Loading…
*Note* This scheduling program was not designed by folks who do a lot with APA Style and unfortunately it defaults to listing authors in alphabetical order. We cannot fix this for this online schedule, but the author orders are posted in the order submitted in the printed program available via pdf here.

Sign up or log in to bookmark your favorites and sync them to your phone or calendar.

Paper [clear filter]
Friday, March 6
 

10:45am

A feminist exploration of facilitator and participant responses to a course in mindful eating
Mindfulness practices have made their way into mainstream, empirically supported approaches to pain, depression, substance use, and anxiety, following an enormous amount of research by Jon Kabat-Zinn (2013) and others, and some (e.g., Kristeller & Wolever, 2011) have begun studying mindfulness for eating-related issues. Mindful eating is an approach to food that does not focus on weight but rather proposes that thorough meditative practices that encourage acceptance, as well as awareness regarding hunger, satiety, and emotions, people will learn to eat from internally-derived wisdom that ultimately is sustainable and satisfying (Chozen Bays, 2009). It has been included in size acceptance, non-deprivation models used with women struggling with food and weight (Abakoui & Simmons, 2013). Even as many women know that the food and diet industries promote an indulgence/deprivation mentality, that diets rarely work for long, and that health is not necessarily dependent on weight, they may still feel caught in a painful cycle of over-eating, deprivation, and self-recrimination. Many clients seek therapy for help with weight even when they do not have an eating disorder; therapists who reject a diet approach can find themselves in a dilemma about how to help. Furthermore, given that many clinicians and clients are socialized in mainstream culture’s thin idealization, biases can arise even in the context of a non-diet approach. This presentation uses a feminist lens regarding size acceptance and “health at any size” (e.g., Abakoui & Simmons, 2013) to bring awareness to some of the potential benefits and pitfalls of a mindfulness approach to food and body. Using our experiences providing an 8-week course in mindful eating, as well as the data from participants, we hope to further awareness and debate regarding issues of bias and treatment with women struggling with their bodies and weight.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Nevada

10:45am

Acts of Political Warfare: Black Women’s Mental Health & Well-Being
Health disparities among African American females persists for several health outcomes, particularly around mental health and well-being. The race paradox in mental health further problematizes this issue of measurement, resilience mechanisms and coping strategies (Mouzon, 2013). Researchers have suggested Black females’ interactions with social structures have contributed to these phenomena (Abdou et al, 2014; Deguzman & Kulbok, 2012; Douglas, 1992; Kothari et al, 2014; Williams, 2002). Research that employs theoretical and empirical work from the humanities, social sciences and public health to explain mechanisms of psychosocial and environmental stressors contributing to health inequality, is integral to advancing Black women’s health. Because Black women have been forced to prioritize either their gender or race in the ongoing quest for social equality in the United States, and historically have had minimal agency over their bodies, an intersectional feminist approach towards mental health research represents an interpretive framework in which to better understand Black women’s health with respect to race, class, gender, citizenship and geography. Audre Lorde’s seminal quote on the necessity of self-care as an act of political warfare for Black women living in America (1988) is the motivation for this presentation. This interactive presentation will a) briefly describe the mechanism in which Black women engage in the health industrial complex, including health and body politics, as well as how the amelioration of Black midwives/nurses in Black communities’ have contributed to Black women’s poor health today; and b) interrogate intersectional perspectives to discuss Black women’s agency in organizing around health, or acts of political warfare. This approach acknowledges the complete health and well-being of Black women, not merely their reproductive health, which has traditionally been the focus.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Monterey/Carmel

10:45am

African American Girls’ Reflections on Mentoring Relationships at a Girl Serving Agency
At-risk, female adolescents are negatively impacted (e.g., personally, vocationally, and academically) by environments that do not foster their unique needs (Blumer & Werner-Wilson, 2010; Bulanda & McCrea, 2013). Research shows that girls can benefit from programs that teach leadership, relationship, and social engagement skills and include a component that allows girls to be a part of a mentoring relationship (Bulanda & McCrea, 2013; Deutsch, Wiggins, Henneberger, & Lawrence, 2013; Hirsch et al., 2000). Although some research has been conducted on the mentoring relationship, more research is needed that focuses on how the mentoring relationship is perceived by the participants as well as the span of the relationship (Deutsch, Wiggins, Henneberger, & Lawrence, 2013), particularly among African American/Black girls. Method Nine African American/Black adolescent females were interviewed to examine how client and staff mentoring relationships are formed and maintained as well as the extent to which they engaged in conversations about gender, ethnicity, and social justice with the staff at the agency. Results The responses to the open ended questions were analyzed by a team of researchers using grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006, 2014). The themes that emerged from the data include 1) reason for attendance, 2) quality of relationships with staff, 3) behaviors of a mentor, 4) qualities of a mentor, 5) factors that support the development of trust, 6) conversations about gender, 7) conversations about race/ethnicity, 8) conversations about social class and 9) whether the girls are mentors. Frequencies of the individual categories and quotes from the girls will be reported. Discussion We will present our findings in light of the importance of mentoring relationships and the ways in which our study fills gaps in the literature regarding the experiences of African American girls. We will also discuss ways in which researchers and clinicians can apply our findings to their own work.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Monterey/Carmel

10:45am

Does awareness breed contempt?: Self-consciousness, social comparison, and mindfulness as mediators between self-discrepancies and body satisfaction
A vast majority of girls/women are dissatisfied with their bodies, which can lead to serious physical and psychological issues (Holmqvist & Frisen, 2010; Myers & Crowther, 2009). Body satisfaction is an affective response to the cognitive evaluation of the difference between women’s perceived body shape and their ideals (i.e. body image discrepancy) (Cafri, van den Berg, & Brannick, 2010). However, a woman’s awareness that her body does not conform to an ideal does not necessarily mean that she will dislike herself. Several cognitive factors may intercede in this process. Public self-consciousness reflects excessive, focused attention and concern about being evaluated by others, particularly with regards to appearance (Theron, Nel, & Lubbe, 1991). Social comparison is a reflexive, evaluative process that is inherently related to perceived body discrepancies and predicts body dissatisfaction (e.g., McIntyre & Eisenstadt, 2011). Mindfulness, which includes an awareness of internal states without judgment, is negatively related to social comparison (Langer, Pirson, & Delizonna, 2010) and may have a protective effect on body satisfaction (e.g., Fink, Foran, Sweeney, & O’Hea, 2009). Therefore, the goal of the current study was to examine these factors as possible mediators between body discrepancies and body satisfaction. Female college students (N = 469) completed a battery of measures couched within a study of “marketing strategies and consumer behavior.” SEM analyses showed that social comparison, self-consciousness, and two of the five mindfulness dimensions (“describing inner experiences,” “non-judgment of experiences or reactions”) were significant mediators between the cognitive assessment of self-discrepancy and the affective consequence of body satisfaction (model R2 = .44) in predicted directions. Results are discussed in terms of the implications for understanding these social-cognitive processes that can most significantly and directly affect body satisfaction.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Nevada

10:45am

Listening to African American women’s experiences of trauma and community
This study aims to further understand the experiences of urban African American women who have experienced trauma in their lives. Prior research suggests that city dwelling non-Whites are more likely to experience violent traumas (e.g., Breslau, et al., 1998), and symptom severity and coping strategies may differ among women of various racial backgrounds (e.g., Ford, 2011). Other studies have addressed the importance of the neighborhood environment for mental health outcomes among African American individuals (e.g., Gapen, et al., 2011). As part of an undergraduate community-engagement course, interviews were conducted with African American residents of a low-income inner-city neighborhood. Teams of students and the course instructor conducted these interviews in response to a request from the community to learn about residents’ experiences of trauma and recovery. Prior to analysis, excerpts of the interviews were shared with the community anonymously in a public reading. A total of 11 interviews were conducted with African American women who are residents of an inner-city community. The semi-structured interviews began with an open prompt inviting interviewees to describe meaningful experiences in their lives; these experiences frequently included multiple traumas. At this stage in the project, all interviews have been conducted and transcribed. The Listening Guide (Gilligan, Spencer, Weinberg, & Bertsch, 2006) will be used to analyze these interviews. Preliminary analysis suggests that the major themes of trauma, resilience, and the importance of community will be highlighted. This project will add to the current literature by utilizing a qualitative framework in order to underscore the role of community in African American women’s stories of trauma and resilience. The Listening Guide is an ideal method for this study, as it will allow us to be more attuned to the complex and nuanced ways in which these women experienced trauma in the context of their community. References: Breslau, N., Kessler, R.C., Chilcoat, H.D., Schultz, L.R., Davis, G.C., & Andreski, P. (1998). Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in the community. JAMA Psychiatry, 55(7), 626-632. Ford, J.D. (2011). Ethnoracial and educational differences in victimization history, trauma-related symptoms, and coping style. Psychological trauma: Theory, research, practice, and policy, 4(2), 177-185. Gapan, M., Cross, D. Ortigo, K., Graham, A., Johnson, E., Evces, M., Ressler, K.J., & Bradley, B. (2011). Perceived neighborhood disorder, community cohesion, and PTSD symptoms among low-income African Americans in an urban health setting. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 82(1), 31-37. Gilligan, C., Spencer, R., Weinberg, M. K., & Bertsch, T. (2003). On the Listening Guide: A voice-centered relational model. In P.M. Camic, J.E. Rhodes, & L. Yardley (Eds.). Qualitative research in psychology: Expanding perspectives in methodology and design (pp. 157-172). Washington, D.C.: American Psychology Association.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Monterey/Carmel

10:45am

Loving “real” women: The effects of viewing thin vs. “plus-sized” models on body satisfaction and anti-fat bias
Mass media reinforce the cultural message of an unrealistically thin body ideal for women (e.g., Tiggemann & Polivy, 2010), which negatively affects their body image (e.g., Grabe, Ward, & Hyde, 2008). Williamson (1996) argued that visual cues activate body-relevant schemas, affecting evaluations. However, not all women are affected equally because meaning is derived from how they perceive and interpret such messages based upon situation-specific judgments (Bessenoff, 2006; Paquette & Raine, 2004) and internalized beliefs/attitudes (e.g., social comparisons: Tiggemann & Polivy, 2010; thin ideal internalization, Dittmar & Howard, 2004). Women experience decreases in body satisfaction after viewing idealized images (Groesz, Levine, & Murnen, 2002) and anti-fat bias is related to media portrayals of women (Lin & Reid, 2009). However, these findings are less consistent when viewing overweight models, and anti-fat bias changes were never experimentally tested. Furthermore, researchers typically use models rated as “extremely” thin or obese and women only rate the models on appearance. No one has accounted for the potential confound between the models’ thinness and attractiveness. It is critical to examine the effects of observing media images, as well as cognitive processes and beliefs that could explain effects. This is the first experimental study to assess all of these variables and to evaluate their predictive value of changes in satisfaction and anti-fat bias after media exposure. Presenting women with images of “thin” OR “overweight” models and having them rate models on appearance OR non-appearance factors, we addressed the distinction between thinness and attractiveness (i.e. models rated as equally sexy and attractive). Additionally, viewing thin models reduced body satisfaction, while viewing overweight models increased body satisfaction and reduced anti-fat biases. Only body image discrepancy predicted changes after media exposure, however, long-standing beliefs predict pre-existing body satisfaction and anti-fat attitudes.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Nevada

10:45am

Narratives of Bisexual Adults: Retrospective Experiences as Youth and Involvement in Queer Spaces
Growing concern for the academic, social, and psychological well-being of bisexual youth has provoked a great deal of inquiry and assessment. In comparison to other sexual minority youth, bisexual youth are confronted with a unique set of challenges and stigmas in response to their sexuality. Additionally, it has been reported that they are less likely to participate in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer/Questioning (LGBTQ) organizations and spaces, such as Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs, Andre et al., 2014). However, researchers have concluded that GSA’s and similar LGBTQ spaces play a beneficial role in the development and well-being of LGBTQ youth, likely because of the supportive adults advising student groups (Heck, Flentje, & Cohcran, 2013; Kosciw et al., 2013). The purpose of the present study is to investigate how individuals who participated in a GSA during their adolescence report retrospectively on their self-esteem, identity development, and coming out experiences as youth, in addition to whether they continue their involvement in queer spaces and activism as young adults. Data will be drawn from interviews with young adults (ages 18-24), who identify as bisexual, queer, or pansexual, in order to collect a retrospective account of their involvement in GSAs or a similar organization as adolescents. Those who did not participate in such spaces will also be included as our control group. A second goal of this study is to capture participants’ narratives around stigmatization and stereotyping as youth, with an emphasis on how their experiences might have differed from their sexual minority counterparts (gay and lesbian youth). Analyses of the narratives, in turn, provide a rich account of the lived experiences of bisexual young adults and their relationship to queer spaces such as GSAs and their lesbian and gay peers.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Washington

10:45am

Rape resistance: A critical piece of women’s empowerment and holistic rape prevention
In this talk, I argue that, contrary to some arguments, rape resistance is not mutually exclusive or contradictory to other forms of prevention of rape, including bystander intervention and should be part of a restorative justice approach. While community responsibility is important, this does not and should not be artificially set up as opposed to individual empowerment (see Gavey, 2007). Feminist self-defense in particular has been shown to help women to not only avoid rape but to have better self-efficacy and psychological functioning (see Brecklin, 2008; Gidycz & Dardis, 2013 for reviews). While longitudinal studies are needed, funding is lacking in this area of research, which has been true for years, despite some evidence that self-defense is linked to a better ability to effectively resist subsequent assaults (Brecklin & Ullman, 2005). In an ecological model of prevention and response to sexual assault, many strategies and tools are needed to help us respond to sexual assault in terms of risk, recovery, and prevention. What the elements of a holistic strategy may be up for discussion, but should be based on empirical research. This presentation articulates some of the reasons for including rape resistance as one piece of secondary prevention efforts, which is still critically important in a world where sexual assault continues at high rates. The important role of addressing diversity including: race, class, sexual orientation, and disability are also discussed in broadening the paradigm for feminist research, prevention, and clinical practice in this area.

Speakers
SU

Sarah Ullman

University of Illinois at Chicago


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Washington

10:45am

Repairing Relationships With Our Bodies: Reducing Risks After Exposure to Weight-based Stigma
Weight-related stigma and discrimination is extremely prevalent in the United States, most commonly reported by young adults and women. The Binge Eating Disorder Association (BEDA) suggests that following weight-related stigma, people often devalue their social identity. Individuals may be stigmatized by peers, family members, coworkers, strangers, doctors and other health care providers. Research indicates that exposure to weight stigma results in stress, avoidance of physical activity, binge eating, obesity, emotional eating and weight loss. It is possible that claims of weight loss actually measure dietary restraint in those stigmatized. As such, it is likely that those who rely on maladaptive methods of weight control (i.e. dietary restraint), have not accessed proper nutritional information; therefore cannot properly implement a balanced diet into their lives. Furthermore, individuals who binge eat, emotionally eat or actively restrain report performing these behaviors in solitude, as well as higher levels of loneliness. It is evident that prevention programs must be designed to rebuild society to reduce weight-related stigma prevalence and potential negative outcomes. As a preliminary investigation to address disordered eating risk factors that follow weight-based stigma, a cross sectional analysis is in process, in which stress, social isolation and nutritional knowledge are the mediating (intervening) variables. Undergraduate women (N=200-250, ages 18-30) from Utah State University are included in the study. Following the analysis review, I discuss an engaging prevention program that incorporates weight stigma reduction advocacy, with respect to the mediating variables. The program will be specifically designed to target incoming college students. The intervention will help rebuild university culture and assist students in developing close connections with peers to prevent social isolation. Students will also learn strategies to cope with stress and how to successfully implement nutrition education. The program aims to prevent disordered eating behaviors in response to weight-based stigma among college students.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Washington

10:45am

Understanding Context: Benefit of Female Empowerment Group in Community Corrections
We will present on the benefit of implementing a female empowerment group within the context of a juvenile correctional facility. According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP, 2010), the number of incarcerated juveniles has been on an incline from 2000 to 2010. More specifically, the number of incarcerated girls has increased faster than the number of incarcerated boys. Though girls make up less than 7% of the inmate population in Ohio’s Department of Youth Services correctional facilities, 94% of the girls in the correctional facilities are on the mental health caseload compared to 47% of boys leading to the need for more gender-specific programs aimed at addressing socio-emotional and psychological concerns and reducing the rate of recidivism for girls (Ohio DYS, 2012). The relationship between a local juvenile corrections facility and Wright State University’s School of Professional Psychology created the opportunity for clinical practicum for students. Through working with the youth, a need was identified to address the socio-emotional and psychological concerns of the girls including self-efficacy and empowerment. Based on a literature review, the “Girls Only” Toolkit from The Boys & Girls Club of San Diego was chosen and adapted to meet the needs of the forensic population. The group was designed to help the girls recognize, value, and use their abilities to understand environmental influences, self-nurture, and make pro-social changes in themselves and the world to avoid further involvement with the juvenile justice system. Each month, outcome measures were used to inform effectiveness and potential continued use of the group. This presentation will focus on increasing participants’ knowledge of implementing the empowerment group in a juvenile corrections facility and the benefits of such treatment services.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Washington

10:45am

“I feel so fat”: The relationship between close friend’s negative body talk and women’s body image
Short Abstract: Our study examined how close female friends’ negative body talk was related to women’s body image. We found that female friend negative’s negative body talk was related to women’s body ideals and women’s own negative body talk. These relationships differed for thin and overweight women. Long Abstract: Our study examined how hearing close female friends talk negatively about their bodies was related to negative body talk and body ideals in thin and overweight women. Research has found that women frequently engage in negative body talk and that this type of conversation increases women’s body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness (Arroyo & Harwood 2012). These studies have typically operationalized negative body talk by having a confederate engage in negative talk in front of participants (Salk & Engeln-Maddox 2012). However, no studies have examined the degree to which women are exposed to negative body talk from their close female friends. Additionally, little research has examined whether the impact of negative body talk differs for thin versus heavy women. Results indicated that women perceive their close friends as engaging in negative body talk much more frequently then they themselves engaged in this talk (M = 2.70, SD = .92 vs. M = 3.70, SD = .92; t(142) = 11.05, p < .000). In addition, the more women heard their close female friends engage in negative body talk, the more likely they were to do so themselves (r = .31, p < .000), but that the relationship was much stronger for thin women (r=.46) than heavy women (r =.15; z = 3.24, p = .001). Results also indicated that the more heavy women heard close female friends fat talk, the thinner they rated their ideal size (r = .39), but this effect was not found for thin women (r = .15, z =2.44, p =.015). The results indicate that women report frequently hearing close friends talk negatively about their bodies and that this type of conversation is related to different outcomes in thin versus overweight women. References Arroyo, A., & Harwood, J. (2012). Exploring the causes and consequences of engaging in fat talk. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 40(2), 167-187. Salk, R.H., & Engeln-Maddox, R. (2012). Fat talk among college women is both contagious and harmful. Sex Roles, 66(9-10), 636-645.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Nevada

3:45pm

But You Look Just Fine: Experiences of Ableism by People with Invisible Disabilities
Ableism is the systemic oppression that affords privilege to people who are able-bodied and/or neurotypical while marginalizing individuals with disabilities. Much existing research on ableism focuses on individuals with “visible” disabilities; those whose disabilities are more apparent to outsiders. This study used phenomenology based qualitative interviews (Padgett, 2012) in order to examine how people with “invisible” (less apparent) physical disabilities experience ableism. Fifteen individuals ages 18 and older were interviewed (approximately 45 minutes each) regarding the participant’s disability(ies), their feelings around having disabilities that are perceived as “invisible” by others in society, and their experiences of ableism, both explicitly and through microaggressions. Questions were part of an open ended, loosely structured interview scheduling, allowing for personalization of each interview depending on the participants’ experiences. Themes that emerged via open coding and using the table-top method to reach inter-rater consensus on theming (Saldana, 2013) included policing of selves, tension in roles, desire for justice, and interestingly, internalized ableism. Many participants recounted their experiences of having their bodies and actions policed by others, including others with disabilities, challenging their actions on a regular basis. In examining their roles as someone providing education about their disabilities and having to educate on policies, needs and accommodations, several participants shared struggling with what their roles were in any given situation. The theme of desire for justice speaks to the frustration participants expressed of having to educate others, how much energy it took to provide this education, and desire for social change to provide societal education regarding ableism. The theme of internalized ableism reflects both explicit experiences of individuals sharing their self-judgment about abilities, as well as unintentional ableist statements made throughout the interviews. Given these themes, potential implications for community education, policy change and offering justice/equity will be discussed.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Washington

3:45pm

Preventing school violence: Comparing policies in Sweden (Gothenburg) and US (Oakland)
Policies to prevent school violence in Sweden and in the United States are different, yet alike. In the US, school violence seems to be a growing problem but in Sweden it is decreasing. Not only have the US had substantially more school shootings; they have also implemented more preventive measures to combat school violence. This paper examines how school violence is handled in Sweden and the United States. The study is based on qualitative content analysis of educational steering documents and interviews with middle and high school principals. Both in Sweden and the US, a crime perspective (that students increasingly are subjected to zero tolerance policies that are used primarily to punish, repress and exclude them), dominates how violence are treated and handled in schools. In the US students are increasingly subjected to a “crime complex” where harsh disciplinary practices by security staff increasingly replace normative functions teachers once provided both in and outside of the classroom. One obvious difference between the two countries is the emergence of a great number of federal and state laws in the US, such as the Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994. Schools in the US are also increasingly turning towards alternative methods like restorative justice as a mean for creating safer schools and social equity. One main point of the paper is also that the key to violence prevention might be found in a comparison of how normalized masculinity is operating in everyday dynamics, rather than differences in policies.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Washington

3:45pm

Reasonable Accommodations in Assessment Courses to reduce Barriers for Blind Graduate Students
Assessment is an essential area of competence for licensure as a psychologist, but presents a barrier for students with visual impairments or blindness (VI). Accommodations for testing when the examiner is the one with the VI have not been documented. We present the accommodations for several common tests and best practices.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Washington
 
Saturday, March 7
 

10:45am

A new look at well-being: Assessing positive well-being among lesbians of color
The process of restorative justice involves healing and creating conditions for optimal well-being. Merely the presence or absence of mental illness does not accurately gauge the presence or absence of optimal health or well-being, as mental health and mental illness are posited to be along two separate continua (Keyes, 2005; Bhullar et al., 2013). While research on well-being in a psychological context has become an increasingly visible topic in the last 30 years (and has been particularly burgeoning in the positive psychology literature since 2000); Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000), human diversity has received little attention. Cross-cultural differences between countries accounts for most of the studies incorporating diversity. However, well-being and resiliency in an intersectional identity context has been the focus of very few studies. Therefore, this research study examines the construct of well-being utilizing a recently developed instrument, the Multidimensional Well-being Assessment (MWA; Harrell, 2013), in an ethnically diverse lesbian sample. The preliminary study sample consists of a minimum of 32 self-identified multicultural (primarily identifying as non-Caucasian) lesbian or queer females over 18 years of age. Data analysis will include descriptive and correlational analyses to examine at five dimensions of well-being (psychological, physical, relational, collective, and transcendent) within a sample of adult lesbians of color (LOC). Descriptive statistics will present levels of well-being for the total sample, as well as across demographic variables. Correlational analysis will be performed to identify significant correlates of well-being among lesbians of color in this sample. Extant literature and resilient and risk factors for this population will be discussed. Implications for the facilitation of optimal well-being among lesbians of color will also be presented.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Washington

10:45am

Cognitive flexibility as a predictor of reduced sexism and homophobia
Cognitive flexibility is conceptualized as the ability to perceive options and alternatives in a given situation (Martin & Rubin, 1995). While linked with a variety of positive outcomes, including mental health and life satisfaction (Konik & Smith, 2011), there has been no published research regarding the relationship between cognitive flexibility and attitudes toward gender and sexuality. This present study uses the conceptualization of ambivalent sexism proposed by Glick and Fiske (1996), who view sexism as consisting of both hostile sexism (i.e., “traditional” views of women as inferior to men) and benevolent sexism (i.e., viewing women in a constricted gender role that ostensibly seems positive). Our research proposes that cognitive flexibility promotes favorable attitudes toward both women and sexual minorities. Perhaps individuals who imagine many options for themselves and the world in general are less constrained by traditional ideologies concerning gender and sexuality. This hypothesis was tested with a sample of 75 women and 20 men recruited through an online survey. Their mean age was 36 and they were predominantly Euro-American (92%) and heterosexual (89%). Standard measures of cognitive flexibility (Martin & Rubin, 1995), sexism (Glick and Fiske, 1996), and homophobia (Wright, Adams, & Bernat, 1999) were administered. Using regression, our hypothesis was largely supported. Women who reported greater levels of cognitive flexibility scored lower on measures of both hostile (b=-.36, p

Speakers

Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Monterey/Carmel

10:45am

Gender Socialization Among Hip-Hop Identified Youth: Culturally and Contextually Mindful Programming
Attendees interested in developing and evaluating culturally and contextually mindful programming (CCMP) for youth will gain from this interactive presentation. The theory, process, results, and examples of youth work produced in an efficacious resilience-raising intervention will be used as a framework to help attendees conceptualize their own CCMP.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Monterey/Carmel

10:45am

Identity as a Predictor of Psychosocial Well-being in Young Breast Cancer Survivors
One of the most devastating and often persistent challenges facing breast cancer survivors involves coping with changes to their functioning and appearance. These challenges are more pronounced in younger breast cancer survivors who are at an increased risk of poor quality of life (QOL). The illness can disrupt the connection between survivors’ pre-illness identities and post treatment self-perceptions, and challenge survivors who feel unable to live up to their pre-illness ideals. To date, no studies have investigated identity as a predictor of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this investigation is to examine whether identity integration, defined as the reformation of post-illness identities in a way that integrates the illness experience and allows for constructive shifts in one’s identity, especially in relation to traditional gender roles, is a significant predictor of psychosocial adjustment among young breast cancer survivors. As a first step, a pilot qualitative study explored survivors’ self experiences in relation to the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer with ten young women. An ongoing study, using a mixed methods design has further assessed identity integration as a predictor of psychosocial adjustment. To date, the findings reveal that women who are supported, and able to develop a critical gender perspective on societal beliefs surrounding gender role and appearance “norms”, have greater opportunities to engage with the world adaptively after a mastectomy. By exploring innovative research on identity integration as a predictor of adjustment, this research can aid health practitioners in providing counselling and educational services that empowers young women to learn to maximize their health, QOL, and longevity. In turn, these services may support and foster self-nurturing appraisals for young women that build self-worth, increase acceptance of past trauma, and grieve for aspects of a former self to make room for a reintegrated self.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Monterey/Carmel

10:45am

LGB Experiences in Cross-Orientation Therapeutic Dyads: Discussion & Recommendations for Practice
Despite some indications that treatment experiences have been improving (Liddle, 1999), lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) clients still receive discriminatory and inadequate treatment (Bieschke, Paul, & Blasko, 2007). Because of the continued prejudice and discrimination that LGB individuals experience, facilitation of safe and affirming therapeutic encounters is among key social actions that can be undertaken by feminist psychologists. However, little continues to be known about how LGB individuals themselves perceive their experiences of therapy, and ways that they themselves define their therapeutic encounters. This presentation will highlight results of a study regarding experiences in therapy from the perspective of LGB clients. Specifically, I focus on therapeutic dyads that represented divergent sexual orientations, although experiences in therapy with shared-orientation dyads have also been also examined. Therefore, this paper presentation will provide suggestions for facilitating effective therapeutic work with sexual minorities, regardless of the clinician’s sexual orientation. Key factors discussed in this presentation will be (1) reflections on the impact of categorical views of sexual identity, (2) the influence of heterosexism on expectations in the therapy, and (3) ways in which clients tend to assess the safety and acceptance of their practitioners. Furthermore, underlying principles of competent cross-cultural therapy with LGB clients will be shared, emphasizing the importance self-reflective work on the part of the clinician in order to provide nonjudgmental acceptance, discuss sexuality with ease, value different ways of approaching relationship, and decrease therapeutic defensiveness. This presentation will also introduce the notion of the reparative potential embedded in cross-orientation therapeutic dyads. Participants who described transformative therapeutic experiences with heterosexual therapists discussed the benefit of experiencing an accepting member of the dominant culture. This experience provided a counterbalance to internalized homophobia and a corrective emotional experience to familial rejection based on sexuality. Thus, therapeutic dyad work will be viewed as holding potential for restorative justice in the microcosm of the therapy room through witnessing and acceptance.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Washington

10:45am

The importance of gender in examining depression and somatic symptoms among Chinese American and European American college students
The topic of culture and depressive experience has attracted a large number of theoretical and clinical publications (e.g., Chentsova-Dutton & Tsai, 2009). Although depression has been found cross-culturally, the symptoms of major depression that are described by the DSM and measured by clinicians may not be equally culturally sensitive to depressive experience in all populations in the U.S. (Kalibatseva & Leong, 2011). Somatization refers to “complaints about, or the appearance of, physical symptoms such as headaches, stomach pains, inability to concentrate, chronic fatigue, sleep difficulties, loss of sensory functioning, and so on that have a strong psychological basis” (p. 348, Chun, Enomoto, & Sue, 1996). A common pattern that has been proposed in cross-cultural psychopathology is that people of Asian descent somatize psychological distress, and depression, in particular. This proposition has been mostly researched with Chinese, Chinese Americans, and Chinese Canadians. The current study investigated the relationship between culturally relevant factors, such as independence, interdependence, loss of face, and emotion regulation, and depression and physical symptoms among Chinese American and European American students. The study examined whether Chinese Americans report more somatic and depressive symptoms than European Americans and the role of gender as a moderator. The sample consisted of 521 participants from two large Midwestern universities. There were 205 (39.3%) participants who self-identified as Chinese American and 316 participants (60.7%) who self-identified as White or European American. An independent t-test revealed that European Americans reported higher scores than Chinese Americans in physical symptoms but not in depressive symptoms. A 2x2 ANOVA with gender and ethnicity as independent variables and somatic symptoms as a dependent variable revealed main effects for gender and ethnicity and an interaction. Post-hoc analyses showed that European American women reported the highest level of somatic symptoms. The importance of examining gender in cross-cultural phenomena is discussed.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Monterey/Carmel

10:45am

Voice of the Mind: Heterosexual Male Subjectivity During Sex
Based on the depth interviews with 13 heterosexual men, we studied masculine sexual subjectivity through exploring the discourses that men draw on during sex. The rationale of our study is based on the theory of “voices of the mind” of Wertsh (1991), work of Hollway (1984) and Wetherell and Edley (1999) on masculine subjectivity and discourses of masculinity employed by men while talking about sexual experiences. Our approach to studying male sexual subjectivity is based on the idea that men engage in an active process of positioning themselves as masculine and reflecting on their subjectivity during sexual experience. We also see subjectivity as constructed through the interviews that we conducted. The themes that appeared in our analysis also reflect the ways men make sense of their subjective experiences. We asked men questions relating to three descriptions of sexual experiences with another person: recent, adolescent, and troubled. The questions included one specifically on masculinity: “Did any thoughts and feelings you had during sex relate to your being a man?” The discursive themes we found are: “sex as performance,” “knowing without communicating,” “male desire is natural,” “control over the female and the sexual act,” “others in the head,” and that “intimacy is not masculine”. Of interest to women at this conference, may be insight into the way hegemonic masculinity ideals as well as the social demands of adjusting to contemporary views on gender equality produce “voices in the mind” that determine and reproduce heterosexual sex. We offer insights into how this knowledge can be used to inform social change to benefit women and men.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Washington

10:45am

“Girl’s Like Talking About Serious Things”: Sex Segregation in Lesbian Emerging Adult’s Friendships
Sex segregation refers to the tendency for men and women to primarily associate with same-sex peers. Sex segregation is perpetuated by the homosocial norm that suggests “appropriate” friendships are same-sex friendships (Werking, 1997). Consequently, heterosexual emerging adult women have more same- than cross-sex friends (Didonato & Strough, 2013). As the majority of sex segregation research has focused on the experiences of heterosexuals, little is known about the homosocial norm and sex segregation in lesbian emerging adults. In the present study we qualitatively investigated sex segregation in 15 lesbian emerging adult women aged 20-23. Women were asked about the sex of their friends, friendship enjoyment, and preferred activities with their friends. Themes were extracted from the data using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Four main themes were extracted from the data (representative quotes are in parentheses). First, women discussed having sex segregation in their friendships (“My friends are mostly female”; “I have a bunch of friends, they are obviously mostly girls”). Second, women reported feeling more comfortable with same-sex friends (“I am more outgoing around girls because they understand me better than guys”; “I feel like they (women) are easier to talk to”). Third, while women preferred same-sex friends, they also reported enjoying their cross-sex friendships (“Guys just want to chill and do things”; “Its never a stressful hang out”). Fourth, and finally, women discussed the impact that their feminist beliefs had on their friendships (“I can like see now how sexism has, like, impacted our friendships”; “Men that I am friends with are men that are incredibility vocally interested in talking about gender”). Overall, our qualitative study suggests that sex segregation exists in lesbian emerging adult women’s friendships. Similar to heterosexual emerging adults, sex segregation in lesbian emerging adult’s friendships may contribute to the socialization of gender-stereotyped attitudes and interests.

Speakers
CM

Clare Mehta

Emmanuel College


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Washington

1:05pm

Challenging sexuality stereotypes through ambivalent consent episodes
Research on female sexuality argues against a centuries old culturally constructed idea of female sexuality as more passive and less desirous than males (Fine, 1988; Fine & McClelland, 2006; Tolman, 2012). As a reaction to this expectation, women who express agentic sexuality draw on male expectations or assumptions about sexuality (Holland, Ramazanoglu, Sharpe, & Thomson, 2004; Lamb, 2010; Lamb & Peterson, 2013). These restrictions around female desire have been implicated in producing a type of ambivalence, “wanting it and not wanting it” (Lamb, 2002; Peterson & Muehlenhard, 2005; 2007). When working inside these restrictions, they can reenact the aforementioned stereotypes. The opposite can be true for men. Public representations of masculinity show a cultural expectation that men are always ready for “action” (Brown, Lamb, & Tappan, 2010). This is “libidinous heterosexuality” (Attwood, 2005) and is a trait of hegemonic masculinity, which also includes physicality, homophobia, violence, misogyny, and control (Kimmel, 2007). Connell defines masculinity more simply, as power in relation to others (1995, 2012) positioning “always wanting it” as empowerment. Researchers have countered this through research on regrettable sex with both genders (Caron and Moskey, 2002; Oswalt, Cameron, & Koob, 2005; Fisher, Worth, Garcia, & Meredith, 2012) and research about male adolescents’ longing for relationship (Giordano, Longmore, & Manning, 2006). To address stereotypes and undo the restrictive binary of agency for men and women, we examine interviews of 18 men for moments when participants disrupted the assumption of men always wanting and ready for sex. We explore their thinking during sex (as related to us) to address hegemonic masculinity. We also make comparisons to women’s reasons for engaging in sex that they did not want to have (see Impett & Peplau, 2002). A discourse and content analysis showed four themes: preserving agency, performing well, challenging masculinity, and negative character evaluation.

Speakers
MB

Madeline Brodt

University of Massachusetts Boston


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Nevada

1:05pm

Positive Womanist Psychospirituality: Life Principles for Healing, Empowerment, and Wellness
Within womanist theory, there is an ultimate concern for the liberation and optimal development of all of humanity across gender, ethnicity, race, religion/religiosity, ability status, social class, and sexual orientation. The paper aims to provide a framework for identifying strengths and facilitating wellness for women from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. The paper provides an overview of the Positive Womanist Life Principles (PWLP) framework, a culturally embedded reframing of the six Values-In-Action strengths and virtues from positive psychology (e.g., Wisdom, Transcendence, Humanity, Temperance, Justice, and Courage). This reframing reflects an integration of contemporary womanist theory, feminist writings, and multicultural psychology research within a positive psychology orientation. The 6 Positive Womanist Life Principles are: (1) Extended Ways of Knowing (Wisdom), (2) Spirited and Inspired Living (Transcendence), (3) Interconnected Love (Humanity), (4) Balance and Flexibility (Temperance), (5) Liberation and Inclusion (Justice), and (6) Empowered Authenticity (Courage). Forty specific strengths and gifts are organized within the six life principles. The PWLP framework provides a structure for facilitating healing, empowerment, and wellness grounded in the culturally-embedded experiences of women of color that inform contemporary womanist theory. The paper briefly describes a PWLP-based intervention inspired by the life and work of Maya Angelou. The group intervention, “Phenomenal Women Rising” (after Angelou’s poems) is organized around the six principles within a broader wellness promotion approach. Wellness is conceptualized as an emergent property of ongoing interactions between (1) the intersectional dynamics of culture, (2) the multiple dimensions of the socioecological context (e.g., group dynamics, societal institutions, oppression, generational issues), and (3) the culture-infused biopsychorelational processes of the person (e.g., somatic, emotional, self-construction, relationality). As such, the promotion of wellness involves the healing of collective and historical status-based traumas, as well as the promotion of liberatory consciousness and practices that facilitate empowerment, both of which are foundational for processes of restorative justice.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Nevada

1:05pm

Women in the military: the critical analysis of societal stereotyping and attitude towards female soldiers and veterans
Female soldiers are still an extreme minority in the military, constituting approximately 14.5% of the total US Armed Forces. Thus, regardless of the official policy of nondiscrimination, they are often treated differently than man, both socially and professionally. They are not, almost by definition, “brothers in arms” and this kind of societal attitude continues after they leave military service. Multiple research shows that even though war has a traumatic impact on soldiers regardless of their gender, women are more likely to be homeless, divorced, or raising children as single parents (Gamache, 2003) and are at a higher risk to commit suicide (McFarland, 2010). Women-veterans are one of the fastest growing segments of the veteran population, yet, their needs are habitually overlooked. The consequences of prevailing stereotype that suggests all veterans are men are emotionally devastating for women who sacrificed so much for their country. Disabled women veterans are not perceived as wounded warriors and they are told to cover their prosthesis because they are scaring children. A woman-veteran is informed that she is not a ‘real’ veteran, simply because she is a woman. Some women veterans who display their pride of the service (T-shirt, bumper-sticker) are told by strangers to say “thank you for your service” to their (civilian) husbands. Yet another are automatically assumed to be civilian military dependents when they come to the VA hospital (all examples are real stories shared by women-veterans). Such a negative stereotype was already acknowledged by VA, which attempts to change it through their “Please, don’t call me Mister” campaign. In addition, the amount of research on both active duty and veteran women steadily increases. The goal of the current review is to summarize the works in this vitally important area and identify remaining gaps and needs for future empirical work.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Nevada

3:45pm

A Review of Screening Tools Used within the Healthcare Field to Detect Intimate Partner Violence
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health concern that affects the medical and psychological health of approximately 32 million people within the U.S. (Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000). The National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAWS) estimated that women aged 18 and older experienced approximately 5.3 million IPV incidents annually (National Center for Injury Prevention and Control [NCIPC], 2003). It thus seems imperative that routine screening be utilized within general healthcare settings in order to meet the needs of clientele. Routine IPV screenings can increase rates of disclosure and subsequent ability to provide support, education, and resources to victims (Punukollu, 2003). This presentation will provide a short review of the problem, including public health population surveillance results that provide IPV rates within the U.S., with special note of high- risk populations. Further, the multiple negative physical and mental health outcomes as a result of IPV victimization will be reviewed, and make the case for the importance of routine screening within all healthcare venues. A targeted literature review exploring IPV screening tools that are currently utilized in healthcare settings will be provided. Each screening tool will be assessed for its ability to detect IPV. A variety of screening tools will be examined ranging from self- report to structured interviews, and each tool will be assessed on four domains: the extent and type of training each provider needs to become proficient with the tool, the availability of referral information in the community, the ease of use for providers, and the time it takes to complete with each client. A “best practices” universal tool for healthcare providers that is based on the screening tools examined will be recommended. Additionally relevant research on clinical, educational, or training components that should be included pre/during/post IPV screening will be reviewed.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Oregon

3:45pm

Do College Students Feel Unsafe on Campus or at Home? And If So, Which Ones?
Do College Students Feel Unsafe on Campus or at Home? And If So, Which Ones? Many college campuses recently have become concerned about the issue of students’ safety on campus. The current study examines college students’ feeling of being unsafe both on campus and at home. In addition, the students who report feeling unsafe in each context were examined along demographic lines to determine which students feel unsafe on campus, which feel unsafe at home, and whether there is any overlap between the two groups. Participants were 439 college students at a Midwestern university. The sample was 71.9% female and 81.7% were White US citizens. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire including how often they had experienced each of a number of behaviors since they had been in college, as well as demographic questions. A chi-square analysis was conducted on the variables of whether a student had experienced feeling unsafe on campus and experienced feeling unsafe at home, to examine the degree of overlap. The variables were significantly related, Χ2 (1, N = 433) = 37.21, p


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Oregon

3:45pm

Empowerment, Sexiness and Violence Against Women in the Age of Postfeminism
Young women in the United States receive many messages about the appropriate way to be an empowered woman. Since the 1980s, or what has been deemed the "postfeminist" society, the popular media has linked women’s empowerment with highly sexualized displays and behaviors. The ways in which the pressures to exemplify this “sexy” empowerment influence women’s actions and choices have been explored in a number of contexts. One understudied context is that of violence prevention. While young women receive pressure to enact “sexy” displays of femininity, messages around violence prevention (particularly sexual assault) encourage women to actively avoid any bodily displays that might be read as "sexy." This in-depth qualitative study of 25 women aged 18-35 explores the extent to which women recognize this tension and the ways it emerges as they discuss personal experiences related to safety concerns, risk and violence. In semi-structured interviews, women were asked about their thoughts and practices surrounding femininity, sexuality as well as the safety practices in which they regularly engage. Thematic analysis was conducted to extract major patterns and differences in women’s reasoning about femininity and sexiness and the ways they related to empowerment and/or vulnerability for violence. A major tension in women’s femininity narratives emerged as women positioned themselves as invulnerable and agentive actors in attenuating risk, yet simultaneously constructed their feminine bodies as inherently and unavoidably at risk for violence. Interviewees actively worked to distance themselves from the “other women” who may become victims, by disaggregating the category of “woman” from femininity, delegitimizing “woman” as a category of relevance for them, and reconstructing femininity in terms of strength and individuality. Women of color were less likely to reproduce the tension between femininity and empowerment suggesting that messages equating femininity with sexiness and/or vulnerability for violence are most pervasive for white women, while women of color rely on alternative narratives of womanhood and strength. The endorsement of feminist ideology at times worked to also provide an alternative narrative of womanhood that was not opposed to strength. Implications and future directions will be discussed.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
California

3:45pm

Examining Intimate Partner Violence in Kenya
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a major public health problem and global human rights violation (Djamba & Kimuna, 2008; Goo & Harlow, 2012; Laisser, Nyström, Lugina & Emmelin, 2011; Simister, 2010; World Health Organization [WHO], 2013). Hence, IPV in the developing world has increasingly become a topic of public health discourse (Swart, 2013). The devastating effects of IPV on individuals, families and communities are well documented. It is a complex social issue deeply rooted in the interaction of social, cultural, political, economic and biological factors (Dahlberg, & Butchart, 2005). As such, perceptions, prevalence and manifestations of IPV differ from one society to another as they are influenced differently by cultural beliefs and traditions (Akinsulure-Smith, Chu, Keatley, & Rasmussen, 2013; Dada Ojo, 2013). Effective interventions can only be formulated upon conducting qualitative studies that explore the cultural context of an affected population and how they interpret their experiences (Jewkes, 2002). To date, limited research and literature has focused on IPV in Kenya. This qualitative study explored the experiences of Kenyan survivors and IPV perceptions of female community members. Data analysis was conducted using a conventional content analysis approach (Hsieh & Shannon, 2005). Seven primary themes emerged from survivor focus group data: cultural context of violence; risk factors for violence; types of violence; consequences of violence; response to violence; perseverance; and, helpseeking. Seven primary themes also emerged from the female community members’ focus group data: snapshot of violence; poverty; cultural context; masculinity; women taking action; resources; and, prevention strategies. Sentiments expressed by these survivors and community members provide powerful insight into experiences of violence including the risk factors, consequences, how the community responds and how survivors cope with the violence they experience. Emergent themes inform us as we think about IPV prevention efforts and restorative justice within this cultural context.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Oregon

3:45pm

Feminist Liberation Psychology, Wicked Questions, & Forum Theatre: Implications for Transformative Restorative Justice Praxis
Feminist Liberation Psychology (FLP) uses a problematizing praxis to explore social justice issues within our communities; this is the praxis of wicked questioning. We use these processes to interrogate injustices and to examine limit situations so that other possibilities are imagined. Limit situation connotes more than the intersectionality of oppressions to include analysis of how power circulates such that people simultaneously inhabit a range of powers to act even in the face of intense power over situations. In moving through intersectional spaces, we exercise and maintain individually maintained moments of empowerment. It is in these moments where empowerment resonates. The challenge for transformative praxis is to create the conditions wherein participants see not only how they are within these limit situations, but also what can be done to shift these situations on personal, interpersonal, and systemic levels within our cultures; this forms a key component of FLP Forum Theatre. We share the results of what happens when we place the authority of voice and narrative at the core of our change work by using the praxis of FLP Forum Theatre with young mothers occupying various identity markers for marginalization. We share the lessons learned from using FLP Forum Theatre to create change, on personal, interpersonal, and systemic levels and to show implications for generative restorative justice. Feminist Liberation Psychology praxis examines limit situations from the inside out to create sustained conditions of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural change; such change is essential for a transformative restorative justice model.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
California

3:45pm

Intersecting Identities: Promoting Social Justice Within & Beyond the Supervisory Relationship
Advocacy and social justice are concepts that are often mentioned in clinical training to up-and-coming mental health professionals, yet mentorship regarding these topics is often lacking within supervision. Clinical psychology trainees often work in close supervisory relationships to hone their clinical skills and theoretical orientations, which makes it an exemplary arena to discuss advocacy and social/restorative justice at various systemic levels. It is commonly understood that, ethically, supervisors and their supervisees should be discussing issues related to multiculturalism and diversity as related to the trainee’s clients; however, that is often where the discussion ends. What is frequently missing in clinical programs and at practicum sites is a critical and ongoing dialogue related to the intersecting identity categories of both the supervisee and the supervisor as this can greatly impact the supervisory relationship, and consequently the therapeutic relationships that the supervisee has with her or his clients. In order to address this concern, a de-identified, supervision vignette will be presented (via PowerPoint) within the theoretical framework of social dominance theory accompanied by an integration of feminist theory. The supervisory vignette will be utilized to generate understanding and ability of audience members in identifying and predicting: (a) intersecting identity categories, (b) dominant societal patterns, and (c) power differentials – all within the supervisory relationship. Some of the intersecting identity categories in the supervisory vignette are: (a) gender, (b) race, (c) sexual orientation, (d) gender expression, and (e) disability status. After a thorough explanation of the clinical supervision example, the presenter will address how the supervisory relationship can impact the therapeutic relationships that a trainee has with her or his clients. The importance of navigating intersecting identities within clinical supervision as a means of mentoring trainees in advocacy and restorative justice will be a central theme of the presentation.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Emerald

3:45pm

LGBTQ Millennials: Identity Formation and School Context
The study examines changes in processes of identity formation among LGBTQ millennials. Often eschewing politicized labels such as gay and lesbian, LGNTQ youth tend to rely on personal and online support for identity exploration. Research shows, however, that many secondary schools remain oppressive environments for LGBTQ youth.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Washington

3:45pm

My Lover, My Assailant: Intimate Partner Homicide Perpetrators
Intimate partner homicide (IPH) is the most severe form of intimate partner violence. According to the Violence Policy Center (2014) four to five women are murdered daily by an intimate partner. This statistic comes from reports submitted voluntarily by police departments; however, reporting methods may contribute to this problem being under-reported Most researchers have failed to address the risk factors which characterize an increasingly lethal relationship. However, a small subset of researchers have combed through archival reports and interviewed survivors (e.g., Campbell, 2009) to identify risk factors which predict the likelihood of IPH. While notable, IPH researchers have predominantly focused on heterosexual relationships in White and Black communities. Thus there are significant gaps in our knowledge of IPH for different minority communities. There are currently several risk assessment measures utilized to recognize women at risk of victimization as well as identify potential perpetrators. The majority of these instruments are used in the criminal justice system to make decisions regarding a perpetrator’s likelihood recidivism and probation rulings. Additionally, an increasing number of health clinics and hospitals are using risk assessments to identify potential victims in general practice and obstetrics. Could psychology benefit from adopting this practice? This presentation provides brief overview of the IPH literature and addresses gaps in the research. The presenter will identify risk factors in heterosexual, predominantly white relationships with a male perpetrator. Although women as the homicide victims are provided with more attention than their perpetrator counterparts, risk factors related to female perpetrators will also be highlighted. The presentation will also increase participants’ awareness and ability to assess risk factors for IPH in their clients. Lastly, the utility of risk assessments in clinical practice will be discussed.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Oregon

3:45pm

Reduced Access to Gender Affirmation is Associated with Increased Drug, Alcohol, and Hormone Abuse among Transgender Women
Transgender women are highly marginalized in the U.S., experiencing pervasive stigma and discrimination and reporting disproportionate levels of depression, trauma, and substance abuse. The Model of Gender Affirmation provides a framework for conceptualizing health disparities among trans women of color and theorizes that the high levels of substance abuse and misuse of hormones observed among transgender women can be partly accounted for by psychiatric distress that results from social oppression and a low levels of interpersonal and internalized affirmation of their gender identity. The current study represents the first quantitative exploration of the Model of Gender Affirmation, utilizing data from a cross-sectional study of 150 adult transgender women in the San Francisco Bay Area. We examined multivariable relationships between social oppression, psychiatric distress, external and internal gender affirmation, and substance abuse using generalized structural equation modeling (GSEM). Our analysis revealed a significant direct effect of social oppression on both psychiatric distress and external gender affirmation, such that increased levels of reported social oppression led to higher levels of psychiatric distress and decreased levels of external gender affirmation. Psychiatric distress in turn had significant direct effects on internalized gender affirmation as well as the number of drugs used and the number of alcoholic drinks consumed in the past 30 days. Internalized gender affirmation was significantly associated with the number of drugs used, number of alcoholic drinks consumed, as well as hormone misuse (i.e. using more hormones than prescribed) in the past 30 days. This study provides quantitative support for the Model of Gender Affirmation in that gender affirmation processes (both internal and external) mediated the relationships between social oppression and substance misuse in this sample of transgender women. Interventions aimed at improving mental health and decreasing substance abuse among transgender women should consider strategies to increase their access to gender affirmation.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Washington

3:45pm

Restorative Justice in Accreditation: An Alternative for Accrediting Programs in Master’s Level Counseling Programs
Current literature (e.g., Jackson & Scheel, 2012) has called for paradigm shifts on multiple ecological levels to incorporate restorative justice into psychology training at the master’s level. Specifically, training programs that currently train master’s level practitioners must begin to metabolize the spirit of restorative justice through various ways of shifting curricula, program philosophies, and learning outcome goals to support counseling and psychology training for master’s-level clinicians in becoming more inclusive of collaboration, multiple perspectives, and navigating intersecting identities. Further, the psychology literature also calls for a change in how accrediting bodies that accredit master’s-level programs begin to place sociocultural and justice issues at the center of their standards in order to accredit programs that have these issues as a central part of their program. This proposed paper presentation addresses the above calls from the psychology literature by introducing as well as discussing the progress of the Master’s in Counseling Accreditation Committee (MCAC), the counseling accrediting arm of MPCAC (Master’s in Psychology and Counseling Accreditation Council (MPCAC) since its introduction to AWP members at the AWP conference in 2011. MCAC’s Standards of Accreditation directly exemplify the AWP 2015 theme of Restorative Justice and the areas of personal and collective accountability, bolstering feminism in academia, and global reconciliation through collaboration. The presentation has two attendee-centered goals: (a) introducing and discussing the progress of MCAC as an alternative accreditation process at the master’s level; and (b) addressing how MCAC’s master’s level accreditation standards exemplify feminism through program philosophy, evaluation of master’s level training, and principles of doing social justice work. The authors, both current site visitors for MCAC and former members of the MCAC board, will be able to answer attendee questions about the accreditation process and help individuals to understand the value of program accreditation at the master’s level using alternative formats.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Emerald

3:45pm

Restorative Justice through Feminist Pedagogy: Exploring Strategies for Teaching Future Criminal Justice Professionals at Bronx Community College
Criminal Justice (CRJ) undergraduate students at Bronx Community College (BCC) are striving toward professional careers, such as local, state, and federal law enforcement officers, lawyers, judges, probation and parole officers, and social workers, that provide special restorative justice opportunities. As professionals, our students’ will ultimately accept responsibility for healing and rebuilding their communities. They will also face extraordinary challenges working within a field that thrives on oppressive, patriarchal values that are counterintuitive to the restorative justice perspective (e.g., strict obedience to authority, emphasis on punishment, little support for victims and their families, and lack of rehabilitative services for offenders). Additionally, the majority of our students reside in communities that are themselves in dire need of restorative justice efforts. Most BCC students live in the Bronx, a borough of New York City with a 2.9% increase in murders, 15.2% increase in rape, and 1.5% increase in felony assaults since 2013 (Police Department City of New York, 2014). The Bronx has the highest unemployment rate out of the five boroughs, 12.7% compared to the citywide average of 9.2% (New York City Public Information Office, 2013). BCC is a Hispanic serving institution, with 60.4% Latino and 30.3% Black students (http://www.bcc.cuny.edu/). Thus, our students enter the classroom with admirable aspirations to become community leaders, while simultaneously coping with personal experiences of oppression on a daily basis. As instructors of a learning community for CRJ students, we have a unique and privileged opportunity to help our students promote restorative justice in both their personal and professional lives. We propose a presentation to share and deconstruct our experiences teaching and collaborating with students. In the spirit of the conference theme, the purpose of this presentation is to discuss how we apply a feminist pedagogical approach as part of our own restorative justice mission.

Speakers
BR

Brandi Rima

Bronx Community College
CR

Crystal Rodriguez

Bronx Community College


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Emerald

3:45pm

Slut-Shaming: Do Social Class or Clothing Make It More Acceptable?
The word “slut” has typically been used to describe a woman whose behavior is inconsistent with gender norms (Poole, 2013). Researchers have suggested various motivations for “slut-shaming”: intrasexual competition (reducing the value of a sexual rival; Vaillancourt & Sharma, 2011), retribution for non-conformity to feminine scripts (Jost, 2001; Poole, 2013), and female-on-female control of sexuality (Baumeister & Twenge, 2002). While researchers have examined how people view “sluts” (Crawford & Popp, 2003; Fugere et al., 2008), minimal research has explored the perceptions of the “shamers”. One prior study has shown that “shamers” are generally disliked (Papp et al., 2014), and we hoped to expand upon that idea with this project. In this study, we used mock Facebook profiles to illustrate the relationship between the “slut” and “shamer”. Participants were assigned to one of four conditions, in which the socio-economic status (SES) and clothing of the target were randomized. We altered the “slut’s” SES and clothing because these variables may affect how someone is perceived (Kraus et al., 2011; Montemurro & Gillen, 2013; Vaillancourt & Sharma, 2011). Participants responded to measures of person perception (“slut” and “shamer”) and social distance (“slut” and “shamer”), were asked to evaluate the “shamer’s” remark, and indicated if they identified as feminist. SES, clothing, and feminist identity significantly impacted how participants viewed “sluts” and “shamers”. Participants wanted more social distance from the “shamer” if she shamed the conservatively dressed “slut” and wanted more social distance from the high SES “slut” when she dressed provocatively. Participants were more likely to perceive the tone of the “slut-shaming” comment as serious if the “slut” had high SES and dressed provocatively. Women who did not identify as feminists wanted greater social distance from the “slut”, and feminist-identified participants did not find “slut-shaming” justified regardless of the attire of the “slut”.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
California

3:45pm

The passion and pitfalls of implementing restorative justice in post-secondary education
This paper will examine the ongoing process of implementing restorative justice at Holy Names University in Oakland. Our presentation looks at this process from an academic perspective and a disciplinary perspective. Highlighting the voices of two female faculty members representing the Criminology and Philosophy departments, respectively, the Dean of Student Development and Engagement, and a graduate student whose masters thesis is on implementing restorative justice in residence life, this paper seeks to understand how feminism and justice complement each other within an urban university setting founded and run by Catholic nuns. The study examines if and how restorative justice aligns with current justice trends within Oakland and ways in which criminology students might benefit from restorative justice training. It will also consider how restorative justice can be employed in a diverse student body with differing levels of justice comprehension. We will look at the communal benefits and shortcomings of implementing a restorative justice judicial framework within the university overall and how we might extend the model into classrooms as well as boardrooms. Lastly, this panel will highlight blind spots of the RJ movement at this level of education and what future trajectories of restorative justice in post-secondary education might look like. Faculty members will build upon the work of current criminology students whose recent deconstruction of justice programs in the Bay Area has led to compelling questions around agency, silencing, and healing. Additionally, presenters will discuss how the transition from strictly punitive practices towards restorative justice models within the university student conduct system connects to ever-evolving “campus culture” and a growing need to both serve as well as thoughtfully engage a dynamic student population. Building off of recent student research and case studies, our presentation seeks to envision a sustainable university system in line with restorative justice principles and practices.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Emerald

3:45pm

The Role of Elder Women in preventing the impact of Inter-generational trauma within an Indigenous Community
This presentation will focus on the importance of resilience among a small group of Aboriginal women "Elders" in preventing the impact of Inter-generational trauma among the Stolen Generations of Indigenous people within their community. The model they have developed can tell us a lot about the ways in which intervention can be implemented to achieve successful intervention and prevention of the consequences of trauma that is passed down through the generations.

Speakers
JW

Janice Walters

Borough of Manhattan CC


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Washington

3:45pm

The Role of Social Support in Online Groups for Young Adults Who Engage in Non-Suicidal Self-Injury
This paper will discuss how social support operates within online self-injury groups for young adults. Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is described as direct and deliberate destruction of one’s own body (e.g. cutting or burning oneself) in the absence of suicidal intent (Nock & Favazza, 2009) and for reasons not socially or culturally sanctioned (such as piercing or tattooing). The behavior is often preceded by emotional distress and followed by a subjective sense of relief, so it can be conceived of as a coping mechanism. While early research and popular media have stereotypically linked NSSI to Caucasian females only, it is prevalent across genders, ethnicities, and socioeconomic statuses (Klonsky, 2011). This makes accessing these diverse voices imperative to understanding this behavior. This paper will also discuss the stigma surrounding NSSI, something very familiar to those who self-injure. Because of the likelihood of encountering stigmatization, many have turned to the Internet as a safe, anonymous place to talk about their struggles with self-injury and gain social support from similar others (Lewis et al., 2012). This phenomenological research aims to understand how social support operates within online self-injury groups and whether this support is perceived to affect the frequency of users’ self-injury. Participants were ten young adults (ages 18-25) of all genders to ensure the voices of non-gender-conforming individuals could be heard. This research utilized a qualitative questionnaire distributed via email exchange with participants. Data has been collected and is currently under analysis by methods of constant comparison and content analysis. It is my hope that this research will enhance the understanding of how online groups may play a role in supporting young adults who self-injure in their recovery.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
California
 
Sunday, March 8
 

8:30am

A Lot of Hard Work, But Doable: Pregnancy Expectations and Experiences of Women with Type I Diabetes
Past research has focused on the importance of stringent medical diabetes management for pregnant women with type 1 diabetes to achieve a pregnancy with minimal complications. Unfortunately, there is little research on these type 1 diabetic women’s actual lived experiences with pregnancy. Additionally, there is virtually no existing research on the expectations that type 1 diabetic women have towards a future pregnancy experience. This study was designed to gain insight into expectations that nulliparal diabetic women have regarding pregnancy, to understand the lived pregnancy experiences of women with type 1 diabetes, and to examine the expectations versus the lived experiences. Ten nulliparal women with type 1 diabetes and 10 women with type 1 diabetes who were currently or/had previously given birth were recruited. All women were interviewed over Skype. All audio recordings from the interviews were transcribed and then coded for themes. The results indicated that women who were currently pregnant and/or had previously been pregnant reported significantly more positive themes regarding diabetes and pregnancy than did the women who had never been pregnant. This research suggests that it is essential that dialogues regarding pregnancy be initiated by physicians even prior to a voiced desire to become pregnant, in order to accurately educate their patients, and ease any unnecessary anxiety in this population of women. Additionally, this study exposed that early diabetes education, pregnancy planning, and support are important, yet often overlooked, factors that increase the likelihood for physically and emotionally successful pregnancy experiences for this population of women. **I cannot present on Sunday as Dr. Joan Chrisler, the second author, cannot attend on Sunday. Thank you in advanced!**


Sunday March 8, 2015 8:30am - 9:45am
Gold Rush A

8:30am

Addressing the needs of women survivors of child abuse: The ethical, socio-political and professional imperative of trauma-informed care
Interpersonal trauma has a broad range of physical, social and mental health consequences, which poses a heavy and largely unrecognized burden on our healthcare, social service and criminal justice systems. Interpersonal trauma experienced in childhood has especially pernicious consequences. In this paper, we address the problem that traumatized women are vulnerable to receiving suboptimal healthcare and social services especially when they have a history of chronic traumatization, such as childhood sexual, physical or emotional abuse or neglect. To remedy this, our healthcare and social service systems must deliver trauma-informed care. Although there is a growing recognition of the need for trauma-informed care within healthcare and social services, there continues to be an under-recognition and lack of appropriate care for trauma survivors. Without the requisite knowledge, providers cannot practice in a professionally competent way and cannot provide adequate client-centered care because care needed may never be provided and "care" provided may be neither effective nor efficient. Drawing on feminist philosopher, Iris Young’s social connection model that explicates that certain suffering is socially caused, we argue that providing trauma-informed care is an ethical, socio-political and professional imperative. We also argue that trauma-informed care is a form of restorative justice by providing opportunities for women trauma survivors to receive the care they need and, in the process, have a reparative experience of validation and empowerment. While clinicians and professional bodies have a special responsibility to increase trauma recognition and response in all aspects of care for trauma survivors, we will argue that there is also a broader ethical and socio-political imperative to share this responsibility. The responsibility to ensure that trauma-informed care is provided extends beyond individual practitioners, relevant health professions and health systems to citizens, governments and global health and human rights initiatives. Our collective “responsibility for justice”—best understood through Iris Young’s “social connection model”—is what’s required.


Sunday March 8, 2015 8:30am - 9:45am
Washington

8:30am

Beyond Double Jeopardy: Leadership Pipeline for Women of Color in Academia
Very little is known regarding the experiences of women of color in psychology; however, their joint social categorizations as both women and ethnic minorities have led some to believe that they likely experience a “double disadvantage” or “double jeopardy” (Carter, Pearson, & Shavlik, 1969). Intersectionality theorists, on the other hand, have cautioned against an over-simplified, additive perspective. They argue that the experiences of ethnic minority women cannot be adequately or accurately encapsulated by the mere sum of their singular identities as “women” and “persons of color.” Instead, they suggest that ethnic minority women are likely to experience “intersectional invisibility,” or an inability to be fully recognized by either subordinate group, effectively rendering their voices and perspectives socially silent or neglected (Purdie-Vaughns & Eibach, 2008). In supporting the leadership pipeline of women of color in psychology, we need to consider solutions to help with their overall experience, retention, and advancement toward upward mobility. Though limited in scope, there are some literature, including anthologies, that speak to the experiences of women of color in higher education and the multidimensionality of their identities. These narratives offer number of viable possibilities in supporting women of color in higher education. These include but are not limited to: mentoring, building supportive professional networks, and opportunities for leadership development. Ultimately, the success of our profession rests with the diversity of its members and leaders. As such, the present proposal challenges existing ideologies and practices that hinder this potential and offers recommendations that promote the leadership pipeline for women of color in academia.


Sunday March 8, 2015 8:30am - 9:45am
Crystal

8:30am

Ending Family Homelessness: Formerly Unhoused Mothers’ Policy Recommendations
Homelessness among female-headed families in the United States is increasing. Up from 1 percent in the 1980s, families now comprise 38 percent of the unhoused population (National Alliance to End Homelessness, 2013). Structural inequities – poverty, low wages, domestic violence, and lack of affordable housing and foreclosures – are root causes of homelessness among women with children (U.S. Housing and Urban Development, 2012). Yet, ameliorative institutional initiatives remain underfunded or absent. Compounding this policy gap is silence within political and media arenas; family homelessness, and specifically women’s narration of their own experiences, is underrepresented in mainstream analyses of social and economic marginalization. Unhoused women with children report feeling that policymakers and people in positions of authority do not understand homelessness and that policy initiative too often focus on changing individual women rather than economic conditions (Averitt, 2003; Cosgrove & Flynn, 2005; DeWard & Moe, 2010). What policies do unstably housed mothers’ perceive as effective in reducing family homelessness? As part of a larger study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 formerly homeless mothers to better understand their experiences of being unhoused and the economic and housing policies they believed would most help their own and other similarly situated families. All respondents had lived in residential family shelters with their children within the past two years. Our informants consistently described scant resources and overburdened systems despite being told that that supportive services were available. Respondents identified a core set of practices for retaining (e.g., rental assistance programs, more affordable housing units) and securing housing (e.g., help navigating rental markets, security deposit cash assistance). Our findings underscore the importance of including mothers’ voices in housing policy discussions.


Sunday March 8, 2015 8:30am - 9:45am
Gold Rush A

8:30am

Risks of Commercialized Science: Antidepressants, PMDD, and Big Pharma
The American Psychiatric Association (2013) officially added Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) as a mood disorder in the DSM-5, despite controversy over its validity, the lack of research in marginalized populations (Pilver et al., 2011), and concerns that PMDD pathologizes normal experience and disregards contextual factors of emotional distress (Ussher, 2012). However, the pharmaceutical industry has much to gain by legitimizing PMDD as a disorder and promoting the need for antidepressant medication (ADM) to treat it. The repackaging of Prozac/fluoxetine as Sarafem as a “new and effective” treatment was certainly helped by the financial relationships among industry, the APA, DSM, and FDA; the majority of DSM-IV PMDD panel members had industry ties, and the expert opinion given to the FDA by a DSM panel member that PMDD was a ‘real and distinct’ disorder was instrumental in getting Sarafem/Prozac approved (Cosgrove & Wheeler, 2013). There are currently three ADMs approved to treat PMDD and the industry-facilitated approval of these drugs was used to justify PMDD’s inclusion in the DSM-5. In a previous investigation, we found two meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of ADM for PMDD that came to different conclusions about efficacy—even though they reviewed the same evidence. The meta-analysis authored by researchers with commercial ties concluded that ADMs are effective (Shah et al, 2008). The authors of the other meta-analysis who did not have industry ties concluded that current evidence about efficacy is unsatisfactory (Kleinstäuber, 2012). In this presentation, we will provide data on the extent and type of industry support of RCTs of ADM for PMDD, discuss the relationship between industry funding and the conclusions drawn about the efficacy and safety of ADM for the treatment of PMDD, and examine how marginalized populations are represented in RCTs. Prescriptions for reform and implications for stakeholders will also be addressed. References American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing. Cosgrove, L., & Wheeler, E. E. (2013). Industry’s colonization of psychiatry: Ethical and practical implications of financial conflicts of interest in the DSM-5. Feminism & Psychology, 23(1), 93-106. Kleinstäuber M., Witthöft M., & Hiller W. (2012) Cognitive-Behavioral and pharmacological interventions for premenstrual syndrome or premenstrual dysphoric disorder: A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 19, 308-319. Pilver C. E., Desai, R., Kasi, S., & Levy, B. R. (2011). Lifetime discrimination associated with greater likelihood of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Journal of Women’s Health, 20(6), 923-931. Shah, N. R., Jones, J. B., Aperi, J., Shemtov, R., Karne, A., Borenstein, J. (2008). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for premenstrual dysphoric disorder: A meta-analysis. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 111(5), 1175-1182. Ussher, J. M. (2012). Diagnosing difficult women and pathologising femininity: Gender bias in psychiatric nosology. Feminism & Psychology, 23(1), 63-69.

Speakers
MB

Madeline Brodt

University of Massachusetts Boston
LC

Lisa Cosgrove

University of Massachusetts Boston
SP

Shannon Peters

University of Massachusetts Boston


Sunday March 8, 2015 8:30am - 9:45am
Washington

8:30am

Sexual Minority Female Identity Across the Life Span
The experience of sexual identity for females no longer represents a strict adherence to a static course of development (Diamond, 2008). Thompson & Morgan (2008) reported that 42% of their female sample expressed a degree of sexual identity uncertainty and label difficulty. This point has become contentious as many are pushing away from the oppressive nature of the gender and sexual binaries (Iantaffi & Bockting, 2011). Method This study utilized a qualitative research method to explore the differences in the ways three generations of sexual minority females viewed the process of sexual identity labels, development, and gender identity. Eighteen participants (13 cisgender, 4 transgender, and 1 agender/gender non-conforming), ranging in ages from 20 to 67 years old, completed a semi-structured interview. Preliminary Results Currently, data has undergone open and comparative-coding procedures utilized in the grounded theory method (Charmaz, 2006). Two teams of graduate students have assisted in the coding process. While data is currently undergoing analysis, this project will be complete by the March conference. At this time, a number of themes have emerged. First, struggling to define and express an authentic identity is the strongest theme. Participants noted how labels that represent the gender binary and restrictive notions of sexuality did not fit their sense of self. Second, negative perception and rejection within the LGBTQ community. Third, participants discussed the importance of feminism on both their sexual and gender identities. Many participants in the oldest generation reported involvement in feminist organizations, culminating in a fusion between feminism and sexual identity. In younger generations, feminist ideals pervade struggles for representation and equality. Discussion It is expected that themes representing an intersection of sexual and gender identities will emerge. Such findings will further an understanding of female sexual identity that is fluid and requires greater social protection to achieve equal standing.


Sunday March 8, 2015 8:30am - 9:45am
Crystal

8:30am

Why women don't negotiate: Women's negotiation performance in reaction to instructional set(s).
Despite the growing number of women in the labor force and increased opportunity for salary negotiation, women, in comparison to men, do not ask for more (Babcock & Laschever, 2003). Meta-analyses (Stuhlmacher & Walters, 1999; Walters, Stuhlmacher, & Meyer, 1998) confirm the existence of gender differences in negotiation behavior and outcomes. The impact of gender on negotiation performance was carefully reviewed with a focus on the situation; the review suggested that women’s performance is impacted by stereotype threat and empowerment. The mere mention of a negative stereotype about one’s social group (stereotype threat) can lead to poor outcomes on stereotype relevant tasks (Steele, 1997). Stereotype activation positively affects men’s negotiation performance but negatively affects women’s (Kray et al., 2001). The effects of experiencing power indicate increased approach behavior (Keltner et al., 2003) and increased connections between one’s goals and actions (Galinsky et al., 2003). Men’s negotiation performance is less affected by the experience of power compared to women’s (Hong, 2013). The current study examined the impact of stereotype threat, hypothesized to undermine women’s performance, and an empowering instructional set. expected to enhance negotiation performance. Using a home-purchasing negotiation task, 45 women negotiated after receiving one of three instructional sets: a control, stereotype threat and empowerment. Preliminary analyses suggested that women’s negotiation is impacted by the situation; women respondents performance (final offer) was more easily undermined than enhanced. Post performance measures confirmed women’s discomfort with negotiating in the stereotype threat condition. Implications for training women to negotiate are discussed.


Sunday March 8, 2015 8:30am - 9:45am
Crystal

8:30am

Young Pregnant and Fabulous? Teen Mom / 16 and Pregnant and Viewers Perceptions of Teen Pregnancy
Although teen pregnancy rates in the United States have been on the decline since 1991 (Ventura, Hamilton, Mathews, 2014), more than 750,000 teens find out that they are pregnant each year (Guttmacher Institute, 2010). Recently, research has focused on whether the media can be used as a means of reducing teen pregnancy (Moyer-Guse, 2008), and significant attention has been focused on MTV’s reality shows Teen Mom / 16 and Pregnant, which have become cultural phenomena among adolescents and adults. Studies assessing the impact of viewing Teen Mom/ 16 and Pregnant on viewer’s attitudes and behaviors surrounding teen pregnancy have found mixed results (Aubrey et al., 2014; Martins & Jensen, 2014; Suellentrop, Brown, & Oritz, 2010; Wright et al., 2013), with some research suggesting the shows promote teen pregnancy by making it seem as though teen moms have an enviable quality of life (Martin & Jensen, 2014) while other studies indicate the shows discourage teen pregnancy (Aubrey et al., 2014). The current study expands on this initial research by utilizing a mixed methodological design to assess college women’s (N=372) perceptions of whether or not Teen Mom / 16 and Pregnant encourages teen pregnancy. Preliminary results indicated that of participants who watched some or all episodes of Teen Mom / 16 and Pregnant, viewers who perceived the show as offensive were also more likely to believe the show encouraged teen pregnancy (r = .178, p = .016). Participants were asked a subsequent open-ended question to explain why the show does or does not accurately portray relationships. Content analyses are currently underway to examine these responses. Implications of findings for future research, as well as media literacy and teen pregnancy prevention efforts will be discussed. If our study is not accepted as a paper, we ask that it be considered for a poster.


Sunday March 8, 2015 8:30am - 9:45am
Gold Rush A

8:30am

“I am not a man”: Disaggregating transgender women from MSM in PrEP research is imperative to improve HIV prevention efforts
Transgender women (‘transwomen’) are at disproportionate risk of acquiring HIV. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) represents the first efficacious biomedical HIV prevention approach. However, a subanalysis of the iPrEx data revealed zero efficacy among transwomen in the trial. Furthermore, transwomen are excluded or underrepresented in PrEP research, often aggregated with MSM without consideration for their unique positions within sociocultural contexts. This study examined culturally specific facilitators and barriers to PrEP acceptability among urban transwomen at risk for HIV. We conducted 3 focus groups and 9 individual interviews with transwomen (total N=30) in San Francisco focused on their knowledge of, interest in, and concerns about PrEP for HIV prevention. Transcripts were analyzed for common themes; a team of researchers applied analytic codes using Atlas.ti. Due to negative experiences with healthcare providers and healthcare settings, ability to obtain PrEP from a trans-friendly provider (particularly the same trusted provider that prescribes their hormones) was cited as essential to PrEP uptake and adherence. While knowledge of PrEP was low, interest was relatively high. Participants noted that use of PrEP could address several aspects of transwomen’s lives that increase their HIV risk, including sex work and low power to negotiate safer sex. Barriers to PrEP use included concerns about interactions with hormones, managing multiple medications, potential side effects, and avoidance of medical settings. Findings underscore an urgent need to disaggregate transwomen from MSM in HIV prevention strategies, emphasizing several trans-specific facilitators and concerns to inform dissemination of PrEP among urban transwomen. Ongoing failure to consider positions of transwomen’s bodies and sexualities within fraught sociocultural contexts, including medical settings, has limited the effectiveness of HIV prevention efforts to mitigate disparate risk among this highly vulnerable and unique group.


Sunday March 8, 2015 8:30am - 9:45am
Washington

10:05am

A Retrospective Study:The Voices of Commercially Sexually Exploited Survivors: A Narrative Approach
The United Nations Children’s Fund (2003) reported over 1.2 million children are forced into sexual slavery every year worldwide. The sexual slavery of children is a global issue, and although often perceived to be a problem in developing nations, it also occurs to a large degree in the United States (Logan, Walker & Hunt, 2009). Between 100,000 and 300,000 youth are prostituted every year in the U.S. (Estes & Weiner, 2001). In the United States domestic minor sex trafficking victims are under the age of 18 and have been recruited, harbored, transported, provided or obtained to perform sex acts (Washington State Office of the Attorney General, n.d.). Kotrla’s (2010) review of the literature on sex trafficking in the U.S. found that the populations most often trafficked domestically are American-born citizens and legal residents, not foreign nationals brought in to U.S., as is often believed to be the case (Hughes, 2007). However, attention, research, and funds are disproportionately allocated to foreign national trafficking victims, followed by domestic adults and finally domestic children (Finklea, Fernandes-Alcantara, & Siskin, 2011; Fong & Berger Cardoso, 2010; Hughes, 2007). The aim of this retrospective study was to collect the personal narratives of U.S. citizen and legal resident adults who were sexually exploited as minors within the U.S. in order to garner insight into their experience. Fifteen survivors were interviewed and a narrative framework that draws on feminist approaches was utilized to explore their experiences. After transcription and analysis, six major themes emerged from the participants’ interviews: predisposing factors, precipitating factors, experiences while being trafficked, present circumstances, mental health related issues and coping mechanisms, and views on sex trafficking. I will provide an overview of their responses with examples from their personal narratives. The mental health and policy implications will also be presented.


Sunday March 8, 2015 10:05am - 11:20am
Washington

10:05am

Adolescent Girls’ Perspectives of Feminism and Activism
Despite evidence indicating that many young women are engaged in activism behaviors (Taft, 2008), many adults minimize the potential role that youth can play in creating social change. Understanding adolescent girls’ perceptions about activism and their rationale for identifying (or not identifying) as an activism can provide insights into youth activism. Further, cultural debates about feminism, including campaigns in which individuals proclaim their anti-feminism stance, lead many to assume that most young women reject feminism. This assumption may neglect the perspectives of adolescent girls who do see a place for themselves within the feminist movement and can oversimplify potentially nuanced conversations about feminism, activism and effective ways to engage in social change work. Method Interviews were conducted as part of a larger mixed-methods study examining the impact of an activism program with high school students attending an all girls' school. The program consisted of seven workshops examining social issues and teaching activism skills. Students participated in individual interviews on the last day of the program during which they discussed their perspectives regarding activism and feminism, whether they identified as an activist and/or feminist, as well as what they learned from the program. Results Interview are being analyzed by a team of researchers using grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006). Preliminary results suggests that the themes will consist of 1) changes in perceptions due to the program, 2) definitions of activism, 3) definitions of feminism, 4) intentions to engage in activism, 5) feminist identity, 6) activist identity, and 7) barriers to activism. Frequencies of the individual categories and quotes from the girls will be reported. Discussion We will discuss implications of our findings, including examining the role that young women can play in feminist activism and ways that they choose to engage in social change work.


Sunday March 8, 2015 10:05am - 11:20am
Crystal

10:05am

Exploring Positive Sexual Self-Concepts of Women Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse
Research on women survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has examined sexual functioning among survivors, and resilience factors that contribute to well-being. This narrative research study examined the experiences of nine women survivors of CSA who report having a positive sexual self-concept. Implications for practice, training, and research are discussed.


Sunday March 8, 2015 10:05am - 11:20am
Washington

10:05am

Feminism as a Tool to Connect Latinas to Graduate Psychology Training
Latina doctoral students’ struggles encompass a combination of individual, familial, and institutional factors that can affect success. In addition to pre-existing barriers (e.g. low SES), Latinas face institutional barriers including stigmatization, discrimination based on race, gender, and class, perceived hostility, and lack of financial support. Departmental barriers for Latinas include lack of mentors, tokenization by peers, and marginalization and low expectations from professors (Gonzalez, 2006). The impact includes Latinas experiencing cultural isolation as a result of leaving their families and tokenization on campus, and that, as ethnic minority women, many feel the need to work twice as hard as their peers to prove their legitimacy. In this paper we offer recommendations for how graduate psychology programs can use feminism as a tool to recruit and retain Latina students. Feminism is especially well suited to address this need because it considers how gender, race and ethnicity and social class impact women’s academic and professional endeavors. Recommendations offered in this paper include paving a financial path for success, meeting linguistic needs in clinical training settings, increasing diversity representation amongst students and faculty, and expanding the knowledge production in the field of psychology to include the voices of Latinas.


Sunday March 8, 2015 10:05am - 11:20am
Crystal

10:05am

Group Therapy for Male Survivors: Beneficial Aspects
Male sexual abuse (MSA) is an understudied phenomenon impacting more than 4 to 5 million men in the United States. As is the case for female survivors, male survivors would benefit from being considered in the planning and tailoring of sexual abuse treatments. Making all voices heard, including those of male survivors, may impact traditional gender stereotypes that feminism seeks to deconstruct. Although there are difficulties that make the inclusion of male survivors a challenge, like the pervasive male perpetrator/female victim paradigm, male survivors would benefit from being recognized as individuals who have suffered devastating trauma and should be made to feel welcome in receiving mental health services. Perhaps this recognition would assist to balance out the challenges associated with under-reporting and underutilization of services, whilst moving the field beyond inclusion, so as to embrace the marginalized within the survivor community. One way to promote this shift is to include the perspective of male survivors in research aimed to identify beneficial aspects of sexual abuse treatment. Group therapy is an effective treatment modality for male survivors, yet there are limited studies utilizing male survivor perceptions of the treatment experience. The current study used a qualitative approach to explore six male survivors and their perceptions of the beneficial aspects of sexual abuse group therapy. Preliminary findings suggest that the following aspects of group therapy may be notably beneficial to the participants interviewed: facilitator’s validation and expression of empathy, group membership with other men who have experienced sexual abuse, facilitator’s survivor status, hearing fellow group member’s abuse stories, discussing shame, blame, and guilt, and the facilitator’s willingness to self-disclose. These results may contribute to a foundational knowledge base necessary for future research and may promote further inclusion of male survivors into the survivor community.


Sunday March 8, 2015 10:05am - 11:20am
Washington

10:05am

High School Youth's Reactions to Participating in Mixed Methodological Dating and Sexual Violence Research
Research shows that dating and sexual violence are prevalent problems that affects the lives of many adolescents, (e.g. Johnson et al., 2006 Haglund, Belknap, Garcia, 2012; Fredland, Ricardo, Campbell, Sharps, Kup, Yonas, 2008; Prospero, 2006; Reeves & Orpinas, 2012). Thus there is a need for research regarding dating and sexual violence prevention and intervention for adolescent populations. However, little research exists on adolescent reactions to participating in dating and sexual violence research. The research that does exist primarily examines survey reactions rather than reactions to participating in focus groups which are becoming more commonly used and could result in different reactions. The present study used a sample of high school youth (N=218) and a mixed methodology to examine high school students reactions to participating in focus groups and surveys that asked about dating and sexual violence style intimate partner violence research. Data analyses yielded that 1.5% (n= 3) of youth regretted participating in the study and 6% (n= 12) of students were upset by the study questions. Youth reported that reasons they upset were primarily related to personal experiences with dating and sexual violence and being disturbed by peers’ responses during the focus group. Despite a few youth being upset 49% (n=99) of youth reported feeling like they personally benefited from participating in the study for reasons such as learning ways to help friends in situations of dating and sexual violence and gaining an increased sense of community. Results offer implications for conducting future mixed methodological research on dating and sexual violence with youth.


Sunday March 8, 2015 10:05am - 11:20am
Gold Rush A

10:05am

Legislators’ Attitudes, Knowledge, and Progressive Policy Endorsement Related to Domestic and Sexual Violence: A Mixed Methodological Study
Objective: There is a lack of research examining legislators’ attitudes towards and knowledge about domestic violence (DV) and sexual violence (SV) as well as their intended support of progressive DV and SV policies. The researchers used a mixed methodological design to examine this gap in the literature. Method: The sample included 76 legislators from New Hampshire who completed a survey with both close-ended and open-ended questions. Results: Legislators generally disagreed with DV and SV myths and expressed intended support for the majority of progressive DV and SV policies; however, the most legislators provided inaccurate local estimates of the prevalence of DV and SV. Associations among myths, knowledge, support for progressive policies, and demographic variables were mostly non-significant with the following exceptions: higher educational attainment was related to less DV myths; democrats endorsed more progressive policies and less DV myths than republicans; and accurate estimate of DV prevalence for women related to progressive policy endorsement. Content analysis of qualitative data identified the primary reasons for non-support of progressive DV and SV policies to be the belief the policies would do nothing to improve the issue and the belief that individual freedom should trump government mandates. Conclusion: Results suggest that educational and structural efforts are needed to increase local knowledge about DV and SV among legislators and address other barriers to supporting progressive DV and SV policies; research should rigorously evaluate the impact of such efforts.


Sunday March 8, 2015 10:05am - 11:20am
Gold Rush A

10:05am

Posttrauma Appraisals and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Women Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a substantial public health problem in the United States: over 1.3 million women are physically assaulted by a romantic partner each year, and between 25 and 33% of women will be physically assaulted by a romantic partner in her lifetime. Women exposed to IPV are at risk for a wide range of physical and mental health consequences, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent research has highlighted the importance of a flexible and victim-centered approach to IPV victim advocacy and support, rather than a “one size fits all” response that may not meet the specific needs of each woman. Studies have utilized person-oriented methods such as latent profile analysis (LPA) to identify subgroups of individuals who share similar patterns of PTSD symptom endorsement, but further study is needed among women exposed to IPV. By identifying latent subgroups, LPA may provide an empirical basis for practitioners to design and implement PTSD intervention efforts that are tailored to specific symptom profiles. In a sample of women exposed to police-reported IPV (N = 229), we identified five latent classes of PTSD symptom profiles stratified by symptom severity. Multinomial logistic regression models examined associations between latent classes and contextual variables (socioeconomic status, financial dependence, social support, prior trauma exposure, and arrest incident severity) and trauma appraisals (alienation, fear, and self-blame). The strongest independent predictors of PTSD latent profile membership were IPV-related trauma appraisals. Alienation and fear appraisals were consistently associated with increased likelihood of belonging to more symptomatic classes. We found a quadratic relationship between increased self-blame appraisals and PTSD symptom profile. Arrest incident severity was also independently associated with PTSD latent profile membership. These findings suggest the need for careful consideration of differences among IPV-exposed women within the larger context of PTSD research and clinical intervention.

Speakers

Sunday March 8, 2015 10:05am - 11:20am
Gold Rush A

10:05am

Why be a Feminist? Perspectives on Feminism and Activism by Female College Students
In the U.S., negative stereotypes of feminism (e.g., as outdated) have been associated with a reluctance among many young women to identify as feminists (McRobbie, 2009). However, feminist identification has drawn increasing attention recently—particularly in the digital realm and among young audiences—with regular social media campaigns targeting feminist self-labeling and consistent online media coverage of newly self-identified celebrity feminists. This rising wave of interest in feminism—and the feminist label, specifically—raises questions about whether the tide is turning among young women today on feminism. The present study used open-ended questionnaire methods to explore identification with, and perspectives on feminism by 267 female college students (Mage = 18.9 years; 66% first-year undergraduate; 80.5% White/European American; 91.5% heterosexual). Thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006) was used to explore how these young women, (1) define feminism in their own words, (2) explain identifying as a feminist (or not), and, (3) reconcile points of agreement and disagreement with feminist perspectives. Findings encompass a wide range of views on feminism—from strong disavowal to unequivocal endorsement. On the one hand, stereotypes of feminism as both extreme and excluding men were discouraging of feminist self-labeling. On the other, for a significant portion of women in this study, simply being a woman was reason enough to label oneself a feminist. However, women often expressed a mixture of positive and negative evaluations of feminism. For example, women’s definitions commonly employed a rights-based discourse, which a majority of women supported. At the same time, for many, feminism was seen as synonymous with activism, which was frequently viewed as extreme. Interestingly, many women who supported collective action on feminist issues hesitated to label themselves feminist if not currently engaged in activism. Findings highlight the importance of the visibility of self-identified feminist role models for young people today.


Sunday March 8, 2015 10:05am - 11:20am
Crystal