. MfC is a new non-profit and open-access online resource founded by documentary filmmaker Sanjeev Chatterjee to recognize and support the work of activists in using media for social change. Toward this end, Re-Imagining emerged from interviews on and around the 2014 conference CONVERGE: Re-imagining the Movement to End Gender Violence (http://www.law.miami.edu/academics/converge/index.php?op=0), where Arrested Justice author Beth Richie raised the same questions in her keynote address. Re-Imagining introduces the public to the ways in which the dominant response to domestic violence and sexual assault are criminal law centered, the dominant responses have failed to address structural inequalities, and the system intersectionality of the criminal justice system, welfare system, and child welfare system has had a negative impact (Dorothy Roberts, 2012) on women of color. In the multimedia content, leading scholars and activists Dorothy Roberts, Mimi Kim, Leigh Goodmark, Beth Richie, Joan Pennell, Donna Coker, and others speak to these problems and suggest alternative community responses, including Transformative Justice and Restorative Justice. The next iteration of Re-Imagining will likely include on-site videos with organizations involved in alternative responses to gender violence, including Transformative and Restorative Justice. The site will ultimately link to many other websites recognizing interlocking oppressions and working to diminish the carceral state. At the AWP Conference, we hope to dialogue with feminist psychologists about our evolving tool for sparking critical conversations and actions. Our goal is a general shift from dominant, crime-centered, gender violence responses, towards strengthening community-based strategies and alternatives.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Gold Rush A

1:05pm

Restorative Justice for Sexual Assault on College Campuses: When Universities Don’t Do Enough
The Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network (RAINN, 2009) reports that a sexual assault occurs every 2 minutes in the United States. Many of these assaults occur on college campuses. One study found that between 20-25% of women will experience an attempted or completed sexual assault by the time she graduates; 90% of the time she will know the offender (Fisher, Cullen & Turner, 2000). Additionally, in a study of nearly 1600 colleges with a population greater than 1000 students, 55% of students had at least one reported sexual assault, and the total number of 3900 reports in 2012 reflects a 50 percent increase from 2009 (Anderson, 2014). Because a large number of sexual assaults are unreported, this jump in reports may not necessarily indicate an increase in sexual assault, but rather a willingness on the part of survivors to trust the universities’ administration to support them after reporting. By Title IX standards, universities are legally required to respond to sexual assault reports. Unfortunately, in many instances, the university’s handling of these cases is problematic. For example, some schools expel students found guilty of cheating, but dispense far less severe punishments for students found guilty of sexual assault. Survivors of sexual assault who seek justice through appropriate university channels are disappointed and angry when their institutions fail to effectively address the issue. When this occurs, some survivors find other ways to restore justice, such as participation in Take Back The Night protests or becoming a survivor’s advocate. Finding ways to empower themselves after an assault may not help survivors find the retribution they seek, but it can promote positive healing. In this structured discussion, participants are encouraged to discuss universities’ institutional barriers in reporting sexual assault and brainstorm ways we can help survivors seek a personal sense of restorative justice. References Anderson, N. (2014, July 1). Sex offense statistics show U.S. college reports are rising. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/education/sex-offense-statistics-show-us-college-reports-are-rising/2014/07/01/982ecf32-0137-11e4-b8ff-89afd3fad6bd_story.html Fisher, B.S., Cullen, F.T., & Turner, M.G. (2000). The Sexual Victimization of College Women. National Institute of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network (2009). Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.rainn.org/statistics


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Gold Rush A

1:05pm

The Clery Act and Confidentiality: What is Best for Sexual Assault Victims?
The Clery Act requires college campuses and universities to report information about crime on and near their campuses. This structured discussion will explore how recent revisions to the Clery Act may adversely impact victims of sexual violence. Recent revisions to the Clery Act require most university employees to report all details of a sexual violence incident, including the identities of both the perpetrator and the victim, regardless of whether the victim requests that his or her identity remain confidential. The structured discussion will be led by a faculty member and will include the perspectives of student-services employees and current students. For example, a Peer Educator at the Violence Prevention and Women’s Resource Center (a student center that provides services for students who have experienced sexual assault, domestic violence, and stalking) will describe training he received in which he was instructed how to discourage students from disclosing experiences of sexual assault victimization. A current student will describe how a student that has experienced sexual assault can no longer turn to a faculty member without being told that an investigation will take place the moment they disclose any information regarding the incident. She will describe her perspective that this policy may create a hostile setting for students, leaving them feeling abandoned and isolated.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Gold Rush A

1:05pm

When Beauty Becomes the Beast: Myths, Realities and Implications of Perceived Physical Attractiveness
As evolutionary psychologist have discerned, physical beauty has always been shown preference throughout history and across cultures. Nonetheless, that which defines beauty has adapted itself to ever-changing contexts and times. In the 21st century, beauty ideals and standards are being continually reshaped, altered and spread by innovations in technology. Photoshop-contrived images of beauty, youth and thinness are created by the Western European and American fashion industries and variously disseminated not only by beauty and fashion magazines but also by internet websites which connect the fashion capitals of the world to every corner of the globe. Since the advent of research conducted on the impact of mass media and the marketing on the standards and ideals of beauty, thinness, youthfulness and physical attractiveness as well as its correlates from body dissatisfaction to body dysmorphia, the gamut of cosmetic interventions continue to rise. Thus despite the collective efforts of psychological, psychiatry and medical organizations to shape and disseminate policies and educative interventions to support prevention and stem this deleterious trend has been limited. Consequently, it appears that the enticements of physical self-improvement, the retaining of one’s youth in perpetuity and expectations of heightened self-esteem and greater happiness appear to be insurmountable.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Gold Rush A

1:05pm

Current Trends in Research on Bisexuality
While bisexuality has been a topic of much discussion in the arena of popular culture, this orientation is seen as a controversial and often misunderstood concept (Klesse, 2011). Outside of popular culture, the topic of bisexuality is beginning to gain grounds in the research arena as well (Klein, 2014; Bostwick, 2013). Misunderstandings about bisexuality tend to revolve around relation of bisexuality to the heterosexual and lesbian/gay communities, bisexual monogamy, and the idea that bisexuality reinforces the gender binary. These misunderstandings have the potential to negatively affect not only the ways in which bisexual individuals experience support from community, family, and friends, but also the ways in which researchers and clinicians understand the plight of this minority community situated within an already marginalized community. With an understanding of these misconceptions, this panel will discuss some current trends related to research on bisexuality. Some of the current trends relate to issue surrounding bisexuality and monogamy, bisexuality, and community, and clinical concerns with bisexual clients. These trends will be addressed by members of the panel. In addressing these current research trends, this panel will attempt to provide information on the most current research available on bisexual individuals and the bisexual community. The implication of a greater understanding of bisexual issues in relation to clinical, research, educational, and advocacy implication will be discussed.

Speakers
SH

Sharon Horne

University of Massachusetts Boston
TI

Tania Israel

University of California Santa Barbara
TR

Tangela Roberts

University of Massachusetts Boston


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Washington

1:05pm

First Generation Immigrant Therapists: Transformation, Resistance, and Personal Growth
This symposium will be led by four first generation immigrant women-therapists from varied cultural backgrounds. Our presentations will focus on challenges we encountered, and the ways our experiences have transformed us and encouraged personal voice and growth. Because of an increase in immigration, growing number of first generation (recent) immigrant women enter into mental health field, often seeking to improve the lives of their communities (Yakushko, 2009). Their work often focuses on issues of justice related to their community experiences, including racism, poverty, xenophobia, gender violence, and other forms of marginalization and oppression (Yakushko & Espin, 2010). Among key areas discussed by presenters the focus will be on juxtaposition of therapists’ own experiences of immigrant adaptation including clinical work in a second language and the way it contributes to and creates feelings of otherness as well as the role of language as the carrier of implicit cultural messages. Personal and professional identity development from a perspective of an immigrant therapist in training will be also discussed focusing on aspects of establishing personal and professional identity as a therapist, immigration as a possibility for maturation and mending of loss of culturally and personally grounding internally guiding structures, and mourning the loss of the home country. In addition, we will discuss experiences of migration as a psychological process and review its various aspects such as status of immigration, age, motivation to leave the home country, family related responsibilities, and the impact of loss of familiar environment. Lastly, we will focus on issues related to training and supervision with immigrant women who are training to be psychologists.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
California

1:05pm

Mass Marketing of Medical Approaches to Women's Bodies
Three presenters address aspects of women’s lives which have been marketed to the general public in a false and misleading way to support the billion dollar profits of the medical-pharmacological industry. The authors challenge the marketing and “science” that objectify women’s bodies, or render women’s bodies and experiences a series of symptoms, diseases, and dysfunctions that require pharmaceutical or surgical intervention by medical professionals. Each presenter addresses the marketing of a specific “condition” in which the marketing is designed to misinform or misrepresent women at the expense of corporate America. The session is part of a larger movement that critically challenges the marketing associated with the medical-pharmacological industry. In addition to a scientific critique, the presenters provide a gender lens. For example, the labeling of the menstrual cycle- related experience as a syndrome (PMS) is based on a culturally pejorative perspective on women’s bodies and bodily process, which has resulted in the widespread experience of reproductive shame (Chrisler & Caplan, 2002; Johnston-Robledo, Voigt, Sheffield, & Wilcox-Constantine, 2007). Presenter 1 examines the marketing of menstrual suppression to avoid the problem of menstruation, and questions the impact of this campaign for women’s experience of their bodies. Presenter 2 critically examines the pinking of breast cancer, the proliferation of pink products which are alledgedly promoting awareness of breast cancer, and contributing resources to breast cancer research. She advises that we think before we pink. Presenter 3 examines the misleading information about women’s sexual functioning that has been used to argue for drugs for women’s FSD. She focuses on the recent campaign of the drug industry to pressure the FDA to approve drugs for women, to Even the Score. In each case marketing techniques and misinformation are cleverly used to convince women to adopt behaviors that are not conducive to women’s health and well being.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Crystal

1:05pm

Race, Rape, Revelation, and Selfies: Campus, Cinematic, and Online Feminist Community Responses
The presenters in this symposium work in the same University department and campus community. Our work addresses current challenges confronting women: microaggressions, rape culture, facing chronic illness Parkinson’s Disease) at a young age, and the drastic increase in selfies on social media. Our responses to these issues vary in scope and innovation but our intention is to offer symposium attendees a model for community collaboration. This year, the United States celebrates the 50th anniversary of the civil rights act. “Empowering Change”, was a campus-wide initiative to celebrate this act and most panelists were heavily involved in the planning and implementation. This initiative allowed us to examine current racial and other microaggressions that occur on our campus through a classroom generated photo campaign. Images are powerful and increasingly used in activist strategies like the above mentioned photo campaign. Two of us use images in very different ways. Selfies have exploded in popularity yet virtually nothing is known about the effect on self-esteem, body image, and attractiveness in young women who post these images on social media. New data will be presented on this phenomenon. Working with a filmmaker, one of us combines personal narrative with images of a young single mother newly diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease. With the changes in Title IX reporting on sexual assault and rape, college campuses need to understand those student groups who are more at risk for being embedded in rape culture and adopting rape myth attitudes. Data from a study examining rape myth acceptance will be shared. It is hypothesized that those in Greek life and who play sports will show higher rape myth acceptance scores than those in other extracurricular activities.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Emerald

1:05pm

A Conversation about Empowering Clients Living with Physical Disabilities & Chronic Illnesses: Learning Lessons from a Feminist Clinical Practice, Personal Experiences, & Kafer's Relational/Social Model of Disability.

"A crippled politics of access and engagement …. yearning for an “elsewhen” - in which disability is understood ….. as political, as valuable as integral. (Kafer presents) … a hybrid political/relational model …..mak(ing) room for people to acknowledge – even mourn – a change in form or function while also acknowledging that those changes can not be understood apart from the context in which they occur. …. allow(ing) for important questions about healthcare and social justice (Kafer, 2013, pp. 3-6)." In this workshop we will talk about relational, political, existential, & practical issues clients face living with physical disabilities & chronic illnesses. We will explore how the above quote from Kafer challenges those with and without disabilities to engage this issue. Presenter will encourage participants to draw on their wisdom in this discussion. Reference: Kafer, A. (2013). Feminist, queer, crip. Indiana University Press.



Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Oregon

1:05pm

Story-Telling and Meaning Making: An Integrative Approach Toward Social Justice Agendas
Throughout life, individuals experience a wide array of adverse and meaningful events that play an integral role in shaping one’s identity and sense of self. One of the major characteristics of well-formed life stories is a sense of meaning or integration of one’s experiences and of oneself (McLean & Pratt, 2006). In particular, storytelling is one form of meaning making that individuals integrate to gain a sense of deeper understanding of their own identity development (Scott, 2011). Given the innate power of storytelling, it is the goal of this workshop to create a dialogue and explore how graduate students and professionals integrate past and present experiences to inform their current and future work and how these experiences have shaped their overall identity as social justice advocates. Presenters will guide participants to construct a timeline of these important experiences and moments of impact that have occurred in their life and will be given an opportunity to share their timeline with other program participants. In this workshop, participants will: 1. Explore past and present experiences and the ways in which these events have shaped their overall identity and inform their social justice agenda with marginalized and oppressed communities; 2. Utilize culturally competent techniques and gain a multicultural perspective on related issues that are raised and shared among participants; 3. Use a supportive interpersonal alliance to provide a space that will empower graduate students and professionals through the discussions of multifaceted issues that may arise during the workshop. Furthermore, it is the goal of this workshop to encourage participants to integrate the skills learned in this workshop to empower diverse, oppressed and marginalized communities as storytelling and meaning making have been found to be powerful agency granting tools for those who have been hidden from history or left on its margins (Scott, 2011).


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Monterey/Carmel

2:25pm

2:25pm

Early Career Caucus Networking Meeting
Speakers
CM

Clare Mehta

Emmanuel College


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Caucus Suite

2:25pm

Film Festival - Casablanca Calling A film by Rosa Rogers

As political conflict and change sweep the Arab world, CASABLANCA CALLING highlights a quiet social revolution under way in Morocco, where 60% of the women have never attended school. For the first time, Moroccan women are trained and employed as official Muslim leaders or morchidat. Charged with teaching an Islam based on tolerance, compassion and equity, they provide vital support and guidance to communities, especially to girls and women


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Arizona

2:25pm

Compassionate Feminism: Feminism Precedes Compassion
The feminist movement was born in the early 20th century as a response to the unfair treatment of women. Despite the misrepresentation of feminism as a radical force solely in favor of a gender, feminism carries the broad message of gender equality and respect for the person’s independence and autonomy. Therefore, feminism is applicable across different social movements, therapeutic approaches, and advocacy. A feminist approach is sensitive to suffering and unfairness and is determined to reveal that suffering and take actions to eliminate it. This observation of feminism as an altruistic action with a desire to eliminate the source of suffering is an example of compassion. The field of compassion in psychology is in its infancy. However, the application of compassion in psychotherapy has been recognized globally. Kristian Neff in the U.S. and Paul Gilbert are pioneers of such approaches in psychotherapy. The recent body of literature has shown that compassion can promote both positive mental heath attributes and can result in promoting happiness in individuals. Therefore, many researchers tried to find the values and activities that promote compassion in individuals. One of the challenges in the development of compassionate is related to a lack of recognition of suffering in others. Others might battle with empathetic distress, which could lead to burn out. Therefore, finding a balance between compassionate behaviors is required. While social injustices and prejudices cause hardship and excessive suffering, feminist psychology promotes positive mental health and suggests ways in which to avoid suffering. The author of this article suggests that feminism as a moral imperative can provide both an active answer to suffering in the society and a healing tool. On the other hand, feminist psychology is rooted in social justice and in taking affirmative action to relieving suffering through equality. Therefore, there is an active connection between feminist psychology and compassion psychology. Moreover, while a compassionate psychologist might not be a feminist psychologist, a feminist psychologist by definition possesses the quality of a compassionate person.


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Effect of Pregnancy on Evaluations and Employment of Male and Female Job Candidates
This study investigated the effect of pregnancy on a candidate’s ability to acquire employment. Comparisons were made across the pregnant female, non-pregnant female, expectant male and non-expectant male candidates, interviewing for a traditionally masculine-typed job. Multiple regressions were used to understand pregnancy/expectancy’s effect on hiring evaluations and the interaction of the candidate’s sex with pregnancy status. Evaluations included ratings of competence and likability. Decisions about employability, qualification, and starting salary were also assessed. Absenteeism, the candidate’s likelihood of missing work, was assessed as one way of understanding reservations about hiring. Through an online survey, 266 participants reviewed the resume and an interview clip of one of the 4 fictional candidates for a temporary accounting position. Each candidate had identical performance and credentials and differed only by sex and pregnancy/ expectancy status. Results demonstrated that pregnancy status and candidate sex did not predict overall hiring decisions, though they did impact participant’s perceptions of that candidate (e.g., likeable, competent). In the literature, pregnant women are most often compared only to non-pregnant women controls, and there has been little research on differences between pregnant women and expectant men. The present study builds on the literature that has explored the effect of a woman’s pregnancy on her ability to obtain employment and salary recommendations, but also extends the research by studying expectant males. Participant demographic variables such as sex and parent status were also evaluated.


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

How Far Have We Come, ‘Baby’? Gender and Age Effects on Stereotyping
Sex roles and gender biases in American culture appear to have undergone changes in the past few decades, although the expectations for men have changed more slowly than those for women (Clow, Ricardelli & Bartfay, 2014; Wilde, & Deikman, 2005). But how much these modifications have changed and how much such beliefs have become more subtle—and, thereby, less noticeable—is difficult to say. It is also difficult to state with certainty whether the stereotypes for women have changed more than those for men. Adherence to gender stereotypes still appears to be prevalent in American society, even though much of the sexism stemming from these beliefs seems to be more covert for women. Prior research indicates these beliefs may fluctuate according to various factors, including gender and age (e.g., Maltby & Day, 2001). This current student-led study examines the effects of participants’ gender and age on both masculine and feminine stereotypes. Stereotypes were measured using the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI; Glick & Fiske, 1996) and Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory (AMI; Glick & Fiske, 1999). Age cohorts were defined using the age groups designated in the 2010 Census. Participants completed an online survey assessing their acceptance of feminine-typed and masculine-typed stereotypes. It is hypothesized that there will be a difference between men and women and their scores on two stereotyping scales. Furthermore, it is expected that older age cohorts will have stronger adherence to stereotyped beliefs. Finally, a significant interaction effect between gender and age cohort is expected to occur.


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Increasing Job satisfaction of Women Engineers with a Work-Family Enrichment Perspective
The gender gap in engineering in higher education and the workplace has been a concern for educators and government policy makers in the United States. Given the engineering occupational pipeline which continues to narrow from secondary education to the labor force among women engineers, additional research is needed to understand why women engineers leave engineering jobs, as well as predictors of their job satisfaction and the contextual barriers that they encounter. Lower job satisfaction eventually leads to higher turnover and a loss of talented women in the engineering workforce (Hill, Corbett, & Rose, 2010). There are lack of effort to understand the role of work and family to predict the job satisfaction among women engineers. The majority of work-family research has focused on negative perspectives such as work-family conflict (Eby, Lockwood, Bordeaux, & Brinley, 2005), however, recent literatures highlights that positive perspectives such as work-family enrichment can contribute to further understanding of work-family dynamics above and beyond conflict (Graywacz & Bass, 2003) and increase job satisfaction (Ferguson, Carlson, Zivnuska, & Whitten, 2012). Thus, this current study examines the job satisfaction among women engineers with a work-family enrichment perspective within social cognitive career theory of well-being (Lent, 2004) framework. Method Participants included 398 women engineers. Participants were recruited through email announcements sent to women alumni from engineering department at large U.S. universities. This proposed study mainly examined the job satisfaction, work-family enrichment, work-family conflict, self-efficacy, environmental supports. Results and Discussion Structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques used to test the overall model fit of the model. Implication of the finding will contribute to increasing knowledge regarding how psychologists can help women engineers increase their job satisfaction from work-family enrichment perspectives and also inform educational and workplace interventions for retaining talented women engineers. The limitations of this study and suggestions will be discussed.


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Pretending Orgasm and Sexual Satisfaction for Women
Sexual satisfaction has been linked with important facets of life such as overall relationship satisfaction and general well-being. According to Ippolito (2012) there has been formally no study which has described the relationship between the behavior of pretending orgasm and sexual satisfaction for women. A study which analyzed this relationship was conducted in order to fulfill Master’s thesis project requirements. Participants (N=371) were Eastern Washington University college students recruited via an online survey website (Qualtrics). Participants completed the Pinney Sexual Satisfaction Inventory (Pinney, Gerrard & Denney, 1987) and answered questions regarding sexual practices, frequencies of sexual behaviors, relationship status and finally, frequency of and reasons for pretending orgasm. It was hypothesized that pretending orgasm would be negatively correlated with overall sexual satisfaction and that experiencing orgasm would be positively correlated with overall sexual satisfaction. Results from the study supported both hypotheses. Additional significant findings regarding relationship status and pretending orgasm as well as partner satisfaction and gender differences were also observed.


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Should I even be here?: Impostorism and persistence attitudes in STEM women doctoral students
The impostor phenomenon refers to the experience of high achieving individuals, particularly women, who despite being successful attribute their accomplishments to luck and fear being exposed as frauds (Clance & Imes, 1978). The current study examines the influence of the impostor phenomenon on (a) graduate student self-efficacy, (b) perceptions of the research training environment and (c) academic persistence attitudes of female doctoral students completing a STEM related PhD program (N=177) at a large Midwestern public university. As hypothesized, the impostor phenomenon was significantly associated with these three variables in that STEM women who identified more greatly with being an “impostor,” reported a lower sense of self-efficacy as graduate students, a more negative view of their doctoral program, and a more pessimistic outlook on their academic experiences. However, results from a multiple mediational analysis revealed that a woman’s level of self-efficacy and her perception of her department buffers the impact of her impostor beliefs on her academic outlook. Based on these results, implications of how STEM doctoral programs and universities can address barriers to STEM degree completion for women are discussed.


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Social justice identity as experienced by feminist multicultural-trained counselors
Despite counselors’ involvement with social justice work, little empirical evidence has explored how social justice advocates themselves experience their social justice identity. Three aspects of social justice identity were present in the literature: (a) social justice identity is personally meaningful, (b) different factors impact one’s commitment to social justice identity, and (c) social justice identity relates to other social identities. In contrast from prior research, this study utilized qualitative methods to develop a participant-centered understanding of social justice identity. Feminist-constructivist paradigm informed the research, including the use of focus groups. With purposeful sampling, participants were recruited due to their participation in an elective, one year, social justice-oriented, feminist multicultural practicum. 20 individuals consented to participate (30% of 65 recruited); the majority (60%) were professionals with the remaining seeking their degree at the time of data collection. Data collection included focus groups and follow-up interviews. Phenomenological design and analysis were used to examine participants’ perspective. Analysis yielded five themes: (a) Acknowledging: I notice injustices, (b) Personalizing: I’ve made it my own, (c) Reflecting: Am I taking enough responsibility?, (d) Sustaining: I sustain my efforts with support and self-care, and (e) Engaging: My social justice-oriented action positively impacts others and me. Among the themes, both internal and contextual aspects of social justice identity were prevalent. Results were consistent with the existing literature on counselors’ social justice identity, and the study extended empirical support to the literature.

Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

The impact of gender role conformity on alcohol use among emerging adults in Canada
Feminist scholars have noted that substance use issues should be examined using a sociopolitical and cultural lens (Covington, 2002; Grant, 2006). There is limited research on the influence of social power structures, including internalized socially constructed gender roles, on drinking patterns of men and women. Over the past two decades the gender gap in alcohol use has narrowed (Greenfield, 2002), particularly for emerging adults (i.e., ages 18-25), with rates of alcohol use for women ‘catching up’ to those of men. What was once a male-dominated ‘rite of passage’ and overt display of masculinity is now a common behaviour among women as well, yet drinking is still construed as ‘unfeminine’ in some respects. The current study examines how social constructions of masculinity and femininity affect alcohol behaviours for men and women, given the recent trend in convergence. Emerging adults aged 19-25 (N=191; 132 women, 59 men) participated in an online survey. Participants responded to standardized measures of alcohol use, alcohol problems, conformity to norms of masculinity/femininity, gender stereotyped traits, and the degree to which they viewed gender roles as dichotomous. Men and women also estimated the number of drinks they typically consumed in various settings, which were either same-gender or mixed-gender contexts. Linear regression analyses revealed that several domains of masculinity and femininity were significantly associated with alcohol use and alcohol problems, whereas other domains were negatively related to alcohol outcomes. Further, gender conformity variables were found to be significant correlates of drinking in various settings and events. Overall, the patterns of relationships were gender specific. Being a ‘playboy’ (for men) and the desire to be thin (for women) were the most important correlates of alcohol use and problems. For women, sexual fidelity was significantly and negatively related to alcohol outcomes. Implications of these findings are discussed from a feminist critical perspective.

Speakers
JH

Julia Hussman

University of Toronto

Authors
AG

Abby Goldstein

University of Toronto

Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

The Motherhood Penalty: Still Applied by Some University Students
Women are more likely than men to suffer disadvantages on perceived job-related skills or traits (Fuegen, Biernat, Haines, & Deaux, 2004; Cuddy, et al., 2004), and these effects may be exacerbated when a woman is perceived as a mother (Correll, Benard & Paik, 2007). When women are perceived as mothers and are rated less favorably on work-relevant characteristics, this effect is called the motherhood penalty. Some researchers have suggested that the motherhood penalty is due to the stereotypes that individuals have about women and mothers (Cuddy, Fiske, Glick, 2004). Though the motherhood penalty has been replicated throughout the extant literature, we considered the possibility that the same results may not hold approximately 10 years later, as society’s perceptions about women are changing (Braun & Scott, 2009). To test our research question, we employed a standard resume paradigm in which applicant gender and parental status were manipulated. Undergraduate students from a Midwestern university (N = 111; 74% women, 26% men) were asked to answer questions about their perceptions of work-related traits for a childless woman and for a mother. A series of paired-samples t-tests revealed that, compared to applicants who were perceived as mothers, applicants who were perceived as childless women fared better on several work-related traits (e.g., motivated, experienced, committed). Our results demonstrate that, at least in some samples, mothers continue to be penalized on work-related traits. Moreover, we present evidence suggesting that the motherhood penalty’s effects may vary by sample, as some university students actually rate mothers more favorably on work-related traits. Our findings suggest certain background characteristics, including geographical location, may influence perceptions of women. In the future, investigators of the motherhood penalty should examine which attitudinal and demographic variables are predictive of evaluations of childless women and mothers.


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

The Role of Intimate Relationships in Women’s and Men’s Persistence in Science and Engineering
Women are underrepresented in science and engineering (SE) occupations, particularly in academia. Are gendered relationship norms a factor in this gender gap in persistence? A dominant norm is that women’s career should come second to those of their male partners--particularly when the partners’ career is demanding and high-status. This means that being in a committed relationship while in a demanding, high-status career path might add to the career challenges for women, and to career resources for men. This study examined intentions to pursue a doctorate and an academic career among female and male SE graduate students, across relationship commitments, and in reference to the partners’ occupation (STEM or not). One hundred and twenty nine (63% female) graduate students in SE doctoral programs at two universities completed a survey about their personal and educational profile and their educational/career intentions, prior to an interview. The study’s findings suggest a complex relationship between women’s relationship commitments, their male partners’ occupation, and intention to persist through an academic career. Single women (attached and not) were undecided about pursuing a doctorate. For married women, doctorate intention depended on the partners’ occupation. Married women whose partner was not in STEM were most intent at completing a doctorate, while married women whose partner was in STEM were less likely to express an intent to pursue a doctorate, relative to single women. Women married or attached to STEM partners tended to rule out an academic career. By contrast, for men, being married was associated with greater doctorate persistence intention. Men’s relationship status and their partners’ occupational field were unrelated to their academic career intent. These findings suggest that women’s and men’s intention to persist in the SE academia path is associated with different relationship profiles. Marriage appears to consistently be a resource for men, but not women.


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Women's Leadership Symposium: A Mixed Methods Assessment of Psychological Empowerment
Psychological empowerment (PE) focuses on empowerment at the individual level and refers to one’s capacity to have control and make choices regarding their personal life (Israel, Checkoway, Schulz, & Zimmerman, 1994), which includes self-efficacy, participatory behavior, and motivation to exert control over personal, educational and career goals (Zimmerman, 1990). However, psychological empowerment is contextual, therefore programs (i.e., programs at schools designed to increase PE), that aim to increase levels of PE vary depending on the context. Since processes vary between contexts, it is important to measure effects of processes to determine if a given process is having the desired effect The present thesis aims to determine if, and to what degree, the Women’s Leadership Symposium (WLS) at Governors State University impacts PE among 30 female participants. In this mixed-methods thesis on PE among WLS participants I will quantitatively measure PE three times: (1) before the WLS, (2) immediately after the WLS, and (3) three months after participation in the WLS. After the second administration of the PE measure, participants will be asked to volunteer their contact information for participation in individual interviews. The third administration of the quantitative PE measure will be administered after the individual interviews. While the quantitative measure will provide information on PE over time, the qualitative component intends to explore the ways in which participants applied what they learned through the symposium and student needs for future programming specifically designed for women. Data collection and analysis will be completed by February 2105, so the results will be presented followed by discussion of the limitations of the study and the WLS. Suggestions for future leadership programming will also be explored.


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Girls of Color and Vulnerability in Sex Ed Classrooms: A Discussion
The idea for this discussion comes out of an experience we have had in the sex ed classroom with girls of color. We would like this discussion to focus on the negotiations, difficulties, and vulnerabilities present in the sex ed classroom when girls of color are asked to talk about sex and around difficult topics such as consent and coercion. Some of the contradictions that we would like to discuss is the pull for girls to see themselves as strong, proud, and in control of their own decisions, a position supported by growing autonomy in adolescence, and thus deny weakness and vulnerability. Also, this position may need to be reinforced by girls when they pick up on messages from the culture about being at risk (for pregnancy) and/or hyper-sexual (a stereotype). In teaching the sex ed class, we were struck with how difficult it was for the girls to discuss sexual risks and dangers relating to consent and coercion. We observed that this vulnerability (that all girls share) may need to be denied by two other kinds of talk: 1) that boys are equally in danger; and 2) that girls of color need to be “respectable”, in their own words, so if they act in a way that shows they don’t respect themselves, they get what is coming to them. We understand vulnerability to be multiply determined and to be experienced consciously as well as unconsciously. We also understand the students to be constructing who they are and what they feel through multiple identity positions within the specific context of their school, country, ethnicity, race, and gender. Isom’s (2012) qualitative work with youth of color showed femaleness constructed as “strong, multitudinous and varied, yet sexualized by a male gaze and silent in the face of it”.

Speakers
TR

Tangela Roberts

University of Massachusetts Boston


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Gold Rush A

2:25pm

Inclusive, Incomplete, or In-between: Exploring the feminist perspective in graduate diversity courses
APA accredited graduate programs for clinical, counseling and school psychology have a required diversity training component with objectives that include students attaining: “substantial understanding and competence.” Yet these programs seek to achieve these objectives in a variety of ways. A recent meta-analysis concluded that diversity trainings are positively related to cognitive development. However, Bowman found that these cognitive benefits associated with diversity coursework are limited to white and low-income students. How inclusive is this curriculum as it relates to the cultural intersections within the “female graduate student?” We propose to facilitate a structured discussion from a feminist perspective that explores the relationship of the intersections of identity within female graduate students and its corollary influence on the improvement of diversity training effectiveness. Our overarching goal will be to approach this discussion with the aim of encouraging participants to consider their personal training experiences and the feminist perspective in order to inform suggestions. First, participants will have the opportunity to explore their own identity intersections. Then, attendees will be asked to consider and share their personal experiences of their academic diversity training. This will include an exploration of the aspects of diversity training that intersect with, contradict or avoid the female perspective. Simultaneously, we will consider how the female experience and feminist values could be incorporated and emphasized to achieve the heightened awareness and proficiency the APA envisions. Finally, we will scrutinize how diversity programs could be improved. Potential questions include: Where is diversity training effective, and for whom? How can diversity training go beyond raising awareness to increasing actual competency in practice? What does research indicate is most effective for increasing competence? What elements of female cultural considerations should be incorporated into diversity training? How can greater inclusion of the female perspective increase course efficacy?


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Gold Rush A

2:25pm

Revenge Porn: Another Attempt to Control Women
Revenge porn is when individuals post sexually explicit photos and videos of their exes online to websites, such as “MyEx,” whose tagline is “Get Revenge.” Revenge porn has gained attention in light of the recent leak of nude photos of celebrity women. However, celebrities are in a very different position than typical victims of revenge porn, as celebrities not only have better financial resources to take legal action but may gain a new level of fame. The popularity of celebrity nudes being “leaked” may influence the growing trend of revenge porn, as individuals may believe that it is more socially acceptable to share sexually explicit material of their ex. Sexting can progress into revenge porn. Sext messages are sexually suggestive messages sent through cellular phones or over the internet, and include semi-nude or nude photos and videos of an individual (Winkleman, 2014). When individuals within intimate relationships share sexually explicit content with each other, when the relationship ends, if one individual feels like seeking revenge s/he may in turn use the sexually explicit material to post as revenge porn. Many victims of revenge porn do not know that their private photos and/or videos have been uploaded unless notified by an outside party. On many revenge porn sites people are often directed to the victim’s social media pages, home address, phone number, and even their family and friends’ social media profiles. Often the perpetrator encourages others to share and post links everywhere on the web in an attempt to get the pictures of the person to be viewed when someone performs a Google search of the victim’s name. The purpose of this discussion is to address the impact this trend could have on the psychology of women and how feminist psychologists and activists can support victims and press for legal sanctions against posters.


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Gold Rush A

2:25pm

Structured Discussion: The different needs of women and girls in the justice system: How can we address gender differences in the needs for protection within the institution for female inmates.
The incarceration of women and girls has shifted in our society. According to the CDCR (2014), Female incarceration rates have increased dramatically in the last 10 years. Working in the county jail and juvenile hall systems within California for the past few months has exposed me to the different needs that men and women demonstrate while incarcerated. For many women, being locked up provides safety and protection from the sexual and physical violence they have experienced throughout their lives (Bradley & Davino, 2002). The safety that is felt by some women while incarcerated is very different than the expressed experience for men regarding safety. This is not to minimize the trauma and violence experienced by men in these settings, however through my early experience in incarceration, I have noticed different needs and ways of being protected and provided safety for women and girls compared to men and boys. The culture of a female correctional unit feels very different than that of a male correctional unit, which represents nothing novel or groundbreaking. Carol Gilligan’s (1982) characterization of male and female differences is very evident in the environment of incarceration. The male standard of treatment found within the walls of juvenile halls, jails and prisons, serve to disregard the gender-specific needs for women if the aim is for rehabilitation. Even the ways in which genders are tried in court is conflicted: “A distinction was drawn between male’s emphasis on autonomy and an ethics of right and justice in resolving a case and women’s subscribing to an ethics of care with an emphasis on the social impact of a decision.” (Von Wormer, 2010). Furthermore, restorative justice from the perspective of Barton (2001) recognizes multiple ways of enacting justice for the offender and the victim, however the victimization of women in the male-dominant correctional environments hinders that corrective process.


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Gold Rush A

2:25pm

Talking Feminism: Fear of The “F” Word
The proposed discussion will address the evolving state of Feminist Psychology. The discussion will specifically look at the audiences in which feminism is reaching, the fear of feminism/feminist label, and a discussion on ways to utilize feminist theory/identity in a less threatening way. Facilitators will draw on relevant research and personal experiences as self-identifying feminists to guide participants in discussion. Feminism originated out of political and social movements starting in the early 20th century. During the 1970’s feminism was brought into the world of academia, when the first Women Studies department was found at San Diego State College (Charleswell, 2014). Thus, academic feminism is rooted in the women’s liberation movement. Yet, when we discuss feminism today, academic feminism is often considered the only type of feminism. Feminism tends to be discussed solely in academic spheres and within pro-feminists groups. In addition, feminism has often ignored the lived experiences of lesbian, bisexual, queer, trans*, and women of color (Elliot, 2010; Mertz, 2002). The creation of Queer Feminism and Womanism attempted to address these issues, yet today these theories remain a separate entity of feminism. The word itself, “Feminism,” continues to be highly stigmatized within our society. In recent studies it was found that many women agree with what feminist theory stands for but will not self-identify as feminist (Duncan, 2010). Lisa Marie Hogeland states, “We do young women no service if we suggest to them that feminism itself is safe. It is not. It is not easy to question and stand opposed to your culture, to be critical of institutions, behaviors, and discourses” (Hogeland, 1994, p. 725). Thus, the proposed discussion will highlight the following questions. How can we move feminist conversations outside “insider” groups and to the general public? How can we as professionals centralize race and racism in our approach to the liberation of women, queer, and trans people? How do we spread awareness and education that moves past common stereotypes about feminism, a way that does not falsely label feminism as “safe” but in a way that is more welcoming?


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Gold Rush A

2:25pm

Women in Conflict: Exploring the divide between cis-gendered and transgender women
The New Yorker (August, 2014) recently published a scathing article in which many second wave and radical feminist were virulently attacking trans women and stating they were not women. While the article made some erroneous assertions, and misquoted a few of the radical feminist such as Michelle Wallace, many radical feminist and non-feminist transphobic women do feel that trans women are not women. However, many transsexual women, particularly African American transsexual women, indicate that their experiences are more closely related to their cis-gender counterparts than to their gender queer and gender variant transgender cohorts (Brown, 2015), which begs the questions what defines being a woman and are radical feminists really attempting to protect womanhood or are they creating more oppression and hatred by suggesting that only those women who were assigned female at birth are women? This structured discussion is guided by an intersectionality framework (Combahee River Collective, 1982; Crenshaw, 1993) and loosely investigates gender schema theory (Bem, 1981). Bem’s pioneering work on gender schema and sex typing helped to pave the way for how we investigate gender in psychology today, and how we have come to understand how individuals make meaning of their gender identity; however, Bem admits herself that her work was limited in it scope, thus, in combining an intersectionality framework with a Bem's social psychological theorizing on gender, we are hoping to expand on the notions of gender identity and what defines a woman.


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Gold Rush A

2:25pm

Encouraging STEM to Bloom: Small Interventions for Girls and Young Women
Males and females exhibit similar math and science achievement levels in K-12. Therefore, other variables are believed to play a considerable role in the continued underrepresentation of females and minorities in certain STEM career trajectories. This symposium will provide an overview and present data from three different types of studies that seek to impact attitudes about math, science, and gender stereotypes and enhance behavioral performance on STEM-related tasks. National and international data on female achievement in math and science will be reviewed. Math and science anxiety will be defined and operationalized and examples of assessment measures used in this area will be demonstrated. Gender stereotyping in STEM and the use of measures such as the Gender-Science Implicit Attitudes Test (IAT) are described. Methods for encouraging females to develop and maintain a strong math and science self-concept are explored. Data are presented from a study on pre-service teachers, suggesting that anxious attitudes about math and science and stereotypes about gender and science may be implicitly conveyed to K-12 students, impact female students more than male students, and could potentially be prevented. Outcome data are also presented on a brief mindful math intervention for female college students designed to increase math performance and decrease negative cognitions. Lastly, brief “reverse” stereotype threat interventions aimed at female, ethnic minority and low SES college students are described and discussed, with the goal of creating new and potentially quick methods for decreasing math and science anxiety and enhancing performance levels in these populations.


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Washington

2:25pm

La Unión Hace la Fuerza (Together We Can): Double Jeopardy in the Latino Community: -- Women and Undocumented Youth Seeking College Education
Over the last 20 years the United States has witnessed the arrival of 8.5 million Latino immigrants (PEW Hispanic Center, 2013). College education can be a platform for leadership and social change. However, in 2012 only 14.5% of U.S. Latinos ages 25 and older had earned a college degree. In this symposium, we focus on particularly vulnerable groups within the Latino community: women, and undocumented youth. The presentations describe the experience of people who reach out beyond the constriction of laws, customs, roles and risks, toward a better future. In two qualitative studies, these minorities –within-a- minority are given voice, and their subjective experience is made visible, so that advocates, clinicians and scholars can work effectively in their behalf. The first interview study compares Latinas who hold a college degree with those who never attended college. Strengths include self-efficacy, a collectivist approach, and resistamce to stereotype threat and the pressure of traditional gender roles. The researcher’s own experiences inform the study. The second interview study shows how immigration policy affects the daily functioning and mental health of undocumented Latino/as. Undocumented students are vulnerable to anti-immigration views, institutional restrictions on legal employment both during and after college, marginalization, discrimination, acculturation stress, fear of deportation and financial struggles. These stressors cumulatively contribute to anxiety, depression, and alienation Findings provide a knowledge base for college counselors and others who seek to address these mental health concerns and to provide comprehensive and knowledgeable service. In the discussion, we use this information, together with the history of advocacy and support , to brainstorm about what teachers, family members, school counselors, and psychologists can do to further the dreams of these young people, now and in the years ahead, while they are prevented from access to the American dream. Dr,Kuba will chair.