Loading…
*Note* This scheduling program was not designed by folks who do a lot with APA Style and unfortunately it defaults to listing authors in alphabetical order. We cannot fix this for this online schedule, but the author orders are posted in the order submitted in the printed program available via pdf here.

Sign up or log in to bookmark your favorites and sync them to your phone or calendar.

Poster [clear filter]
Friday, March 6
 

10:45am

Academic Delay of Gratification in Female College Students: Implications for Academic Functioning
Delay of gratification, the ability to forego an immediate reward in favor of a more rewarding but delayed outcome, has been associated with cognitive, emotional, and behavioral competencies later in life. The ability to delay gratification in an academic setting is a key component of self-regulated learning and has implications for future academic success and achievement (e.g., higher final course grade). It has been suggested that women tend to use more self-regulatory strategies than men, including the ability to delay gratification in an academic setting. However, research on academic delay of gratification (ADOG) is limited, particularly as it relates to other variables of academic functioning (i.e., grade point average [GPA] and academic satisfaction). The present study investigated the association between ADOG and academic functioning in female college students. We hypothesized that there would be significant positive relationships between ADOG, academic satisfaction, and GPA. Furthermore, we hypothesized that ADOG would predict academic satisfaction in female college students after controlling for the effect of covariates. The sample consisted of 99 female college students enrolled at a liberal arts college in Massachusetts. The mean age of participants was 19.0 years (SD=1.4). Bivariate correlations demonstrated a strong positive association between ADOG and academic satisfaction, and between academic satisfaction and GPA. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the contribution of ADOG to female students’ level of satisfaction with their academic career after accounting for covariates. The model was significant, with ADOG positively predicting academic satisfaction (R2= .09, p < .05) after accounting for the effects of academic major and year in college. Our findings suggest that ADOG may play a key role in women’s academic functioning, which may have implications for women’s academic achievement. Future research would benefit from examining ADOG specifically in gender traditional versus nontraditional fields of study.

Speakers
EB

Elizabeth Baxter

Emmanuel College
HM

Helen MacDonald

Emmanuel College


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

An Intervention to Reduce Fat Stigma in American College Students
Fat stigma is a problem in American culture that takes a heavy psychological toll on people of all sizes. This poster presents an attempt to reduce fat stigma among American college students using an intervention method that combined education about fat myths and exposure to/re-humanization of fat individuals.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

And Girls too: The presence, issues and reintegration of female child soldiers
The United Nations estimates that over 300,000 children (approximately 40% girls) under the age of 18 are involved in political and social conflicts worldwide (Werner, 2012). This figure includes child soldiers who are defined as boys and girls that are kidnapped and/or manipulated into serving roles as combatants, messengers, porters, cooks, or sexual slaves (Shaw, 2003). Although girls maintain various roles in these contentions, representations of child soldiering have almost exclusively been male. Hence the integrated ideological consideration for factors that affect former child soldiers who are girls is limited. Girl child soldiers are targeted in tactics of war, they are more vulnerable to sexual violence and disease than their male counterparts, and they are often forced to carry and bear offspring of their aggressors. Consequently, demobilized female survivors are more likely to suffer from PTSD, depression, and other anxiety disorders (Kohrt et al., 2008). Additionally, they are less likely to be accepted back into their communities due to their disadvantaged status as female, ex-child solider, potential unwed mother and former concubine. These fundamental socio-political and cultural gender norms thus exacerbate the victimization of demobilized girls. This poster presentation will highlight the most marginalized of invisible soldiers. Presenters will review gender differences regarding psychological ramifications and reintegration experiences of child soldiers. Furthermore, the poster presentation will assess the intergenerational effects of girl child soldiering and discuss the implications for counseling psychology. Restoring justice to this population of female survivors begins with acknowledging their existence. Urgency in recognizing the vulnerability and resilience of female child soldiers is a foundational step towards identifying their culturally relevant and policy-related needs. This presentation will fundamentally address the question, "What about girls?" thereby challenging the biased tendency for girls and women to be immensely affected by injustices and the last consulted for restoration.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Barriers to Success: An Examination of the Relationship Between Stereotype Threat and the Impostor Phenomenon Based on Women’s Solo Status
Based on previous research that identifies stereotype threat and the impostor phenomenon as being primarily experienced by women, I proposed that similar underlying processes (i.e., being a solo woman in a male-dominated work environment) may account for a positive relationship between stereotype threat and impostorism in professional women. I hypothesized that stereotype threat would act as a predictor for the impostor phenomenon within a sample of professional, solo women (Hypothesis 1) and that women who perceive themselves as being highly distinctive in their workplace would have higher impostorism scores than women who do not perceive themselves as being highly distinctive (Hypothesis 2). Data were collected via an online questionnaire from 76 women. The majority of participants identified their race/ethnicity as White (N=44), were 45 years of age or older (N=41), had some college education (N=56), and have experienced being a solo at work (N=52). Participants were randomly assigned to read a vignette about women who either coped well (control condition) or did not cope well (prime condition) with having a solo status in a male-dominated workplace. Participants then completed self-report items that measured levels of impostorism, job satisfaction, gender distinctiveness, and visibility (i.e., solo status). Results provided partial support for Hypothesis 1. Women with relatively low perceptions of their past solo status were likely to report higher levels of impostorism upon being primed with stereotype (compared to women in the control condition). However, women with relatively high perceptions of their past solo status were more likely to earn higher impostorism scores when they were in the control condition than in the prime condition. The results point to the potential need for experts to consider the influence degree of perceived solo status has on women’s interpretation of messages and situations that are potentially threatening to their social identity.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Child Sexual Victimization as a Predictor of Sexual Assertiveness and Relationship Quality among At-Risk Females
A growing body of literature suggests that child sexual victimization can be detrimental to women’s sexual health and well-being(Lemieux et al., 2008). Previous research has shown that women with a history of child sexual victimization are at higher risk for engaging in risky sexual behavior and may suffer from mental and emotional disorders (Hillis et al., 2001, Gookind et al., 2006). Women who have been sexually victimized may exhibit low sexual assertiveness or experience difficulties in intimate relationships (Livingston et al., 2007). Although studies have examined the impact child sexual victimization has on sexual assertiveness and quality of intimate relationships, few studies have examined the underlying mechanisms of this relationship. Furthermore, limited literature has investigated these factors among adolescent females involved in social service settings, who are an underserved population (Brady & Caraway, 2002). The purpose of this study is to investigate whether child sexual victimization predicts sexual assertiveness and relationship quality. Additionally, the current study seeks to examine whether PTSD and Depression mediate this relationship. Participants will consist of 130 adolescent females between 13-18 years old, from three different types of social service settings (community mental health agencies, juvenile justice programs, and residential agencies). The racial/ethnic composition is 33.6% White, 25.8% Black, 25.8% Hispanic, and 15% other. The predictor and outcome variables will be assessed using the Child Sexual Victimization Scale, Sexual Assertiveness Scale, (Morokoff et al., 1997), and Relationship Quality measure (Borneskog et al., 2012). Mental health symptoms will be measured using the PTSD Screen (Lang & Stein, 2005) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (Melchoir et al., 1993). Hierarchical regression analyses will be conducted in order to determine whether child sexual victimization predicts sexual assertiveness and relationship quality and if mental health symptoms mediate this relationship. Results and implications will be further discussed.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Gender Stereotyped Traits of Female and Male Characters in Children’s Popular Culture: A Content Analysis Study
Although societal roles for women and men have changed since the second wave of the women’s movement, gender stereotypes are still commonly portrayed in the media. A likely reason for the persistence of stereotypes is that the basic structure of society remains patriarchal, and heterosexual interdependence motivates people to fulfill stereotyped roles associated with heterosexual success. Further, it has been argued that there is a backlash against women’s accomplishments in the workplace, resulting in increased emphasis on gender stereotypes that support the power imbalance between males and females. It has been argued that the status of girls and women has been lowered further through increased portrayals of females as sexual objects. In the present study we conducted a content analysis of products in popular culture available to children that depict male and female characters including Halloween costumes, dolls and action figures, and Valentine cards (N = 490). We found that female characters were more likely to be depicted with submissiveness characteristics (e.g., decorative clothing), and male characters with dominance characteristics (e.g., functional clothing). An unrealistic body ideal was fairly commonly represented for both female and male characters in that slightly more than half of female characters were noticeably thin, and almost one half of male characters were noticeably muscular. In females the ideal body type was associated with submissiveness characteristics and sexualization, supporting the idea that the sexual objectification of females is associated with low power. In contrast, for male characters a muscular body was associated with some dominance characteristics, but no submissiveness characteristics supporting the idea that the idealized male body is not associated with low power. Thus, the children’s products examined in this study were found to be gender stereotyped to a fairly high degree, with characteristics that represent a power imbalance between the genders.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Life after Basketball: An Exploratory Study of the Impact of College Sport Participation after Graduation
The positive effects of sport participation are widely accepted. As athletes extend beyond recreational sport and into competitive sport, the effects of sport participation are less known. As athletes advance, the competitiveness and pressure escalate. The collegiate level is particularly conducive to increased athletic stress (Lu, Hsu, Chan, Cheen, & Kao, 2012). Accordingly, college sport participation is known to have juxtaposing effects on athletes (Chen, Snyder, & Magner, 2010). What is known about the direct and post-graduation effects of college varsity sport participation on the student athletes is based on data from male student athletes. There is not comparable literature on college women athletes. In this exploratory study, varsity basketball alumni of Western Washington University’s women’s basketball team provide their perceptions of their college sport experience and its impact on their lives. The study included 25 participants who responded to an emailed request to participate in the online study. The researcher used D’Zurilla, Nezu and Maydeu-Olivares’ Social Problem-Solving Inventory – Revised: Short Form to measure the participants’ social problem-solving tendencies in relation to their college sport experience (2002). Data analysis indicated that number of years as a starting member of the team is positively correlated with both self-confidence and individual skill acquisition. Additionally, participants who primarily played the shooting guard position are distinct from the respondents identifying with other positions. Qualitative data regarding the participants’ open-ended descriptions of their college sport experience, e.g., pros and cons, life skills acquired, will be discussed as well.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Race-Related stress and its relationship to obesity risk behaviors for emerging adult Black American women
More than half (52.9%) of Black American women (BAW) over age twenty are labeled obese, compared with 37% of Black men and only 33% of White women. BAW’s sociocultural experience has been shown to be a critical social determinant of health. A facet of this sociocultural experience is racial microaggressions, which are small actions that communicate hostilities or disregard toward a person as a result of their ethnic identity. While microaggressions are often not overtly racist, they frequently result in higher sensitivity and increased internalizing responses in BAW. This internalization produces race-related stress. However, there has been limited research that directly examines how the internalization of that experience is linked to both maladaptive and health-promoting behaviors among BAW. This study examined how race-related stress is related to maladaptive health behaviors in emerging adult BAW. Specifically, is race-related stress a significant an independent predictor of exercise behavior and emotionally-driven eating habits? One hundred and seventy-nine BAW who identified as current college students or recent graduates (ages 18–25, m = 21) completed an anonymous online survey. A 3-step hierarchical linear regression with an R² = 0.31 found that emotional eating is a function of race-related stress (B=.241, p =.015 ) in addition to body anxiety (B=.27, p =.001 ) and depressive symptomology (B=.27, p =.004 ). Further, race-related stress is the only psychosocial variable related to health-promoting behaviors. Higher reported levels of race-related stress are associated with greater frequencies in swimming (r=.16), yoga (r=.19), and exercise machine use (r=.223). The ongoing experience of racial inequities and the resulting oppressive structures BAW must navigate through can be internalized and related to psychosocial well-being and physical health. The implications of these findings will be discussed with regard to targeted interventions to reduce health disparities.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Real World of High Risk Teen Girls: The Role of Family Support in DBT
The goal of this project is to help a group of licensed mental health counselors in our community evaluate their implementation of DBT with two high risk groups: adolescents and young adults. Our two primary research questions are 1) Is open group DBT an effective vehicle for symptom reduction and relationship improvement in high risk adolescents and young adults? and 2) Do participants improve existing relationships and/or develop new positive relationships? Since social support is important in preventing relapse, the additional focus on relationships seems critical to a comprehensive evaluation of open group DBT on adolescent functioning. Additionally, this study evaluates client gains in real world counseling. Participants complete questionnaires at the start of counseling, the last counseling session, and again three months later. Data collection is ongoing, with pre-test data available for xx participants and post-treatment data for xx participants. Descriptive analyses indicate that at post-test, participants reported increased family support, decreased negative family interactions, and overall more total social support. No changes were observed in terms of friend social support or negative interactions. Notably, suicidality seems to decrease after treatment. Treatment was especially effective in reducing suicidal intentions in the immediate future and decreasing suicidal attitudes and risk. These preliminary analyses suggest that open group DBT may be an effective vehicle for reducing suicidality and improving social support, particularly within the family, in teens and young adults. Furthermore, the open group format encourages more self-determination in choosing to attend the group session or not, which may encourage a greater sense of self agency in teen girls.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

The Super Girl Dichotomy: Strength and Sadness in Black Girlhood
An overwhelming number of negative images and stereotypical perceptions of Black girls and women plague today’s society, illustrating historical patterns of existing racism and sexism imbedded in the general culture (Evans-Winter & Esposito, 2010; hooks, 1981). In this paper we acknowledge how Black girls are often subsumed into the category of ‘Black’, with an emphasis on the experiences of Black boys and are therefore left with no specific or autonomous recognition. As such, their particular conditions are silenced and ignored. While we aim to compliment the on-going research and movements to improve educational outcomes for boys and men of color, we highlight historical and current social conditions that negatively impact school-age Black girls, such as harsh disciplinary practices and experiences of sexual objectification and violence. As Black female scholars (faculty and students) in education and psychology, we feel both personal passion and responsibility to acknowledge that Black girls suffer both similarly and differently than Black boys and therefore must be given specific voice. We also discuss how White privilege and patriarchal male privilege are part of this obfuscation of the needs of Black girls. Utilizing an intersectional approach, critical race feminism, and Black feminist literature, we shed light on gender and race simultaneously, while seeking to dismantle faulty perceptions that Black girls and women carry inherent strength without substantial sadness. “The Super Girl Dichotomy,” provides a metaphor that illustrates dual social features resulting in experiences of both strength and sadness in identity development, self-understanding, and educational endeavors. Presenting a new conceptual framework relevant to sadness in Black girlhood, we address how dangerous myths linking a non-feminine form of strength with an emasculated illustration of high self-esteem (Buckley & Carter, 2005; Fordham, 1993; 1996) can have a damaging impact on educational experiences, identity development, and sense of self in Black girlhood. In responding directly to a recent call to action for educational equity (Austin, 1995; Evans-Winter & Esposito, 2010; Sharp, 2014), we provide links between historical and current social conditions and offer specific recommendations for future girl empowerment programming and evidence-based intervention development that can aide in liberating Black girls.


Friday March 6, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

1:05pm

A pilot intervention to promote psychosocial health and empowerment among female commercial sex workers in Kathmandu, Nepal: Program feasibility and impact on peer educators
Female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) in Kathmandu are vulnerable to an array of occupational risks, including various reproductive and sexual health hazards, unsafe and unstable working conditions, and numerous forms of violence, harassment and exploitation (National Centre for AIDS and STD Control, 2011). These challenging circumstances compromise the psychosocial health and empowerment of FCSWs, which in turn affects their ability to protect themselves from future harms. Peer education programs have been established as an effective method for reaching FCSWs (Medley, Kennedy, O’Reilly, & Sweat, 2009), but have not yet been tested as a means to promote psychosocial health. The present study piloted a brief peer education intervention in collaboration with a non-governmental organization (NGO) to empower and promote the psychosocial health of FCSWs in Kathmandu, Nepal. Ten women were trained as peer educators and, through formal and informal teaching opportunities, reached over 140 FCSWs with psychosocial health messages. Pre, post, and follow-up surveys were administered to the peer educators to assess the potential impact of the program on empowerment, psychosocial health, and peer education efficacy. Additionally, exit interviews were conducted with the peer educators to collect in-depth feedback regarding their training and teaching experiences. Two NGO field staff observed and commented on peer educator teaching competency and were also interviewed about the program. According to preliminary survey results, the peer educators reported an increase in three forms of empowerment—within, with others, and over resources, decreased shame and burnout, and increased happiness and efficacy to teach, communicate, lead and help others. NGO staff observed increased teaching competency across time. Exit interviews suggested additional program impacts, including increased self-realization and self-care and positive dispositional and relationship changes. Overall, findings suggest that peer education methods are a feasible and promising means to enhance the psychosocial health and empowerment of FCSWs.


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Experiences of Microaggressions in the Lives of Student Women of Color
This paper presents findings from a qualitative study focused on microaggressions sustained by underrepresented women on a college campus. Microagressions are described as “brief, everyday exchanges that send denigrating messages to certain individuals because of their group membership” (Sue et al., 2007). Previous research on microaggressions has been conducted using primarily samples of student of color in larger university settings. In the current study, researchers aimed to investigate the nature and extent of microaggressions experiences shared by women of color in a small liberal arts college environment, an exclusive population that researchers have not yet targeted. Based on previous literature, the investigators expected to find that the majority of participants would share detailed accounts regarding their experiences of certain types of microaggressions. The researchers targeted respondents who self-identified as women of color and specifically invited them to participate in discussion groups. Using a semi-structured guide, facilitators (also self-identified women of color) conducted three focus groups composed of a total of ten women. Data were transcribed and loaded into an extensive data coding and analysis online application. Using a coding guide composed of reliable identifiers based upon the related literature; the investigators tagged themes and, through a reiterative process, identified consistent, emerging thematic patterns found in the narratives. Researchers found most of the expected microaggressive themes. Moore importantly, these collective narratives suggested an ethos of [defending one another] and other significant themes that may be salient to women of color on a residential campus inhabited by a predominantly White student body. In future studies, the researchers will use individual interviews to further investigate the use of support systems and coping mechanisms. These investigations will help to extend the perspective on these experiences and pave the way for future examinations, thereby contributing to the newly emerging existing research within the field


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Female Psychologists and the Restorative Justice Process
Restorative justice is an integral part of restoring individuals, families and communities. A crucial part of the restoring process is the involvement of mental health professionals. The current climate in the criminal justice environment lends itself to using more punitive measures before considering rehabilitating offenders. With the increasing number of offenders in jails and correctional facilities, many professionals in the criminal justice system are realizing that punitive measures are no longer effective to correct behavior. As a result, researchers and clinicians alike are searching for solutions to decrease the numbers of offenders in the system and decrease the rate of recidivism upon release. Providing holistic treatment from competent mental health professionals can be an integral part of the restorative justice process. Within this context, female psychologists can provide treatment to families and offenders while also being an advocate for the restorative justice system. Female psychologists and other female mental health professionals have a specific voice and offer many valuable attributes to the treatment process. Specifically, treatment of the offenders will be enhanced through the use of positive psychology through a feminist lens. As women are often the victims in restorative justice situations, intentionally having women as a part of the restorative process can bring healing not only to the offender, but also to the victim and the community as a whole. This paper will focus on the various types of treatments that can be used to treat offenders while still being supportive of the victim and their family, as well as providing healing to the community at large. Several modalities including solution-focused brief therapy, substance abuse treatment and drug court have been posited to be effective in treating offenders and will be examined further.


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Gathering the Campus Community: A Collective Response to Violence
Transformative justice says individual justice and collective liberation are equally important, mutually supportive, and inexorably intertwined. The success of one is impossible without the success of the other. Movements that use transformative justice present us with a model to heal the trauma of violence (whatever that might be), reduce the level of assaults we experience and mobilize masses of people. A month after Michael Brown’s death in Ferguson, a small group of community members gathered at the University of Utah. The group was disappointed at the minimal response to the tragedy observed in the community. Just days before, a young man Darrien Hunt was shot six times in the back by police in Saratoga Springs, Utah. Again, our campus community fell silent. As the group spoke, we identified a need for collaboration in our school responses to violence—a shift to a culture of collective accountability. To this end, we propose creative responses to social injustice that do not rely on current state systems. We believe this is a liberating process that creates a space for healing and transformation. Through our discussions, we identified a need for a phone alert system that prompts action when violence occurs in our communities. It is our hope that by creating an avenue for people to connect, our campus will have more effective responses to oppression, discrimination, and violence. This poster details our process of planning this community action project. It highlights the feminist principles we use, such as attending to the process, resisting hierarchy, and acknowledging privilege’s role in violence. All involved in the project are agents of change to end violence. Starting with the communities in which we are part of, we hope to be part of a larger transformation of state systems, refocusing the importance of community-centered responses to violence.


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Group Art Therapy with Juvenile Offenders
The purpose of this research is to explore the integration of restorative justice approaches with adolescents in the juvenile justice system using a 12-week Art Therapy program. Restorative processes bring those harmed by crime or conflict, and those responsible for the harm, into communication, enabling everyone affected by a particular incident to play a part in repairing the harm and finding a positive way forward. (Restorative Justice Council, 2013). Restorative justice is essential in the process of understanding the impact and consequences of behavior. Recent studies (Rodriguez, 2007; Schwalbe & Gearing & MacKenzie & Brewer & Ibrahim, 2012) indicate that restorative justice approaches are effective in reducing recidivism rates and victim empathy. The goal is to integrate Art Therapy services as an integral part of treating adolescents that are experiencing symptoms of anxiety and depression. The Art Therapy program intends to decrease symptoms of anxiety and depression so that the adolescent can be more engaged in the community which overall aims to prevent recidivism. Art Therapy can help to visualize concepts that may contribute to the participants’ understanding of the past behavioral experiences and deepen the meaning they derive from their crimes. It is the intention of this research to bridge the gap between using art therapy and restorative justice in the treatment of juvenile offenders and provide valuable information to the Art Therapy field. Research continues to show the effectiveness of group art therapy and has been correlated with reduced rates of depression and other symptomology, as well behavioral modification (Erickson & Young, 2010; Gussak, 2006; Gussak, 2009a; Gussak, 2009b; Meekums & Daniel, 2011; Smeijsters & eleven, 2006). Though researchers have spent time investigating the effectiveness of art therapy with criminal populations, a deficit in research was found that incorporated art therapy, restorative justice, and early interventions with juveniles offenders.


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Racializing Embodiment of Female Immigrants
By the year 2012, approximately more than forty million individuals residing in the United States were immigrants and 11.4 million of them were undocumented (DHA, 2012; MPI, n.d.). According to existing scholarly literature, the general public holds varying degrees of positions and attitudes towards immigrants depending on their legal status (Murray & Marx, 2013; Yakushko, 2009), ethnic origin (Hitlan, Carrillo, & Aikman, 2007), and language abilities (Newman, Hartman, & Taber, 2012). Immigrant women have been stereotyped as uneducated, passive (Hallak & Quina, 2004), exotic, subservient, and model minority, among many other sterotypes (Tummala-Nara, 2013; Yakushko & Espin, 2010). The proposed paper will focus on female immigrants and will present the concept of racializing embodiment (Hook, 2008) as an alternative paradigm in the discussion on existing biases towards female immigrant population in the United States. The paper will provide a brief overview of the theories regarding various forms of gender related bias, including prejudice and stereotypes (Fiske, 2010) as well as extend these theories toward understanding experiences of female immigrants through the post-colonial concept of racializing embodiment (Hook, 2008). The term racializing will be used to refer to linguistically constructed interactive and communicative processes situated within dominant social, political, and cultural practices of the host society (LeCouteur & Augoustinos, 2001). The unconscious processes contributing to the process of racialization of female immigrants will be explored through the language of psychoanalysis and will illustrate how the unconscious placement of objectionable contents and prohibited desires creates a gendered racialized other (Hook, 2008; Hook, 2006; Hook & Truscott, 2013) and differences in gender embodiment within a host culture patriarchy (Hook, 2008). By deploying a psychoanalytic theory (Dalal, 2006; Hook, 2008), the role and impact of signifiers and embodiment of color in the process of racializing of female immigrants will be discussed. Moreover, the concept of abjection will be introduced as the way of understanding projection of simultaneously abhorred and desired contents into the racialized Other. The paper presentation will conclude with further research suggestions and implications for feminist post-colonial clinical practice, namely, scholarship that increases awareness into less visible social structures behind the racializing embodiment of female immigrants and studies that focus on the affective and pre-symbolic dimensions of racializing of immigrant women.


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Reporting sexual violence on campus: Restorative Justice as friend or foe?
Restorative Justice (RJ) principles lend themselves to their application in disciplinary proceedings on college campuses, particularly since both align well in the aim of fostering human, and in this case student, development. The ideal RJ processes are victim-empowering, dialogue-centered procedures, which focus on accountability and the reinforcement of values in their respective communities (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2006). As more colleges implement RJ procedures, there is a scarcity of research of potential consequences for reporting serious misconduct, in particular sexual violence. Almost one in five college women will become the victim of sexual violence (Kilpatrick et al., 2007). Renewed focus in the issue by the White House has put the spotlight on colleges to increasingly prevent, investigate and deal with sexual violence on their campuses. In light of the fact that these cases are notoriously underreported at a rate of only around 5% (to both campus authorities as well as police), women apparently still perceive substantially more negative consequences than benefits to reporting (Fisher et al., 2003). The reasons for not reporting are most often cited as not wanting others to know about what happened/confidentiality and believing that the incident was not serious enough (Sable et al., 2006). It is unclear whether these concerns are affected by models of student conduct policies being traditional versus RJ. As promising as RJ principles may seem for fostering student development, effects on victims and communities need to be of primary concern. Without a thorough investigation of the potential effects, we run the risk of minimizing the incidents and deterring further from reporting instead of empowering the victim and preventing future sexual misconduct. This poster highlights the potential benefits as well as dangers of applying RJ processes to sexual violence cases on college campuses and calls for more focused research.

Speakers
HM

Heike Mitchell

University of Akron
IW

Ingrid Weigold

University of Akron


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Restorative Justice and Compassion-Based Practices with Inmates
There are different models of Restorative Justice, from group processes within a neighborhood to volunteering to teach restorative justice principles and practices within the confines of a prison setting. This presentation will serve to share about one way that restorative justice principles and practices have been taught to and facilitated with male inmates referred to as “lifers” and how it was done so in a feminist context and with the inclusion of compassion-based practices and role play. Examples will be given in regard to how three women volunteers ( a psychologist, a survivor of violence, and the sister of a murdered brother) facilitated restorative interaction with male inmates who had volunteered for a restorative justice workshop to address their crimes after having completed an Alternatives to Violence program. Implications for future endeavors with both male and female inmates and for those re-entering society will be discussed. The value of approaching the humanity of the survivor, perpetrator, and the systems in which they interact will also be discussed from a feminist perspective. A possible film clip will be included.


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

The Impact of Stereotypes and Microaggressions on Mental Health of Ethnicity
The purpose of our study was to explore the experiences and impacts of microaggressions regarding ethnicity. Stereotypes greatly impact how people perceive others in society (Koenig & Eagly, 2014). The blatancy of their effects on people is well known and studied. Nevertheless, there are forms of discrimination that are not so openly studied (Smith, 2014; Koenig & Eagly, 2014). Microaggressions are a more subtle form of discrimination, which consists of unconscious behaviors that make people feel like the “other” group (Nadal, Griffin, Wong, Hamit & Rasmus, 2012). Microaggressions can be targeted in numerous ways, such as an individual’s ethnicity, gender, SES, and physical capability. Research has shown that microaggressions have an impact on mental health, depression and anxiety (Nadal et al., 2012). In order to address these various factors, it is critical to understand the common themes that arise from individuals who are being microaggressed regarding their ethnicity. Participants were students from a public university in Southern California who believed they were being impacted by microaggressions. Data was collected in the form of focus groups, with 4 groups in total. Participants were asked to discuss their experiences regarding the ethnic group they felt most microaggressed into by members outside of their group. Using qualitative procedures, date was analyzed to identify common themes of microaggressions. The results ascertained that participants displayed feelings of disconnect with their own identities. The findings can help us further understand the effects microaggressions have on such populations, as well as to educate others about the long-term negative effects that manifest throughout their lives. References Koenig, A. M., & Eagly, A. H. (2014). Evidence for the social role theory of stereotype content: observations of groups’ roles shape stereotypes. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 107 (3), 371-392. Nadal L. Kevin, Griffin E. Katie, Wong Yinglee, Hamit Sahran, & Rasmus Morgan. (2012). The impact of racial microaggressions on mental health: counseling implications for clients of color, Journal of Counseling & Development, (92), 57-66. Smith, S. (2014). Limitations to equality: gender stereotypes and social change. Juncture, 21 (2), 144-150


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Understanding Latina Experience of Discrimination: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches
Introduction Discrimination against Latinas/o in the U.S. in jobs, education, health care, and everyday life is a serious problem and has deleterious effects on Latina/o health and mental health. A number of predictors of discrimination have been identified, such as language, immigration status, socio-economic status, but few studies have examined Latina women and what variables may be uniquely associated with their perception discrimination. The purpose of this study is to 1) determine, quantitatively, the predictors of perception of discrimination among a sample of Latina college women, focusing on immigrant status, fear of deportation, acculturative stress, and social support; and 2) to investigate, through open-ended interviews, how Latinas explain, interpret, and cope with discrimination in their daily lives. Methods Participants were 107 Latina college students recruited through Internet solicitation to national immigrant student rights organizations, university student organizations, Craigslist, and other pertinent listservs in the Western, Southwestern, and Midwestern United States. Average age was 23.71, sd=4.72; 75% were born in the U.S.; of those born outside the U.S. 63% were born in Mexico. Each participant completed an online questionnaire that measured perception of discrimination, fear of deportation, acculturative stress, peer and family social support, and demographic items, such as age and whether born in the U.S. or not. A series of 6 interviews with Latina college students that investigates their experience of discrimination is underway, but have not yet been completed. However, the results of interviews will be included in the final presentation. Results Hierarchical multiple regression indicate that immigrant status, i.e., immigrant or U.S.-born, and acculturative stress were not significantly related to perception of discrimination; fear of deportation and social support were significantly related to perception of discrimination. The in-depth interviews will provide an interpretive framework for these results and for further understanding the experience of discrimination among Latina women. Discussion Social support appears to buffer against perception of discrimination, while fear of deportation leads a greater perception of discrimination among Latina college students. As the number of Latinas in higher education increases and as they enter the workforce in higher numbers, understanding what factors are related to perception of discrimination becomes vital. Furthermore, how Latinas may explain, experience, and cope with discrimination can provide insight into their vulnerability to discrimination, as well as their resilience and strength in the face of it.


Friday March 6, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

2:25pm

'Coming out' as queer: A thematic analysis approach exploring outness as a relevant construct for queer-identified individuals.
The notion that part of the development of the sexual identities of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people entails a time period during which an individual conceals his or her sexual identity from others has become commonplace in contemporary American society. This idea is typically encapsulated in the metaphor of the closet, as a place where one keeps his or her sexual identity closed off and secret from the rest of the world. Recent psychological research has suggested some benefits of coming out of the closet, or effectively disclosing their non-normative sexual identity to family members, peers, or coworkers. These include increased positivity in self-concept, reduced anxiety from concealing an important piece of identity from important people in their lives, and increased cohesiveness in identity politics. However, for those who identify as queer, the idea of a metaphorical space to shield one’s identity may appear as a deployment of hetero-(or even homo-)normativity. Queer theory questions the universality of the narrative of the healing coming out process, which may gloss over the, at times, catastrophic impact of this event in some peoples’ lives. Through thematic analysis of survey responses, this poster will assess the dominant themes found in the responses of queer-identified persons. We aim to address the meaningfulness and usefulness of this concept for queer individuals and if/how coming out of the closet may strengthen individual well-being.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Career Counseling with Transgender Clients: Cultivating Resilience
Using a resilience based model, this poster will discuss how career counselors can assist transgender clients in developing resilience in the face of widespread bias and discrimination in the American workforce (Grant et al., 2011). It will begin with the definition for the widely used umbrella term “transgender,” along with the definition of “cisgender” and a list of common gender neutral pronouns. This poster will state hardships experienced by transgender individuals in the workplace: rejection, disrespect of preferred name choice and pronouns, denial of a job, name-calling, threats, destruction of property, physical violence, sexual assault, denial of preferred restroom choice, and being fired (Budge et al., 2010; Dietert & Dentice, 2009; Levitt & Ippolito, 2014). In the face of workplace discrimination and hardships in other life domains, transgender individuals cultivate resilience. Studies that capture the different forms of resilience used by transgender individuals will be included. Resilience takes the forms of identity development, a sense of hope, awareness of oppression, advocacy, connecting with other transgender individuals, familial relationships, accessing resources, and spirituality (Singh et al., 2011; Singh & McKleroy, 2011). It is important to note that these resilience strategies are not generalizable to the entire transgender population - more research on the resilience strategies of transgender individuals is ideal. Recommendations will be given of how to assist transgender clients with specific workplace issues and with cultivating specific forms of resilience using Social Cognitive Career Theory and a Social Justice Approach (Burnes et al., 2010; Lent & Brown, 1996). Examples of how to advocate for transgender clients will be given: spearheading the creation of unisex bathrooms, mediating between employers and employees, conducting trainings in workplaces, connecting clients with mentors and support groups, co-authoring legislation related to transgender rights in the workplace, facilitating access to appropriate services, and networking with organizations dedicated to improving the experiences of transgender people in the workplace (McWhirter & O’Neil, 2008). References: Budge, S., Tebbe, E., & Howard, K. (2010). The work experiences of transgender individuals: Negotiating the transition and career decision-making processes. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(4), 377-393 Burnes, T., Singh, A., Harper, A., Harper, B., Maxon-Kann, W., Pickering, D., Moundas, S., Scofield, T., Roan, A., & Hosea, J. (2010). American counseling association: Competencies for counseling with transgender clients. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 4(3-4), 135-159. Dietert, M. & Dentice, D. (2009). Gender identity issues and workplace discrimination: The transgender experience. Journal of Workplace Rights, 14(1), 121-140. Grant, Jaime M., Lisa A. Mottet, Justin Tanis, Jack Harrison, Jody L. Herman, & Mara Keisling (2011). Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. Washington: National Center for Transgender Equality and National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. Lent, R. & Brown, S. (1996). Social cognitive approach to career development: An overview. Career Development Quarterly, 44(4), 310-321. Levitt, H. & Ippolito, M. (2014). Being transgender: Navigating minority stressors and developing authentic self-presentation. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 38(1), 46-64. McWhirter, E. & O'Neil, M. (2008). Transgender identities and gender variance in vocational psychology: Recommendations for practice, social advocacy, and research. Journal of Career Development, 34(3), 286-308. Singh, A., Hays, D., & Watson, L., (2011). Strength in the face of adversity: Resilience strategies of transgender individuals. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89(1), 20-27. Singh, A. & McKleroy, V. (2011). “Just Getting out of Bed is a Revolutionary Act”: The resilience of transgender people of color who have survived traumatic life events. Traumatology, 17(2), 34-44.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Experiences of LGBT Microaggressions in the Workplace: Implications for Policy
The proposed poster will focus on experiences of microaggressions toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) employees in the workplace. Microaggressions have been described as everyday verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that convey hostile, derogatory, or negative slights and insults toward members of oppressed groups (Nadal, 2008). Though microaggression research is in its nascent stage, much of the previous scholarly work has focused on racial/ethnic microaggressions. Some microaggression research has concentrated on the LGBQ community; however, this work has been mainly focused on developing a typology of LGBQ microaggressions (Platt and Lenzen, 2011; Nadal et al., 2010; Sue, 2010; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008), describing the negative side effects of LGBQ microaggressions (Burn et al., 2008; Nadal et al., 2011), and LGBQ microaggressions in counseling settings (e.g., Shelton & Delgado-Romero, 2011). Although the workplace has been named as a context where microaggressions occur (Nadal, Rivera, and Corpus, 2010), no scholarly research has examined how LGBQ microaggressions are experienced and expressed within the workplace. The current research used a qualitative approach to identify the types of microaggressions that LGBQ employees experience in their place of employment. Participants included LGBQ self-identified adults (18 or older) who were currently working at least part-time. Our survey expanded upon the previous research by asking participants to describe their experiences of microaggressions in the workplace. In addition participants described existing workplace policies that both prevented and promoted microaggressions in the workplace. Implications of these findings and recommendations for workplace policies will be discussed.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Finding and Developing a Feminist Mentorship: Discussion Points for Mentors and Mentees
Within the world of feminist scholarship, students rely on their teachers to educate them about the past as well as guide them into the future. Developing an effective relationship with a feminist mentor is critical for students who want to pursue feminist academia and is also beneficial to the mentors themselves. Students gain valuable guidance and support while advisors are offered new feminist perspectives as a result of engaging with fresh ideas. Both benefit from the enjoyment of pursuing a shared passion. This discussion will cover a range of topics relevant to both students and professors who are either considering or already involved in mentorship. By combining perspectives, we believe these groups can learn from each other about how to be a valuable mentee or mentor. We hope to address students’ concerns with questions such as: How do students determine what type of working relationship to commit to? How do they decide which professional complements their feminist interests? How might they pursue their passion through scholarship? Discussion points will give professors an opportunity to offer valuable insights from past experiences, as well as discover how they can more successfully connect with students and lead them to find answers to these questions. For example, how can teachers incorporate feminist theory into their lectures? Further, how can they encourage feminist praxis and individual development of ideas outside of the classroom? Of course, there are topics for continuous dialogue between professors and students looking to build a professional relationship. What makes a good mentor/mentee partnership? How can such a relationship be continued after the student graduates from their current institution? By creating and fostering relationships between students and professors, each subsequent generation of feminists can further the developments already made and reach new milestones of their own.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Gold Rush A

2:25pm

Justice for TransWomen: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation of the “Trans Panic” Defense
Transgender, or trans, refers to individuals whose gender identity is not concordant with their biological sex. The trans panic claim is a defense that has been applied in assaults on transgender persons, typically transwomen. In most invocations of this defense, a heterosexual male engaged in a romantic or sexual relationship with an individual whom he perceives to be biologically female is confronted with the victim’s transgender identity; the offender unleashes an uncontrollable rage in an assault on the transgender victim. Trans panic defenses allege that these crimes entail temporary insanity or are justifiable due to provocation by the victim. By mitigating punishment for a murder by categorizing it as manslaughter, the Court devalues the lives of transwomen and curtails their liberties of self-expression. Furthermore, the concept of trans panic as a defense appears to conflict with hate crime legislation, which seeks to increase penalties for bias-motivated crimes. The American Bar Association (2013) has made a plea to legislators to abolish the gay and trans panic defenses, “which seek to partially or completely excuse crimes such as murder and assault on the grounds that the victim’s sexual orientation or gender identity is to blame for the defendant’s violent reaction.” They stated that “neither a non-violent sexual advance, nor the discovery of a person’s sex or gender identity, constitutes legally adequate provocation to mitigate the crime of murder to manslaughter, or to mitigate the severity of any non-capital crime.” This presentation evaluates the trans panic defense theoretically and empirically. This is the first known effort to evaluate the validity of such defenses empirically. Empirical findings support the author’s position that trans panic cases would are a subset of hate crime, rather than a subset of manslaughter. The significant implications for sentencing and restorative justice are discussed.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

LGB Client Experiences and Therapeutic Practice with Sexual Minorities: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis
In this poster I will present the findings of a recent qualitative study concerning the therapeutic experiences of lesbian and bisexual women as well as gay men. Despite some indications that treatment experiences have been improving (Liddle, 1999), LGB clients still receive discriminatory and inadequate treatment (Bieschke, Paul, & Blasko, 2007). Studies consistently show that counselors continue to be inadequately trained in the experiences of LGB clients (Murphy, Rawlings, & Howe, 2002; Phillips & Fischer, 1998). Furthermore, even clinicians who seek to offer affirmative therapy may hold unconscious negative biases as a result of growing up within a heterosexist culture (Bieschke et al., 2007). Utilizing Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (Smith, 2010), this study presents the therapeutic experiences of seven individuals in order to inform competent practice with this population. Results of this study included reflections on the influences of invisibility and visibility on self-categorization, ways in which sexual minority individuals assess the cultural competence of their practitioners, and the influence of heterosexism on expectations of therapy. Participants also discussed situations in which clinicians expressed judgment or lack of knowledge in the therapy. Recommendations concerning how therapists can effectively respond to cultural ruptures will be provided based on these accounts. Furthermore, underlying principles of competent cross-cultural therapy are proposed, which emphasize the importance self-reflective work on the part of the clinician in order to facilitate their ability to provide nonjudgmental acceptance, discuss sexuality with ease, value different ways of approaching relationship, and decrease therapeutic defensiveness. Additionally, participant preferences regarding the sexual orientation of the therapist were explored, and the diversity of preferences reflect variations present within the body of matching research. While this study found that several participants preferred sexual minority therapists, the results also suggest that there are significant benefits to working with culturally competent heterosexual clinicians. Participants described benefiting from the experience of acceptance from a member of the dominant culture, which provided a corrective experience to familial rejection and internalized heterosexism. These accounts suggest that this therapeutic dyad could provide aspects of restorative justice in the microcosm of the therapy room through the witnessing of influences of heterosexism by an educated and reflective heterosexual.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Mental Health Professionals’ Experience of working with Hmong GLBT individuals and their Identity Development
Mental health professionals were interviewed about their experience in therapy with the Hmong GLBT population. Findings include themes regarding clients’ distress, as well as culturally competent strategies to help them manage multiple levels of identity in a society where they have to navigate homophobia, racism, and sexism.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Separate tables, same sentiment: Lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual women’s benevolent and hostile attitudes toward men.
Stereotypes about lesbian women and feminist women characterize these women as “man-haters” (Bell & Klein, 1996; Eliason, Donelan, & Randall, 1992; Swim, Ferguson, & Hyers, 1999). However, previous research has indicated that feminist-identified women do not stereotypically hold negative attitudes toward men and, in fact, have healthy relationships with heterosexual men (Rudman & Phelan, 2007). Similarly, this research aims to challenge stereotypes of lesbian and feminist women. In this study, we examined women’s attitudes toward men by considering the intersection of gender, sexual orientation, and political ideology (i.e., feminist identification). Female participants (N = 322) participated in an online survey that measured feminist identity (Feminist Identity Index; Rudman & Fairchild, 2007; Zucker, 2004), as well as hostile and benevolent attitudes toward men (Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory; Glick & Fiske, 1999). Sixty-seven participants identified as lesbian, 69 participants identified as bisexual, and 186 participants identified as heterosexual (88 heterosexual participants did not identify as feminists). Participants ranged in age from 17 to 67 years old (M = 26 years; 75% White). Results indicate that attitudes toward heterosexual men depend on women’s sexual orientation and feminist identity. Feminist-heterosexual and bisexual women held the most positive attitudes toward men compared to lesbian women and nonfeminist-heterosexual women, F(3, 319) = 4.44, p = .004. Specifically, nonfeminist-heterosexual women (M ¬= 2.65) endorsed benevolent sexism toward men to a greater extent than lesbian women (M = 2.10), feminist-heterosexual women (M = 2.16), and bisexual women (M = 2.30). These results discredit the belief that lesbians and feminists have more biases toward men than other women do. Moreover, this work exemplifies the idea that women do not share homogenous perceptions of men, but rather, their social locations on political and sexual identity spectrums greatly inform their attitudes. Implications for benevolent and hostile attitudes will be discussed.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Sexual Satisfaction In Male-to-Female Trans Individuals
The purpose of this study is to address the lack of research related to sexual satisfaction in the transgender community. There is a significant lack of research examining factors that may contribute to quality of sex in the transgender community. Research that does exist often focuses on physical factors that either enhance, or hinder sexual satisfaction. The few studies that examine sexual pleasure often use self-report questionnaires, and although many of these questionnaires are valid and useful scales, they fail to explore the reasons behind participant’s sexual satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Furthermore, these questionnaires are often originally created for biological females, and may not address the issues of transgender women. Given the positive benefits of sexual expression on one’s physical and emotional health, it is important to understand the lived sexual experiences of transgender individuals, and to not solely focus on sexual complications or dysfunction. Many of the studies examining sexual satisfaction or functioning are limited to transsexuals who have had sex reassignment surgery (SRS), specifically, vaginoplasty.In addition, they are mainly conducted in Europe or Brazil, and few are done in the United States. Moreover, those done in the United States may be limited in that many participants who could afford this expensive surgery were of higher socio-economic status (SES). This is different in many of the other countries where previous transsexual studies were done, where laws are different with regards to transsexuals (where surgery is available at a lower cost or free). Lastly, there is often a medical bias, in that these studies are often conducted in medical clinics by staff members or doctors who performed the individual’s surgery This qualitative research study includes a face to face semi-structured ninety (90) minute interview that will be used to elicit in-depth information about the interviewee's lived experiences.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Subculture Within A Subculture: Women of Color in Bay Area in the Fetish Lifestyle! A Spectrum of Gender Orientations and Divergent Interests
The objective of this ethnographic research is to offer an introductory summary of a Subculture Within A Subculture... This research will endeavor to offer powerful social and historical content for the subject’s social emergence, seek to demystify Fetish/Kink/ Bondage, Dominance, Sadism, Masochism (BDSM), to challenge the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM‐5) Paraphilic and Paraphilic disorder, reframe the A & B diagnostic criteria classifications, to explore the subject’s underground lifestyle from a psychosocial point of view, to offer sixteen (N=16) personal interview findings from sexually variant women of color in the fetish/BDSM lifestyle, and to advocate for inclusive sex‐positive awareness acceptance.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

“Love Thy Neighbors” (But Not if They’re Gay): Gender and Religiosity in Heterosexist Prejudice
Many rights that heterosexuals take for granted (e.g., marriage, adoption) are still struggles for non-heterosexuals. Many of the arguments against non-heterosexuals’ rights are based in religious ideologies, such as ‘a marriage is between one woman and one man’ or ‘children need one father and one mother.’ Research has indicated that women are more accepting of homosexuality than men. Additionally, lesbian women often face less religious discrimination than gay men. Finally, when asked their attitudes towards homosexuals individually, people are less discriminatory than when they are within a small group. This study further explored the relationships between gender, religiosity, and attitudes towards gays/lesbians. Using secondary data analysis on one author’s thesis data (Z. Kunicki), this current study examined a prediction model of spirituality based upon one’s identified gender and the strength of one’s religiosity. A convenience sample of 222 undergraduates (female = 151, male =69, dta = 2) used an online program to complete a series of surveys that examined religiosity and attitudes about homosexuals. Data were analyzed using a multiple regression with religiosity and gender as predictors of attitudes towards gays/lesbians. One prediction model used both genders together while the other separated the models by gender. Results indicated that using both genders in the model, being a woman was related to more favorable attitudes towards homosexuals, while religiosity scores predicted less favorable attitudes. This finding was true for both genders. However, the separate analyses by gender indicated that religiosity was a bigger influence on men’s attitudes towards gays/lesbians than women’s attitudes. The use of undergraduates as the sample may have been a limitation of this study. Future research should use a more diverse sample. In addition, research should seek to explore how attitudes towards gays/lesbians and other minority groups develop, and if these developments are different for men and women.


Friday March 6, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

3:45pm

Bystander Behaviors and Attitudes in College Students Before and After Green Dot Bystander Intervention Training
Incidents of rape and sexual assault in the US have not significantly decreased in the past several decades, and rates of assault on college campuses are higher than national statistics. Research suggests that bystander intervention programs are a popular and effective means of reducing sexual assault. The current study was designed to expand upon the literature by evaluating changes in attitudes and behaviors toward bystander intervention and sexual assault before and after undergoing Green Dot bystander intervention training. Participants completed a pre-test to measure bystander attitudes and behaviors, bystander efficacy, and rape myth acceptance before taking part in a 6-hour bystander intervention training. Three weeks after the training, participants filled out a post-test that consisted of the same measures. Analyses revealed that participants had significantly increased positive attitudes toward bystander intervention, increased self-efficacy to intervene, and decreased rape myth acceptance. There was no significant difference in performed bystander behaviors as a result of the training. Implications for bystander intervention programs and future research are discussed.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Redwood

3:45pm

Healing trauma through ritual: The power of women-centered support groups in the transformation of wholeness and empowerment in abused women
Due to the overwhelming and shocking nature of trauma, the process of healing is often very difficult both psychologically and physically. Having endured the threat of an attacker, and unable to fight back or flee, many victims find themselves left in a freeze response whereby energy related to the stressful event is pent up, unable to be processed by the mind and body. Thus, the trauma continues to haunt the victimized individual, preventing the continuation of aliveness and healing. Research on female victimization indicates that women who have experienced trauma frequently maintain feelings of hopelessness and powerlessness as a result of the abuse. Healing rituals that are centered around images and values associated with female strength, such as guided meditation, public recognition of victimization, and chanting, are believed to instill a sense of empowerment while restructuring more positive definitions of self. Moreover, the identification with other women who have endured similar forms of abuse reduces the feelings of isolation that victims often experience. This is of significant importance in light of the fact that victimized women often carry feelings of guilt and responsibility related to the traumatic event. Thus, women are given the opportunity to relieve themselves of the burden of shame and secrecy, thereby opening themselves to the process of healing. Ritual has been known to be especially effective in decreasing fear, releasing anger, and increasing as sense of empowerment (Jacobs, 1989). This poster presentation will examine the benefits of ritual practice and highlight the increased need of women-centered support groups within communities as a therapeutic outlet for improving mental well-being for women who have survived abuse.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Redwood

3:45pm

Promoting Transcendence: An Ecological-Womanist Approach to Understanding Religiosity as a Protective Factor Against Adverse Mental Health Outcomes Among Ethnically Diverse Survivors of Sexual Victimization
Prevalence rates of sexual victimization fall between one-sixth to nearly one-quarter of women in the United States (Elliot, Mok, & Briere, 2004). Literature suggests that survivors of sexual victimization are subject to adverse mental health outcomes such as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) (Bryant-Davis, Chung, & Tillman, 2009; Gladstone et al., 2004). There has been paucity within the literature related to understanding, holistically, the coping behaviors endorsed by diverse populations to achieve restoration. Observing coping behavior from a culturally based, ecological perspective helps conceptualize methods used by ethnically diverse women, allowing for the values expressed within specific ethnocultural groups to be examined (Wang & Heppner, 2011, Fontes, 1993). Womanist theory considers how spirituality can be used to foster reexamination, growth and wholeness (Walker, 1983). This study utilizes an ecological, womanist framework to examine the use of spirituality to promote thriving. Studies have demonstrated an interconnected relationship between religiousness and negative life events whereby religious belief can enhance an individual’s ability to cope with negative life events and negative life events can concurrently lead to enhanced religious faith (Pargament, 1990; Mcintosh, 1995). Furthermore, spiritual and religious beliefs have been shown to be particularly impactful for various ethnic groups, namely African Americans, impacting their understanding of several values including justice, salvation, and coping from oppression (Mattis, 2000). Recent studies have expanded the understanding of the use of religious coping amongst culturally diverse trauma survivors (Bryant-Davis, Ullman, Tsong & Gobin, 2011; Ahrens, Abeling, Ahmad, and Hinman (2010). Feminist clinicians and researchers can utilize an ecologically based, womanist frame to establish integrative treatment programs, which consider spiritual values in order to attend to the needs of diverse communities and promote restoration. Integration of spiritual norms within the treatment framework can enhance cultural congruence and function as a pathway toward transcendence.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Redwood

3:45pm

Resisting Hegemonic Femininity: heterosexuality, whiteness, and gender roles
Hegemonic masculinity has been conceptualized as being constructed at the intersections of race, class, and sexuality (Hurtado & Sinha, 2005) and intimately connected to heterosexuality and whiteness (Connell, 1995; Kimmel, 2003). Some social psychological research has provided empirical evidence to support the existence of this link (Herek, 1984, 1988; Pascoe, 2011). Hegemonic femininity and its relationship to hegemonic masculinity has received less attention (Schippers, 2007). Scholars have argued that hegemonic femininity functions in ways that support male dominance and complement hegemonic masculinity (Schippers, 2007). Because hegemonic femininity also occupies a unique position in relation to white supremacy, white women may engage in gender discourse in specific ways that can either subvert or reify existing social arrangements (Hurtado, 1996). The present study examines women’s attitudes towards hegemonic femininity. College students completed a 22-page questionnaire (n=174), consisting of the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men scale (ATLG; Herek, 1984), the Traditional Family Ideology scale (TFI; Levinson & Huffman, 1955), and an abbreviated version of the Sex Role Egalitarianism Scale (SRES; King & King, 1990). A large proportion of the sample identified as white women (40%). In order to better understand the processes influencing women’s attitudes, a regression was used to examine the relationship between race, class, gender and hegemonic femininity. Amongst the women, positive attitudes towards homosexuality and negative attitudes towards traditional gender roles predicted egalitarian beliefs about sex-roles, even after controlling for race and social class. Together, gender, social class, race, the ATLG, and the TFI explained 55% of the variance for the SRES. The findings of this study can contribute to understanding forms of resistance as they emerge from the intersections of gender, race, and social class.

Speakers
RV

Rebecca Von Oepen

CSU Monterey Bay
MS

Mrinal Sinha

CSU Monterey Bay


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Redwood

3:45pm

Restoring Survivors with Psychological Outcomes in Ethnically-Diverse Sexually Victimized Females
Recent literature suggests prevalence rates of sexual victimization falling between one-sixth to nearly one-quarter of women in the United States (Elliot, Mok, & Briere, 2004). Sexual victimization of women, across ethnic groups, has been frequently associated with various negative mental health outcomes including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression (Bryant-Davis, Chung, & Tillman, 2009; Gladstone et al., 2004). The current study offers the restoration process for sexually victimized females to occur through the utilization of mental health services. Equally important in the restoration process is addressing the communities that are often offered the least amount of resources to address the injustice of sexual victimization. Examining ethnically diverse females with sexual victimization histories provides a conceptual framework for establishing treatment as a component of restoration in its role as a protective factor against psychological outcomes. The current study used data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R) to explore the role of therapy as a protective factor against the development of psychological outcomes such as PTSD and depression (Kessler & Merikangas, 2004). The goal of this study was to test for ethnic group as a predictor of therapy use such that Caucasian women are more likely to utilize therapy than African American and Hispanic/Latina women and to determine whether mental health treatment plays a relationship in decreasing risk of sexual revictimization across all ethnic groups. The current study used ethnic groups including African American, Hispanic/Latina, and Caucasian females with histories of sexual revictimization from a sample of 5,692 participants. Regression analyses examined the relationship of ethnic groups on the utilization of mental health services leading to PTSD and depression in this sample. In addressing how ethnically diverse female survivors of sexual victimization are impacted by mental health outcomes, restoration may be provided to these females through the implementation of mental health services.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Redwood

3:45pm

Self-objectification and Social Functioning in Close Relationships: Body Shame as a Predictor of Social Intimacy and Loneliness
According to Fredrickson and Roberts (1997), an individual’s subjective experience of sexual objectification can lead to many consequences, such as body shame. Body shame is the negative feeling that results from comparing oneself to an internalized cultural ideal and not aligning with it (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997). Studies have shown that women tend to experience body shame more often than men (Fredrickson, Roberts, Noll, Quinn, & Twenge, 1998), and it can lead to serious consequences such as disordered eating, depression, and sexual dysfunction (Tiggeman & Williams, 2012). The current study examined associations between women’s self-objectification (self-surveillance and body shame) and social functioning in close relationships. Previously, body shame has predicted fear of intimacy in romantic relationships (Cash, Theriault, & Annis, 2004). Expanding on this, we predicted that women higher in self-surveillance and body shame would experience more fear of emotional intimacy in a romantic context, less social intimacy in close relationships, and more overall feelings of loneliness. At a small private college in New England, students volunteered to participate in the study for course credit. The 99 female participants (majority White) took an online survey, completing the following measures: Miller Social Intimacy Scale (Miller & Lefcourt, 1982), Fear of Intimacy Scale (Descutner & Thelen, 1991), UCLA-8 Loneliness Scale (Hays & DiMatteo, 1987), Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (McKinley & Hyde, 1996), and demographic items including age and current relationship status. At the bivariate level, self-surveillance and body shame were correlated with social intimacy, and body shame was correlated with loneliness. However, neither shame nor self-surveillance related to fear of intimacy. In hierarchical regressions, body shame predicted social intimacy and loneliness after controlling for age, current relationship status, and self-surveillance. These findings suggest that intimacy and functioning in close relationships should be further examined within the objectification theory framework.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Redwood

3:45pm

The Enemy Among Us: The role of sexual assault and PTSD among female U.S. veterans.
The military has faced recent criticism for sexual assault among troops; however, more research is needed regarding prevalence and the contribution of sexual trauma to rates of PTSD among service members (Cooper, 2014; Turchik & Wilson, 2010). Furthermore, rates of PTSD and depression remain higher among women, although the causes of the are unclear . This study explored prevalence of sexual violence in the military as well as its contribution to the development of PTSD and depression. Our Midwestern sample was predominately African American (80%) service women. Using the Life Events Checklist (Blake et al., 1995), the PTSD Checklist (Weathers, 1991), and the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (Blake et al., 1995), and physician-determined depression, we assessed traumatic life events, current PTSD, PTSD symptom severity, and depression. On average, participants experienced 7 traumatic events. The most common traumatic incident reported was physical assault (80%), followed by traffic accident (71%), sexual assault (57%), and unexpected death of loved one (57%). A linear regression with the 4 most common traumas and combat found that traumatic life events significantly predicted PTSD symptom severity, adj. r2 = .60, f(5) = 11.148, p < .001, with sexual assault (b = .77, p < .001) as the only significant predictor; combat exposure was not significant (b = .17). Similarly, logistic regression found that sexual assault (B = 3.15, p = .01) was the only significant predictor of depression; combat exposure was not significant (B = .36). Although combat exposure is often believed to be the primary trigger for PTSD following military service, our findings point to sexual assault as an equal or greater risk factor. This supports the hypothesis that women more commonly suffer from PTSD and depression due to higher rates of sexual assault (Breslau et al., 1991). Implications and recommendations, including intervention and prevention measures, will be discussed.

Speakers
EL

Eric Larson

Northwestern University- Rehabiliation Institute of Chicago
CS

Christy Starr

University of California


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Redwood

3:45pm

The perception of aggression in women across ethnic groups
The proposed study examines the difference in the actual versus the perceived level of aggression in women of color. The principles of social cognition have provided a valuable tool in the study of the perception and the interpretation of aggression. It is sometimes said that we see what we expect to see. It is the experiences and events we least expect that stand out most in our perception of the world and in our memory. However in ambiguous situations, and when we have little information, we are likely to interpret events in a manner that is consistent with our expectations or schemas. Once a schema has been activated, people are likely to look for, notice, and recall anything in their experience that is clearly consistent with that schema. So, what is the overall effect of these cognitive processes? Well, our expectations sometimes lead us to see what we expect to see even when it is not there. These expectations could nonetheless lead to inaccuracies in people’s perception of specific individuals and incidents. This study investigates how the racial/ethnic identity of the aggressor, and observer influences the perception and evaluation of aggression. A quasi experimental design examines whether assertive behavior in women triggers stereotypes of aggression, passivity, or assertiveness. Deception will be used to conceal the true nature of the study in order to account for race related biases. Participants, women and men over the age of 18, will be randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups containing video vignettes that demonstrate an ambiguous assertive act performed by a woman. The aggressor-target race combinations and the assertive act will be varied. Hypotheses were formulated concerning how people would respond to an aggressive act in a vignette, depending on the racial/ ethnic identity of the aggressor, target, and participant. Several predictions are made concerning the level of aggression participants would report. It is predicted that because of the impact of racial/ethnic stereotypes, more aggression would be reported when a vignette described an aggressive act by a Black woman than the same act performed by a White woman. Additional hypotheses concern whether racial stereotypes, lead people to see a greater level of aggression in an ambiguous act by a Black woman. Finally, a third group of hypotheses involve whether there are in- group, out-group differences in the perception of assertiveness and what is “defined” as acceptable norms. The findings of this study would have implications for minimizing diagnostic labels due to cultural differences in what I am hypothesizing to be socially acceptable assertive behavior. This study would highlight the impact that stereotypes have on Black women as it relates to assertiveness and/or the perception of maladaptive aggression. By understanding the cultural differences in the expression of assertiveness in Black women and other women of color, I hope to demonstrate a discrepancy between actual vs. perceived level of aggression that influences the increasing number of racialized violence that occurs towards the black and brown communities.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Redwood

3:45pm

The Role of Gendered Dating Scripts on Beliefs about Love, Romance, and Monogamy
Stereotypes—and research suggests that men dislike monogamy and, instead, prefer casual relationships (Bradshaw, Kahn, & Saville, 2010; Schmitt, Shackelford, & Buss, 2001). Yet, men and women view long-term monogamous relationships as optimal partnerships (Moors, Matsick, Ziegler, Rubin, & Conley, 2013). Given the complexity of these findings, it is possible that men’s disinterest in long-term relationships contextually varies. The present studies investigate social-cultural explanations, specifically, gendered dating scripts, for men’s preference for casual over long-term relationships. In Study 1, I examined the extent to which men and women view various artifacts and symbols related to long-term relationships as defining of gendered dating scripts. In two experimental studies, I examined the effects of gendered dating scripts on people’s beliefs about love and monogamy. Participants responded to monogamy-related items on Valentine’s Day or April 10th (Study 2) and after viewing engagement or landscape photographs (Study 3). When gendered dating scripts were salient, men reported lower endorsement of the committed relationship ideology, monogamy beliefs, and romanticism as compared to men and women in the control conditions and women in the high salience condition. Women’s attitudes were unaffected by gendered dating script salience. Taken together, men do like monogamy, but not the gendered scripts associated with it.


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Redwood

3:45pm

Victim Blaming: Minimization of Unwanted Sexual Experiences Among College Students
Rape is often depicted by the media and within American culture as an event of dominant physical force by a male stranger over a female victim (Gavey, 2005), and is the primary social representation of sexual assault (Basile, 1999). However, rape does not always take on that form, nor is it the primary form of sexual assault. Given the dominant representation of rape, if a person experiences unwanted sexual experiences that do not fit the above conditions, he or she may not acknowledge it as a sexual assault (Cleere & Lynn, 2013), and others may place blame on the victim for the experience. Both of these consequences have negative implications for the psychological well-being of the victim. This study examined certain facets of the aftermath of unwanted sexual experiences. It explored the impact on victim blaming and victim distress of the type of relationship between the victim and perpetrator (i.e., friend, family member, partner, etc.), the potential differential impact of who is doing the blaming of the victim (e.g., friend, family member, etc.), and the assessment of potential differences among these processes for male versus female victims. This study also measured the impact of beliefs and attitudes about rape, and attachment to important others, as potential moderators of psychological well-being following unwanted sexual experiences. College students from a Northern California University completed the Adult Attachment Scale, Rape Attitudes and Beliefs Scale , Sexual Experience Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, and Positive and Negative Affect schedule. The implications of the type of unwanted sexual experience, victim blaming, and negative psychological consequences are discussed in the context of interventions designed to highlight the multifaceted forms and negative effects of sexual assault, and to improve the low rates of reporting by victims of unwanted sexual experiences. . Keyword(s): victim blaming; unwanted sexual experience; rape myths


Friday March 6, 2015 3:45pm - 4:45pm
Redwood
 
Saturday, March 7
 

10:45am

Can Emotional Intelligence, Coping Style, and SPonsorship Predict Sobriety Through a 12-Step Program?
This study aims to predict whether or not a person will obtain sponsorship through the 12-step program based on Emotional Intelligence (EI) and coping style. The study also aims to predict whether quality of relationship with sponsor, along with EI and coping style, can predict alcohol and substance use outcomes. This is an important area of research because the existing literature support the notion that avoidant and poor interpersonal coping, low EI, and lack of sponsorship are associated with relapse for people trying to abstain from drugs and alcohol. Therefore, it is important to examine whether these traits make it more difficult to have a relationship with a sponsor and if, in turn, it becomes more difficult to stay sober without this relationship. The literature on sponsorship is sparse and those articles that do exist do not examine differences that may occur from sponsor to sponsor or within the sponsor-sponsee relationship. It is also important to examine whether EI, avoidant coping, and interpersonal coping skills directly relate to abstinence goals. This study will employ multiple regression analyses with EI, interpersonal coping, and avoidant coping acting as predictor variables and frequency of contact with sponsor acting as a moderator variable. A separate analysis will be run to determine if quality of relationship with sponsor can predict alcohol and substance use outcomes, with quality of relationship with sponsor acting as a predictor variable. All participants must be at least 18 years of age and meet the criteria for alcohol or substance abuse or dependence via self-report. Participants must also have been sponsored at some point, although current sponsorship is not necessary. This study also aims to create a reliable measure that will examine the quality of relationship with sponsor through a 12-step program.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Embracing the Mother: The importance of ecopsychology in counseling psychology doctoral training programs for social and restorative justice.
The American Psychological Association mandates providing culturally competent training, and counseling psychology training programs have embraced a leadership role in focusing on social justice as a “fifth force” (Smith, Constantine, Dunn, Dinehart, & Montoya, 2006; Miller & Sendrowitz, 2011; Ratts & Hutchins, 2009). Ecopsychology can help in developing culturally competent psychologists by providing additional cultural context related to client relationships with nature, as well as addressing ecological social injustices that negatively impact mental health such as proximity to toxic industries (Sicotte & Swanson, 2007). Ecopsychology examines human relationships with the environment, and the degradation of the environment, which impacts human mental health and mental health treatment provided by counseling psychologists and trainees. A lack of research related to the incorporation of ecopsychology into counseling psychology training programs could possibly indicate that training programs have yet to provide training in ecopsychology or offer ecopsychology courses. The purpose of this study was to assess inclusion of ecopsychology in APA-accredited counseling psychology doctoral programs, as well as attitudes, familiarity, and interests toward ecopsychology. As ecopsychology is a recently developing area of study, research is needed to understand its presence in counseling psychology (Roszak, 1992). This assessment helps identify the current role of ecopsychology in counseling psychology social justice training and inform future directions for increased inclusion. Suggestions for training, therapy, and community engagement are examined as well.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Feminism, Relationship Satisfaction, and Communication: Can Feminism and Romance Coexist?
Many people are reluctant to endorse feminist beliefs or to identify as feminists because of the social stigma attached to feminism. Feminist women are often criticized as ugly, aggressive, and man hating (Banziger & Hooker, 1979; Buschman & Lenart, 1996; Goldberg, Gottesdiener & Abramson, 1975; Griffin, 1989; Kamen, 1991; Rudman & Fairchild, 2007). Heterosexual women in particular are reluctant to embrace the label because of the implications such negative attributes could have in their relationships with men. Feminism, however, has been found to have positive effects for individuals and for interpersonal relationships. In particular, feminism has been associated with satisfaction in heterosexual relationships (Hurt et al., 2007; Rudman & Phelan, 2007; Saunders & Kashubeck-West, 2006; Yakushko, 2007; Yoder et al., 2007). This study was designed to explore the role of feminism in heterosexual relationships by assessing participants’ and their partners’ feminist beliefs and identities, and correlating them with scores on the Relationship Satisfaction Scale (McKibbin, Bates, Shackelford, Haken, LaMunyon, 2010), the Primary Communication Inventory (Navran, 1967), and the Sexual Communication Apprehension Scale (Babin, 2012). Overall, it was found that liberal feminist beliefs are particularly influential in heterosexual relationships and related to increased satisfaction and communication, whereas conservative beliefs show the opposite trend. On the other hand, radical feminism, and other types of feminism that similarly focus on societal structures, is related negatively to relationship variables. The effects of gender, experience of sexual harassment, and experience of sexual assault on willingness to endorse feminist beliefs are also evaluated. Although this study indicates that feminism’s role in romantic relationships is complex, it suggests that there are some aspects of feminism that both men and women would be wise to embrace.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Getting Men through the Door: Masculinity and Working with a Female Therapist
As the number of women in the mental health professions has increased, so has the likelihood that men seeking therapy will be seen by women therapists (Johnson, 2005). Few studies have examined men’s therapist gender preferences or the impact of men’s adherence to traditional masculine ideology on their willingness to attend and engage in therapy with women therapists. This study explored the relationship between men’s adherence to traditional masculine norms, their attitudes toward therapy, and their perceived competency of a woman therapist. Using the Masculinity Attitudes, Stress and Conformity (MASC) Questionnaire (Nabavi & Green, 2004), 319 men reported attitudinal and behavioral conformity to traditional masculine norms, as well as the degree of stress they experienced from adhering to these norms. They also reported their attitudes toward seeking psychotherapy. Participants then watched a 10-minute vignette of a female therapist conducting therapy with a male client and evaluated the therapist’s competency. Results found the more that men endorsed traditional masculine norms, and reported that their behavior conformed to these norms, the less likely they were to rate women therapists as competent. However, the more they experienced stress about their adherence to masculine norms, the higher they rated their likelihood to seek therapy and consider women therapists competent. Clinical implications suggest men who adhere to traditional masculine norms are less likely to address mental health issues, because of their reluctance to seek help or work with women therapist. However, increased stress caused by adherence to these norms lessens this reluctance. Continuing to systemically address problems caused by strict norm adherence, and opening men up to alternative masculine norms, is essential for their well-being.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Recent Immigrant Therapists: Lived Experiences, Divergent Voices
As immigration and globalization continue to alter the ethnocultural landscape in the United States of America, it becomes increasingly important to understand how these phenomena impact psychology, and specifically the psychotherapeutic situation, from both the therapist’s and patient’s perspectives. To date, there have been very few qualitative inquiries into the experience of being a non-native or recent immigrant psychotherapist practicing in the United States of America with predominantly native clients (Iwamasa, 1997; Nezu, 2010). For the purposes of our study, “non-native” was defined as not born in the USA and self-identified as a member of a cultural or ethnic minority group, and “native” was defined as born in the USA and self-identified as a member of a cultural or ethnic majority group. In the interest of exploring this increasingly relevant area of psychological study in greater depth and breadth, we interviewed eight non-native psychotherapists hailing from eight different non-American backgrounds using a semi-structured interview approach, the results of which we collaboratively interpreted using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA; Smith, Flowers, & Larkin, 2009). Through this interpretive method, we identified four major themes that were central to the experience of non-native psychotherapists practicing with native-born patients in the United States: (1) awareness of differences between self and patients, (2) manifestations and impacts of power on the psychotherapeutic relationship, (3) the impact of differences on therapists’ identity, and (4) from separateness to cultivating belongingness in clinical work. Proposed poster presentation will elucidate further the results of the study as well as highlight implications for social justice and social action in psychology.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

The Benefits of “Rewriting” Life Events: Counterfactual Trees as a Therapeutic Tool
When thinking about past events, individuals commonly construct “what if” scenarios. Such imagined alternatives, or counterfactuals, take two main forms, upward (e.g., life could have been better) or downward (e.g., life could have been worse; Wong, Hasselhuhn, & Kray, 2012). Research suggests that, while the construction of upward counterfactuals can be related to negative affect and feelings of regret (Boninger, Gleicher, & Strathman, 1994), it is also related to future problem solving and the motivation to do things differently in the future. On the other hand, downward counterfactual thinking is related to enhanced meaning-making and positive emotions (e.g., Kray et, al., 2010; Ruodrlova & Prokopcakova, 2010). Surprisingly, except for a few studies examining the relationship between counterfactual thinking and well-being among women who have been raped (Branscombe et al., 2003) or who have had recurrent miscarriages (Callander et al, 2007), most research in this area has utilized experimental methods in laboratory settings. Our paper will build upon this work to describe how the construction of counterfactual narratives in a therapeutic setting can empower women to derive greater meaning from their experiences and learn from the past. Specifically, we will describe how clients can benefit from constructing counterfactual trees (i.e., unstructured diagrams of alternative outcomes) that explore the diverse ways in which meaningful events could have turned out differently. This will include a discussion of how women construct life narratives, fate perceptions, and locus of control. We will end with consideration of counterfactual narratives as a form of restorative justice for victims, perpetrators, and communities.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

The Experience of Working With Native American Mothers with Postpartum Depression
Postpartum Depression (PPD) occurs in 10-20% of mothers globally; cultural attributions about PPD differ. This study used qualitative, phenomenological methodology, interviewing six dominant culture caregivers, to investigate how Native American women in the Southwestern United States understand the transition to motherhood and caregivers’ experiences working with the mothers. Results indicate that many Native American women experience multiple life stressors, often PPD risk factors: poverty, substance abuse, teen pregnancy, sexual abuse, incarceration, gang activity, and domestic violence. Mothers are often overwhelmed and do not reflect on the meaning of motherhood. It is an expected life event. Results indicate that Native Americans define motherhood in broad, fluid terms. If a biological mother cannot care for her child, family may appoint a woman as the child’s mother. Most women accept the responsibility but the transition can be difficult. Helping both birth mothers and socially appointed mothers requires a broader perspective than the PPD diagnosis. Historically, Native American children were forcibly removed from their families and placed in boarding schools. The resultant loss of identity, family connections, access to traditional teachings, and exposure to trauma, have had lasting effects. Results indicate that the boarding school years continue to directly impact motherhood and parenting. Participants described a need for self-awareness about judgments and assumptions, and patience in rapport building. Consistency is key to building trust. Clients who miss appointments, the multiple needs of families, and challenges of systems work, create difficulties that may lead to burn out. Native American mothers may benefit from connecting to traditional elders and to other mothers, creating a circle of support. Advocacy and referrals can address life stressors. Direct exploration of historical trauma may reduce self-blame and build hope. Caregivers need self-awareness and good self-care to reduce burn out. Dominant culture caregivers can promote social justice for Native American people.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

The Phenomenological Investigation of Women’s Experiences in an Extramarital Affair
Infidelity is a culturally sensitive topic often viewed with an overarching shadow of secrecy and shame for the individuals involved. Betrayal is estimated to be one of the most substantial threats to marriage in addition to being considered immensely complicated to treat in couples counseling (Atkins, Baucom, & Jacobson, 2001; Jeanfreau, Jurich, Mong, 2014; Leeker & Carlozzi, 2014; Mark, Janssen, & Milhausen, 2011). Statistically, a significant portion of society is affected by infidelity. Studies by Ciarocco, Echevarria, and Lewandowski (2012) and Sharpe, Walters, and Goren (2013) estimate 30%-60% of individuals will be unfaithful in their marriage. Furthermore, the statistics vary among genders. The number of men who reported being unfaithful was 33% to 75%; while women reported infidelity rates of 26% to 70% (Drigotas & Barta, 2001; Jeanfreau, et al., 2014; Orzeck & Lung, 2005; Sharpe, et al., 2013). The possible reasons for the wide statistical variability can be attributed to the secret nature of the relationships, the limited research due to the anonymity of “the other woman,” and the possible ramifications of discovery for all individuals involved. A taboo regarding this topic has existed throughout history resulting in insufficient examination of causes explaining why single women become involved with married men (Richardson, 1979; Tuch, 2002). This poster will provide the results of a phenomenological study of lived experiences of five women’s journey as “the other woman” in an extramarital affair. Utilizing Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (Smith, 2010) and building on a pilot study, I will seek to provide contextually rich and participant-focused information about ways women themselves understand their relational patterns. The goals of this presentation are to provide evidence as to the function and motivation an affair has in “the other woman’s” life, identify commonalities in meanings ascribed to these experiences, describe relationship lessons learned, and explain how the relationship may affect women’s sense of self. Additionally, exploration of the women’s identification and transformation from a Jungian perspective will be addressed throughout the course of the relationship as they describe it. The presentation will seek to give voice to women, present their experiences from their own perspective in order to offer clinically relevant information.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Treatment adherence for culturally adapted treatment for Latino adolescents
Substance abuse court-mandated treatment for Latino adolescents may provide an opportunity for restorative justice, especially if the treatment takes into consideration the culturally specific needs of Latino adolescents. Culturally adapted treatment is the term used to define treatments that meet culturally specific needs. The empirical development of culturally adapted treatment is still emerging, especially in the area of substance abuse treatment for adolescents. Treatment adherence research promotes further development of culturally adapted treatment, which ultimately better serves clients. Treatment adherence examines the mutual influence of therapist and clients on session content. As such, therapist delivery, client response, and interactions are considered part of treatment adherence. Ethnic identity is a primary developmental concern for adolescents. Relevant questions include: (a) How does my ethnic identity contribute to who I am? (b) To what extent do I belong and feel pride about my ethnic group? (c) How do I cope with racism and discrimination? Latino adolescents with healthy ethnic identity development tend to experience enhanced psychosocial outcomes. Prior research asserted the importance of ethnic identity and acculturation in culturally adapted treatment. Given this research, culturally adapted sessions were developed to address ethnic identity, acculturation, and racism. These culturally adapted sessions were purposively sampled for the current study. The current study aimed to examine the degree of treatment adherence in ethnic identity session of culturally adapted treatment. The research team qualitatively analyzed transcripts of 6 ethnic identity sessions with 30 Latino adolescents who were court-mandated for substance abuse treatment. Several components of treatment emerged, including: ethnic pride and stereotypes. In terms of ethnic pride, participants tended to (a) assertively self identify with an ethnic identity label and (b) minimize the impact of racism to demonstrate ethnic pride. In terms of stereotypes, participants tended to (a) be aware of stereotypes targeting Latinos and (b) assume that they were in Latino-only treatment due to stereotypes (i.e, Latinos have more drug problems). Qualitative results are interpreted in the context of treatment adherence. Recommendations for how to therapeutically address ethnic identity, acculturation, and racism with Latino adolescents are provided.

1st Author
AJ

Annika Johnson

Western Oregon University

Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Culture, Body Size Discrepancy, and Disordered Eating Among Asian American Women
A community sample of 241 Asian American women (AAW) of varied immigration generational status participated in an online survey regarding their traditional cultural beliefs and disordered eating behaviors and attitudes. While there were no generational differences in their endorsement of traditional cultural beliefs, second-generation AAW reported significantly more disordered eating behaviors and attitudes compared to their first- and third and above-generation counterparts. The role of body size discrepancy (actual-ideal BMI) was explored, and it was found to be a much better predictor than actual BMI. After BMI was controlled, body size discrepancy was predictive of AAW’s Bulimia and Dieting disordered attitudes and behaviors, and compensatory behaviors when uncomfortably full, worry of losing control of how much food one eats, self-perception of being fat, and the feeling of food dominating life. Results of this study may suggest that BMI is less useful as a risk factor for many AA women, or that what mainstream researchers and clinicians consider to be normal weight may not be perceived as slim enough in the context of AA culture. Different patterns also emerged between the EAT-26 and SCOFF, two common instruments used to assess disordered eating behaviors and attitudes. Even though almost 90% of the women in this study were of normal or low weight according to US BMI standards, 7.5% of our sample was at risk for EDs using the EAT-26 criteria, and 21% using SCOFF. Endorsement of Family Recognition through Achievement was the only significant predictor in overall disordered eating assessed by SCOFF, and both the Dieting and Bulimia subscales of the EAT-26. In addition, participants were approximately 1.6 times more likely to endorse worrying about losing control over how much one eats (SCOFF 2) than were those who did not identify with family recognition through achievement. Clinical and research implications are discussed.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Disability and Multiple Sclerosis: Stigma, Outness, and Links with Psychological Well-Being
The present study tested the tenets of minority stress theory with a sample of 446 individuals living with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The study extended prior bodies of research conducted with individuals who have concealable identities (e.g., LGBTQ) and the impact of distal and proximal minority stressors on mental health (Hatzenbuehler, 2009; Meyer, 2003). In this study, the mediating roles of two proximal minority stressors (stigma consciousness and disclosure/concealment of one’s ICI) on the link between a distal stressors (perceived social support and discrimination) with perceived well-being (PWB) will be examined. The authors hypothesize that perceived social support and outness each would be related positively with perceived well-being and negatively with psychological distress, and that stigma would be related negatively with psychological well-being and positively with psychological distress. The second set of hypotheses involved the mediation patterns proposed in the minority stress literature. Specifically, it is predicted that proximal or external minority stressors (i.e., expectations of stigma, and outness/concealment) would mediate the relations of the distal or internal stressor (i.e., perceived social support) with psychological well-being and psychological distress.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Experiencing Microaggressions: Women with Apparent and Nonapparent Disabilities
Microaggressions have been defined as verbal, behavioral, or environmental slights or insults that communicate a derogatory message to the recipient. Despite the growing body of research on the effects of microaggressions based on race/ ethnicity and sexual orientation, there are only two studies on microaggressions against people with disabilities. This is the third such study, which focuses on the specific experiences of women who have disabilities visible to others, and women who have a nonapparent disabilities. Through focus groups and an online survey, we explored these women's experiences of microaggressions in various domains of life, based on the previous work of Keller & Galgay (2010) with both men and women.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Food Allergies Summer Camp
One out of every thirteen children will experience a food allergy reaction during their childhood. This equates to roughly two children in each classroom. Of those, 25 percent will experience a severe anaphylactic reaction; this means one person experiences anaphylactic shock every six minutes. Fear, anxiety, and depression are common symptoms of living with food allergies. To date, the focus of the research has been on curing food allergies, rather than living with a food allergy. Allergies are the new excuse to segregate. Protocol, or standards of practice, in some cases are to discriminate or separate by having a designated food allergy table. Shemesh, et al (2012) found that 31.5 percent of children in their study were bullied due to their food allergy. Of those children bullied, 80 percent of the offenders were fellow classmates threatening contact with the problematic food. Societies are beginning to realize that they are creating communities of children without a voice. These children have been marginalized and have not experienced normalcy. Many of these children live in states of heightened awareness and isolation. West, Denzer, Wildman, and Anhalt (2013), learned that although a majority of teachers felt they possessed sufficient knowledge of food allergies, they feel burdened to accommodate the children’s needs. A response to segregation is to offer children with food allergies a new experience. Camp Blue Spruce was created two years ago for this specific purpose. Data was collected on the impact this camp has on the mental health of its participants. Neuroscience has established that a positive camping experience helps children’s developing brains (Bryson, 2014). This poster highlights how inclusive camp models serve as a restorative practice for children with severe food allergies.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Gender and Psychiatric Drug Prescriptions among Intellectually Disabled Individuals
The general use of psychopharmacological methods in America has been increasing over the last decade (Medco, 2011). Within the population of intellectually disabled (ID) individuals, the use of psychotropic medications has been used for those with psychological disabilities, but also as a means to subdue those who were merely difficult to manage (Tsiouris, Kim, Brown, Pettinger, & Cohen, 2012). Additional factors may also increase the use of psychotropic medications. For example, gender has often been found to influence the diagnosis, treatment, and medication of psychiatric disabilities (Bentley, 2005; Medco, 2011; Smith, 2010). The Department of Developmental Services (DDS) assists ID individuals and their families using various methods. One such method is support via assisted living residences. Within the population of those living in either state- or privately-run homes and who are taking advantage of DDS services, we examined how patterns of medication prescription according to race and gender are indicative—or not—of the US population at large. This paper is part of a larger research project examining the relationships between race, gender, and medication prescription; medications include antipsychotics, antidepressants, and anti-anxiety medications, and all prescription values refer to the quantity of drugs prescribed, but not the prescribed dosages. This presentation will focus on the findings regarding how gender appears to be related to the number of medication prescriptions within the population of ID individuals in DDS homes in Connecticut in 2013 (n = 16,694). In addition, gender can be examined with regard to only those prescribed medications. While the majority of the population was not prescribed medication, chi square analyses point to significant relationships between gender and prescriptions for antipsychotics, antidepressants, and antianxiety medications, but not for anti-mania medications or sedatives. This knowledge will help advocates better serve the ID community.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Gendering revolt: Understanding women's constructions of 'dirty' and 'disgusting' bodies
When thinking about the term “revolting,” two different ideologies are: first, something disgusting or dirty; second, something rebellious and unsettling. This project seeks to look at both iterations of revolt by examining disgust and the potential ways that bodies can be rebellious, disobedient, and disorderly. When thinking more closely about disgust, it is clear that disgust is a prevalent and bodily visceral emotion; it also drives much of what we consider to be morally problematic or revolting, and as such, has great relevance to intersections with women and gender studies research. For this poster presentation, I will be presenting the qualitative data of a research study that was conducted by Dr. Breanne Fahs during the fall of 2014 on women’s beliefs and practices about women’s bodies and sexualities. Within this study, twenty women of different racial backgrounds and sexual orientations with ages ranging from 18-59 were asked several questions pertaining to disgust towards their own bodies and disgust towards the “Othered” body. A qualitative thematic analysis from a feminist poststructuralist framework was applied to the data. Results showed that women’s ideologies about their own bodies were directed to sites of excess (i.e., fatness) while other women’s bodies were framed in more racialized and gendered ways. Through a moral perspective, people who inhabit an “Othered” body have been labeled as “bad” or “unclean” people. The social justice implications of these findings deserve more close attention, particularly in terms of how a feminist politics might understand and utilize notions of disgust to advance a more egalitarian, progressive, or even radical agenda in the world of identity and body politics. With clear notions of “likeable” or “preferred” body types, those who are placed in the disgust category are the body types—and, in a broader sense, the people--that become oppressed and marginalized.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Moving Disability from the Margins: The Representation of Disability in Psychology of Women Textbooks
Scholars have analyzed representations of people with disabilities in diverse media from fairy tales (Franks, 2001) to textbooks (Goldstein, Siegel, & Seaman, 2010). When present in media, disability is often depicted solely as a medical issue with little focus on social dimensions of this axis of diversity, identity, and marginalization. Prompted by calls for the integration of disability into psychology and psychology of women (Asch & McCarthy, 2002; Banks, 2010; Olkin, 2014a), this paper presents a qualitative content analysis of 15 psychology of women/gender textbooks to determine what representations of disability are present and whether these texts provide more positive depictions and discourses with regard to disability when compared to other studies. Our analysis found a focus on physical disabilities discussed mainly in chapters on mental and physical health often conforming to a social model of disability. We conclude with how disability studies might enhance psychology of women courses, particularly discussions of mental health, and topic areas that may require supplemental materials provided by instructors.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Problematizing (the lack of) eating disorders research exploring diversity: A critical review
Although the eating disorders (ED) field boasts an expansive body of literature, relatively few studies have centered on the experiences of diverse groups. Of the extant research exploring EDs among women with diverse backgrounds/identities, there has been a predominant focus on ethnic and racial diversity, while other groups such as the lesbian, bisexual and transgender communities, women with disabilities, women from less privileged socioeconomic backgrounds, and mid-life and older women have been largely excluded. Broadly speaking, research exploring EDs has been primarily focused on women of European descent (Talleyrand, 2012). In addition, the extant literature in this area is mixed, with some studies providing evidence of the increasing prevalence rates of EDs among minority women (e.g., Franko et al., 2012), and others pointing to the protective factors inherent in certain minority cultures against the development of EDs (e.g., Warren et al., 2001). Nonetheless, it appears as though EDs are no longer “just a white girl’s thing” (Bordo, 2009). Findings from recent research suggest that EDs are affecting the lives of women from increasingly diverse backgrounds, including those identifying with racial, ethnic, sexual, and religious minority identities (e.g., Clark & Winterowd, 2012; Feldman & Meyer, 2007; Forbes et al., 2012). However, there continues to be a relative paucity of literature addressing the experiences of diverse women living with eating challenges. As such, the current project includes a comprehensive review of the extant literature exploring diversity among women living with EDs. Specific areas of diversity that continue to require further attention in ED research will be identified. Lastly, a qualitative analysis of the last five years of published ED research will be executed in order to ascertain the prevalence of diverse women’s participation in ED research. Detailed information will be provided on the methodology utilized to identify relevant articles for this project.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

Subcultured, Racialized, and Marginalized: The Thing that Binds you! LGBTQQII Women of Color
Women of color who are Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Questioning, and Intersex, (WOCLGBTQQII) are subject to the imposed worldview and are Subcultured, Racialized, and Marginalized within the culturally hegemonic workforce. Current research reveals that gender, sexual orientation, and race intersect with and are subject to consistent stigmatization in the heteronormative workplace. The WOCLGBTQQII populations are disproportionately burdened with workplace Stereotype Threat, pink ceiling barriers, hostilities, and systemic oppressions that limit their career options. Although there are multiple issues which adversely affect this population, for the purpose of this paper the main focus will be on workplace discrimination based on sexual orientation and race. This research will be framed by exploring Culturally Appropriate Career Counseling and Stereotype Threat theory. These two theoretical career counseling competencies will examine the world of the WOCLGBTQQII client by offering specific interventions which empower the individual client.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

1:05pm

The Mediating Effects of Objectified Body Consciousness On Personality and Disordered Eating Attitudes
A concerning maladaptive pattern of beliefs and behaviors among women is that of disordered eating. This often leads to serious health consequences and clinical eating disorders. Although extensive research has been conducted in order to attempt to understand the factors which contribute to disordered eating, its incidence continues to increase (Ferrier-Auerbach & Martens, 2009). Certain personality characteristics have been linked to eating habits and attitudes. For example, Conscientiousness and Neuroticism have been found to correlate with disordered eating attitudes and habits (Claes et al., 2005). Also, objectified body consciousness, a form of self-consciousness characterized by regularly monitoring the body's outward appearance (McKinley & Hyde, 1996), positively correlates with disordered eating and weight preoccupation (Tiggemann & Kuring, 2004). Previous research has found relationships between objectified body consciousness and disordered eating as well as with personality traits, but no known studies have investigated the relationship between personality and objectified boy consciousness nor all three factors combined. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether objectified body consciousness mediated the relationship between personality and disordered eating. One-hundred female psychology students from Southern Connecticut State University completed the NEO-Personality Inventory 3, the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, and the Eating Attitudes Test. Neuroticism facets (self-consciousness, anxiety, depression, and vulnerability) predicted oral control (anorectic behavior). Neuroticism facets (anxiety, impulsiveness) and the Conscientiousness facet (order) predicted bulimia and food preoccupation behaviors. Anxiety, depression, vulnerability and impulsiveness correlated with objectified body consciousness. Of these, objectified body consciousness mediated the relationship between anxiety and oral control; higher levels of Neuroticism (anxiety) was associated with more objectified body consciousness which predicted higher levels of oral control. The current study provides some evidence that the factors predictive of disordered eating are multidimensional and combine with each other to create complex sets of risk factors for unhealthy eating.


Saturday March 7, 2015 1:05pm - 2:05pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Compassionate Feminism: Feminism Precedes Compassion
The feminist movement was born in the early 20th century as a response to the unfair treatment of women. Despite the misrepresentation of feminism as a radical force solely in favor of a gender, feminism carries the broad message of gender equality and respect for the person’s independence and autonomy. Therefore, feminism is applicable across different social movements, therapeutic approaches, and advocacy. A feminist approach is sensitive to suffering and unfairness and is determined to reveal that suffering and take actions to eliminate it. This observation of feminism as an altruistic action with a desire to eliminate the source of suffering is an example of compassion. The field of compassion in psychology is in its infancy. However, the application of compassion in psychotherapy has been recognized globally. Kristian Neff in the U.S. and Paul Gilbert are pioneers of such approaches in psychotherapy. The recent body of literature has shown that compassion can promote both positive mental heath attributes and can result in promoting happiness in individuals. Therefore, many researchers tried to find the values and activities that promote compassion in individuals. One of the challenges in the development of compassionate is related to a lack of recognition of suffering in others. Others might battle with empathetic distress, which could lead to burn out. Therefore, finding a balance between compassionate behaviors is required. While social injustices and prejudices cause hardship and excessive suffering, feminist psychology promotes positive mental health and suggests ways in which to avoid suffering. The author of this article suggests that feminism as a moral imperative can provide both an active answer to suffering in the society and a healing tool. On the other hand, feminist psychology is rooted in social justice and in taking affirmative action to relieving suffering through equality. Therefore, there is an active connection between feminist psychology and compassion psychology. Moreover, while a compassionate psychologist might not be a feminist psychologist, a feminist psychologist by definition possesses the quality of a compassionate person.


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Effect of Pregnancy on Evaluations and Employment of Male and Female Job Candidates
This study investigated the effect of pregnancy on a candidate’s ability to acquire employment. Comparisons were made across the pregnant female, non-pregnant female, expectant male and non-expectant male candidates, interviewing for a traditionally masculine-typed job. Multiple regressions were used to understand pregnancy/expectancy’s effect on hiring evaluations and the interaction of the candidate’s sex with pregnancy status. Evaluations included ratings of competence and likability. Decisions about employability, qualification, and starting salary were also assessed. Absenteeism, the candidate’s likelihood of missing work, was assessed as one way of understanding reservations about hiring. Through an online survey, 266 participants reviewed the resume and an interview clip of one of the 4 fictional candidates for a temporary accounting position. Each candidate had identical performance and credentials and differed only by sex and pregnancy/ expectancy status. Results demonstrated that pregnancy status and candidate sex did not predict overall hiring decisions, though they did impact participant’s perceptions of that candidate (e.g., likeable, competent). In the literature, pregnant women are most often compared only to non-pregnant women controls, and there has been little research on differences between pregnant women and expectant men. The present study builds on the literature that has explored the effect of a woman’s pregnancy on her ability to obtain employment and salary recommendations, but also extends the research by studying expectant males. Participant demographic variables such as sex and parent status were also evaluated.


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

How Far Have We Come, ‘Baby’? Gender and Age Effects on Stereotyping
Sex roles and gender biases in American culture appear to have undergone changes in the past few decades, although the expectations for men have changed more slowly than those for women (Clow, Ricardelli & Bartfay, 2014; Wilde, & Deikman, 2005). But how much these modifications have changed and how much such beliefs have become more subtle—and, thereby, less noticeable—is difficult to say. It is also difficult to state with certainty whether the stereotypes for women have changed more than those for men. Adherence to gender stereotypes still appears to be prevalent in American society, even though much of the sexism stemming from these beliefs seems to be more covert for women. Prior research indicates these beliefs may fluctuate according to various factors, including gender and age (e.g., Maltby & Day, 2001). This current student-led study examines the effects of participants’ gender and age on both masculine and feminine stereotypes. Stereotypes were measured using the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI; Glick & Fiske, 1996) and Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory (AMI; Glick & Fiske, 1999). Age cohorts were defined using the age groups designated in the 2010 Census. Participants completed an online survey assessing their acceptance of feminine-typed and masculine-typed stereotypes. It is hypothesized that there will be a difference between men and women and their scores on two stereotyping scales. Furthermore, it is expected that older age cohorts will have stronger adherence to stereotyped beliefs. Finally, a significant interaction effect between gender and age cohort is expected to occur.


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Increasing Job satisfaction of Women Engineers with a Work-Family Enrichment Perspective
The gender gap in engineering in higher education and the workplace has been a concern for educators and government policy makers in the United States. Given the engineering occupational pipeline which continues to narrow from secondary education to the labor force among women engineers, additional research is needed to understand why women engineers leave engineering jobs, as well as predictors of their job satisfaction and the contextual barriers that they encounter. Lower job satisfaction eventually leads to higher turnover and a loss of talented women in the engineering workforce (Hill, Corbett, & Rose, 2010). There are lack of effort to understand the role of work and family to predict the job satisfaction among women engineers. The majority of work-family research has focused on negative perspectives such as work-family conflict (Eby, Lockwood, Bordeaux, & Brinley, 2005), however, recent literatures highlights that positive perspectives such as work-family enrichment can contribute to further understanding of work-family dynamics above and beyond conflict (Graywacz & Bass, 2003) and increase job satisfaction (Ferguson, Carlson, Zivnuska, & Whitten, 2012). Thus, this current study examines the job satisfaction among women engineers with a work-family enrichment perspective within social cognitive career theory of well-being (Lent, 2004) framework. Method Participants included 398 women engineers. Participants were recruited through email announcements sent to women alumni from engineering department at large U.S. universities. This proposed study mainly examined the job satisfaction, work-family enrichment, work-family conflict, self-efficacy, environmental supports. Results and Discussion Structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques used to test the overall model fit of the model. Implication of the finding will contribute to increasing knowledge regarding how psychologists can help women engineers increase their job satisfaction from work-family enrichment perspectives and also inform educational and workplace interventions for retaining talented women engineers. The limitations of this study and suggestions will be discussed.


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Pretending Orgasm and Sexual Satisfaction for Women
Sexual satisfaction has been linked with important facets of life such as overall relationship satisfaction and general well-being. According to Ippolito (2012) there has been formally no study which has described the relationship between the behavior of pretending orgasm and sexual satisfaction for women. A study which analyzed this relationship was conducted in order to fulfill Master’s thesis project requirements. Participants (N=371) were Eastern Washington University college students recruited via an online survey website (Qualtrics). Participants completed the Pinney Sexual Satisfaction Inventory (Pinney, Gerrard & Denney, 1987) and answered questions regarding sexual practices, frequencies of sexual behaviors, relationship status and finally, frequency of and reasons for pretending orgasm. It was hypothesized that pretending orgasm would be negatively correlated with overall sexual satisfaction and that experiencing orgasm would be positively correlated with overall sexual satisfaction. Results from the study supported both hypotheses. Additional significant findings regarding relationship status and pretending orgasm as well as partner satisfaction and gender differences were also observed.


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Should I even be here?: Impostorism and persistence attitudes in STEM women doctoral students
The impostor phenomenon refers to the experience of high achieving individuals, particularly women, who despite being successful attribute their accomplishments to luck and fear being exposed as frauds (Clance & Imes, 1978). The current study examines the influence of the impostor phenomenon on (a) graduate student self-efficacy, (b) perceptions of the research training environment and (c) academic persistence attitudes of female doctoral students completing a STEM related PhD program (N=177) at a large Midwestern public university. As hypothesized, the impostor phenomenon was significantly associated with these three variables in that STEM women who identified more greatly with being an “impostor,” reported a lower sense of self-efficacy as graduate students, a more negative view of their doctoral program, and a more pessimistic outlook on their academic experiences. However, results from a multiple mediational analysis revealed that a woman’s level of self-efficacy and her perception of her department buffers the impact of her impostor beliefs on her academic outlook. Based on these results, implications of how STEM doctoral programs and universities can address barriers to STEM degree completion for women are discussed.


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Social justice identity as experienced by feminist multicultural-trained counselors
Despite counselors’ involvement with social justice work, little empirical evidence has explored how social justice advocates themselves experience their social justice identity. Three aspects of social justice identity were present in the literature: (a) social justice identity is personally meaningful, (b) different factors impact one’s commitment to social justice identity, and (c) social justice identity relates to other social identities. In contrast from prior research, this study utilized qualitative methods to develop a participant-centered understanding of social justice identity. Feminist-constructivist paradigm informed the research, including the use of focus groups. With purposeful sampling, participants were recruited due to their participation in an elective, one year, social justice-oriented, feminist multicultural practicum. 20 individuals consented to participate (30% of 65 recruited); the majority (60%) were professionals with the remaining seeking their degree at the time of data collection. Data collection included focus groups and follow-up interviews. Phenomenological design and analysis were used to examine participants’ perspective. Analysis yielded five themes: (a) Acknowledging: I notice injustices, (b) Personalizing: I’ve made it my own, (c) Reflecting: Am I taking enough responsibility?, (d) Sustaining: I sustain my efforts with support and self-care, and (e) Engaging: My social justice-oriented action positively impacts others and me. Among the themes, both internal and contextual aspects of social justice identity were prevalent. Results were consistent with the existing literature on counselors’ social justice identity, and the study extended empirical support to the literature.

Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

The impact of gender role conformity on alcohol use among emerging adults in Canada
Feminist scholars have noted that substance use issues should be examined using a sociopolitical and cultural lens (Covington, 2002; Grant, 2006). There is limited research on the influence of social power structures, including internalized socially constructed gender roles, on drinking patterns of men and women. Over the past two decades the gender gap in alcohol use has narrowed (Greenfield, 2002), particularly for emerging adults (i.e., ages 18-25), with rates of alcohol use for women ‘catching up’ to those of men. What was once a male-dominated ‘rite of passage’ and overt display of masculinity is now a common behaviour among women as well, yet drinking is still construed as ‘unfeminine’ in some respects. The current study examines how social constructions of masculinity and femininity affect alcohol behaviours for men and women, given the recent trend in convergence. Emerging adults aged 19-25 (N=191; 132 women, 59 men) participated in an online survey. Participants responded to standardized measures of alcohol use, alcohol problems, conformity to norms of masculinity/femininity, gender stereotyped traits, and the degree to which they viewed gender roles as dichotomous. Men and women also estimated the number of drinks they typically consumed in various settings, which were either same-gender or mixed-gender contexts. Linear regression analyses revealed that several domains of masculinity and femininity were significantly associated with alcohol use and alcohol problems, whereas other domains were negatively related to alcohol outcomes. Further, gender conformity variables were found to be significant correlates of drinking in various settings and events. Overall, the patterns of relationships were gender specific. Being a ‘playboy’ (for men) and the desire to be thin (for women) were the most important correlates of alcohol use and problems. For women, sexual fidelity was significantly and negatively related to alcohol outcomes. Implications of these findings are discussed from a feminist critical perspective.

Speakers
JH

Julia Hussman

University of Toronto

Authors
AG

Abby Goldstein

University of Toronto

Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

The Motherhood Penalty: Still Applied by Some University Students
Women are more likely than men to suffer disadvantages on perceived job-related skills or traits (Fuegen, Biernat, Haines, & Deaux, 2004; Cuddy, et al., 2004), and these effects may be exacerbated when a woman is perceived as a mother (Correll, Benard & Paik, 2007). When women are perceived as mothers and are rated less favorably on work-relevant characteristics, this effect is called the motherhood penalty. Some researchers have suggested that the motherhood penalty is due to the stereotypes that individuals have about women and mothers (Cuddy, Fiske, Glick, 2004). Though the motherhood penalty has been replicated throughout the extant literature, we considered the possibility that the same results may not hold approximately 10 years later, as society’s perceptions about women are changing (Braun & Scott, 2009). To test our research question, we employed a standard resume paradigm in which applicant gender and parental status were manipulated. Undergraduate students from a Midwestern university (N = 111; 74% women, 26% men) were asked to answer questions about their perceptions of work-related traits for a childless woman and for a mother. A series of paired-samples t-tests revealed that, compared to applicants who were perceived as mothers, applicants who were perceived as childless women fared better on several work-related traits (e.g., motivated, experienced, committed). Our results demonstrate that, at least in some samples, mothers continue to be penalized on work-related traits. Moreover, we present evidence suggesting that the motherhood penalty’s effects may vary by sample, as some university students actually rate mothers more favorably on work-related traits. Our findings suggest certain background characteristics, including geographical location, may influence perceptions of women. In the future, investigators of the motherhood penalty should examine which attitudinal and demographic variables are predictive of evaluations of childless women and mothers.


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

The Role of Intimate Relationships in Women’s and Men’s Persistence in Science and Engineering
Women are underrepresented in science and engineering (SE) occupations, particularly in academia. Are gendered relationship norms a factor in this gender gap in persistence? A dominant norm is that women’s career should come second to those of their male partners--particularly when the partners’ career is demanding and high-status. This means that being in a committed relationship while in a demanding, high-status career path might add to the career challenges for women, and to career resources for men. This study examined intentions to pursue a doctorate and an academic career among female and male SE graduate students, across relationship commitments, and in reference to the partners’ occupation (STEM or not). One hundred and twenty nine (63% female) graduate students in SE doctoral programs at two universities completed a survey about their personal and educational profile and their educational/career intentions, prior to an interview. The study’s findings suggest a complex relationship between women’s relationship commitments, their male partners’ occupation, and intention to persist through an academic career. Single women (attached and not) were undecided about pursuing a doctorate. For married women, doctorate intention depended on the partners’ occupation. Married women whose partner was not in STEM were most intent at completing a doctorate, while married women whose partner was in STEM were less likely to express an intent to pursue a doctorate, relative to single women. Women married or attached to STEM partners tended to rule out an academic career. By contrast, for men, being married was associated with greater doctorate persistence intention. Men’s relationship status and their partners’ occupational field were unrelated to their academic career intent. These findings suggest that women’s and men’s intention to persist in the SE academia path is associated with different relationship profiles. Marriage appears to consistently be a resource for men, but not women.


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

2:25pm

Women's Leadership Symposium: A Mixed Methods Assessment of Psychological Empowerment
Psychological empowerment (PE) focuses on empowerment at the individual level and refers to one’s capacity to have control and make choices regarding their personal life (Israel, Checkoway, Schulz, & Zimmerman, 1994), which includes self-efficacy, participatory behavior, and motivation to exert control over personal, educational and career goals (Zimmerman, 1990). However, psychological empowerment is contextual, therefore programs (i.e., programs at schools designed to increase PE), that aim to increase levels of PE vary depending on the context. Since processes vary between contexts, it is important to measure effects of processes to determine if a given process is having the desired effect The present thesis aims to determine if, and to what degree, the Women’s Leadership Symposium (WLS) at Governors State University impacts PE among 30 female participants. In this mixed-methods thesis on PE among WLS participants I will quantitatively measure PE three times: (1) before the WLS, (2) immediately after the WLS, and (3) three months after participation in the WLS. After the second administration of the PE measure, participants will be asked to volunteer their contact information for participation in individual interviews. The third administration of the quantitative PE measure will be administered after the individual interviews. While the quantitative measure will provide information on PE over time, the qualitative component intends to explore the ways in which participants applied what they learned through the symposium and student needs for future programming specifically designed for women. Data collection and analysis will be completed by February 2105, so the results will be presented followed by discussion of the limitations of the study and the WLS. Suggestions for future leadership programming will also be explored.


Saturday March 7, 2015 2:25pm - 3:25pm
Redwood

3:45pm

Broken Lives and Living Memories: Trauma Among Female Lithuanian Survivors of Soviet Political Deportations
The proposed poster presentation will focus on the women survivors of Soviet period genocide by exploring the lived experiences of these individuals through phenomenological interviews. The 1939 annexation of the Lithuania brought profound political, economic, and cultural changes, including political repressions, due to Soviet efforts to rapidly transform the country into a communist republic (Kuodyte, 2005). Because of the Soviet government measures against individuals accused of anti-Soviet and anti-communist actions, nearly 120,000 Lithuanians were deported to labor and concentration camps between1940 and 1953. The camps were spread out throughout vast territories of Russia reaching as far as the far north of Siberia and Kazakhstan (Courtois et al., 1999; Kuodyte, 2005). Separation of families, chronic starvation, harsh and inhumane labor and concentration camp conditions were common experiences of individuals acquitted of anti-communist activities (Kuodyte, 2005). A few existing research studies on Soviet political repressions of Lithuanians focused on psychological effects of Soviet and Nazi repression (Gailiene & Kazlauskas, 2005), communication patterns among Lithuanian survivors and their children (Vaskeliene, Kazlauskas, Gailiene, & Domanskaite-Gota, 2011), and quantitative assessment of long term psychological effects of Soviet repression in Lithuania (Kazlauskas & Gailiene, 2005). However, studies on trauma associated with Soviet repressions are still lacking, partially due to existing denial and ambivalence associated with the crimes of communism (Gailiene & Kazlauskas, 2005). Considering the paucity of scholarly studies on the experiences of Lithuanian survivors of Soviet labor and concentration camps, the present qualitative study sought to contribute to the literature addressing psychological effects of Soviet penal system and increase awareness into psychological impact of collective trauma. Additionally, the study highlighted the survivors’ perception and lived experience of collective trauma of political repressions. This poster presentation will present the results of an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) of survivors of Soviet political repressions with a special focus on female survivors. Six participants were interviewed out of which four were females, and data was analyzed following the guidelines set forth by IPA methodology (Smith & Osborn, 2008). The results of the study highlight the lived experiences of individuals who survived Soviet political repressions and the meaning they attach to the experience of their collective trauma. This poster will present unique experiences of female survivors and their role in the resistance of the political oppression. Unlike Holocaust, the impact of Soviet political repressions and associated collective trauma has only recently become the focus of scholarly research (Gailiene & Kazlauskas, 2005). Thus, viewers of this poster will not only be informed of the collective trauma implications from survivors’ perspectives but also gain greater awareness into psychological effects of political repressions on females and the ways they negotiated their identities amidst political repression.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Redwood

3:45pm

How Parents Process Gender and Violence with Children through Mindfulness
The purpose of this project was to explore how parents use attitudes and values in alignment with Mindfulness (Brach, 2004; Kabbat-Zinn & Kabbat-Zinn, 1997; Naht Hahn, 1999, 2006) to process the phenomena of gender and violence with their children, and how conveying those attitudes influence their child’s understanding of gender and violence. We engaged the following research questions: 1) How do parents experience the phenomenon of processing gender and violence with their children? 2) How do parents use attitudes and values in alignment with Mindfulness to nurture their child’s ability to navigate these phenomena? A small body of research has explored the efficacy of Mindfulness parenting practices (Bögels, Lehtonen, & Restifo, 2010; Duncan, Coatsworth, & Greenburg, 2009; Harnett & Dawe, 2012) but there is scant research investigating how parents use values and attitudes associated with Mindfulness to process gender and/or violence with their children (Singh, et al., 2006). Our study design was grounded in a feminist phenomenological approach (Fisher, 2000; Sprague, & Kobrynowicz, 2006). For data collection we conducted semi-structured individual interviews with a cross-sectional, purposive sample of five fathers, eight mothers (Patton, 1990). The data analysis consisted of In-Vivo and Value coding, from which the researchers developed categories and themes to illustrate the findings (Charmaz, 2006; Saldaña, 2013). Two main categories emerged from the data: witnessing and boundaries. We used the terms witnessing and boundaries to illustrate how the parents used Mindfulness to process gender and violence with their children. We found clinical, policy, and research implications from our research. One recommendation for clinical practice is to focus on the values and attitudes parents use to process gender and violence with their children as part of a risk and protective factor assessment


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Redwood

3:45pm

Mediators of Distress Following Sexual Assault
Previous research has greatly contributed to the general knowledge surrounding trauma prevalence across populations, showing that a majority of people have experienced at least one traumatic event in their lifetime (Frazier, 2011). Specifically, sexual assault has been identified as a commonly experienced traumatic event that puts survivors at a higher risk for distress when compared to almost any other traumatic event (Breslau et al., 1998; Kessler et al., 1995). It is unclear, however, exactly what factors contribute to higher levels of distress following sexual assault than other traumatic events. Thus, the current study compared those who had experienced sexual assault to those who had not experienced sexual assault to assess factors that might explain why sexual assault is associated with a high risk for distress. The sample for this study included 1,528 undergraduate students, with 224 students reporting sexual assault. In this short-term longitudinal study, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) was used as the distress outcome variable in analyses. We selected possible mediation variables including self-esteem, positive personal relationships, and number of interpersonal traumas experienced. These variables were selected based upon both theoretical rationales and significant correlations between exposure to sexual assault and the distress. Following the process laid out by Frazier, Tix and Barron (2004), we conducted a mediation analysis. Multiple mediation results showed that all three mediators significantly altered the relationship between sexual assault exposure and the distress scores. Results indicated that sexual assault may be associated with more overall distress because sexual assault survivors tend to experience more interpersonal traumatic events, have less positive personal relationships, and report lower self-esteem. An understanding of such factors that mediate distress will help to better inform interventions for survivors of trauma. Specifically, we believe that it will be paramount to better investigate the relationship between additional interpersonal traumatic events and sexual assault.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Redwood

3:45pm

Predictors of Tolerant Attitudes Toward Intimate Partner Violence
Intimate relationships are often a source of comfort and security. Ironically, for many individuals these same relationships can be a source of fear and violence. As such, it is worthwhile to invest scholarly research into examining how these supposed loving bonds can go awry. Although an extensive amount of research has focused on both individual and societal factors implicated in the perpetration of intimate partner violence, less attention has been given to studying variables that may be associated with victimization. The current research was interested in examining whether attachment style, particularly fear of abandonment, as well as self-esteem and internalized attitudes toward women are meaningful predictors of tolerant attitudes towards intimate partner violence. Specifically, it was predicted that women who score high on measures of both fear of abandonment and internalization of traditional attitudes towards women, as well as those who score low on a measure of self-esteem, would be likely to report tolerant attitudes toward intimate partner violence. 94 female Carleton University students between the ages of 17 and 25 were recruited from the Carleton participant pool using the online SONA sign-up system. Each participant completed a questionnaire online at a secure site (Qualtrics) that took approximately 15 minutes to complete. The questionnaire included measures that assessed how participants scored on each of these variables. As predicted, regression analyses found that fear of abandonment was a marginally significant predictor of tolerant attitudes toward intimate partner violence, particularly for sexual violence. Self-esteem and internalization of traditional attitudes toward women did not appear to be meaningful predictors. The implications of this research, as well as important future directions, are explored in depth.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Redwood

3:45pm

School and Community Characteristics Related to Dating Violence Victimization Among High School Youth
Dating violence (DV) victimization is a public health concern in the United States that impacts one in ten high school youth annually (Khan et al., 2014) and leads to a host of negative consequences for both victims and society (Banyard & Cross, 2008; Silverman, Raj, Mucci, & Hathaway, 2001). Thus, it is important that researchers examine factors that increase risk and protective factors for experiencing DV as a victim. This type of research can be leveraged to create evidence-based prevention and intervention efforts. To date, researchers have primarily focused on individual (e.g., attitudes toward violence) and relational (e.g., marital satisfaction) factors as correlates and predictors of DV victimization and perpetration experiences (e.g., McKenry, Julian, & Gavazzi, 1995; Stith, & Farley, 1993). Far less research has examined school and community characteristics that may serve as risk or protective factors for DV experiences, which is critical to creating effective multi-level prevention and intervention efforts. The researchers examined school and community characteristics related to dating violence (DV) victimization among high school youth (N = 25,693; 49.2% boys and 50.8% girls) using data obtained from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey in New Hampshire and U.S. Census data. Controlling for relevant demographic variables (e.g., age, gender, race), physical DV victimization was related to higher school-level poverty rates and youth feeling low levels of importance to their community. Sexual DV victimization was related to youth feeling low levels of importance to their community as well as participating in community groups. These findings highlight the importance of examining risk and protective factors for DV victimization at the outer realms of the social ecology. Further, prevention and intervention efforts would likely be enhanced by considering community and school factors that impact risk for DV among DV victims.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Redwood

3:45pm

Sexual Violence, Coping, and Empowerment Among Chicana/Latina Survivors: A Dissertation Proposal
Rates of rape are significantly high; at least 1 in every 5 women and 1 in every 71 men have been raped at some time in their life (Black et. al., 2011). Rates of sexual victimization are also high among U.S. ethnic minority groups (Caetano, Field, Miller, & Lipsky, 2009). One of the few studies to focus on sexual violence among Latina women found that 1 in 6 experienced sexual victimization in her lifetime (Cuevas & Sabina, 2010). Latinas also experience rape and sexual violence at the US/Mexico border, which is often described as militarized border rapes due to the “power” associated with the border itself (Falcon, 2007). Regarding this particular population, few studies investigate coping and resiliency following sexual assault for Latinas. Previous research that has been conducted has shown the detriments of sexual violence on mental health; however, little research is known about the Latina/o population overcoming and coping with sexual violence and rape. The purpose of this future study is to explore the relationship between sexual assault and coping and the impact the relationship has on the overall resiliency and empowerment among Chicana/Latina women within a feminist framework. Additionally, this study aims to gain a deeper understanding of the recovery process of participants who have experienced sexual assault (particularly at the US/Mexico border or en route to the U.S.) and the coping mechanisms that emerge as a result of those experiences. A collaborative partnership with a rape crisis agency has been established for data collection. The purposes of this poster are to present a review of the literature regarding sexual violence and coping among Chicana/Latina survivors and receive feedback for proposed methodology for a dissertation study. Feedback from this poster will be utilized and integrated into a final dissertation proposal.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Redwood

3:45pm

The Dynamics of Sexual Victimization of African American Female College Students
African American females are statistically underrepresented on most college campuses, but are at greater risk of sexual assault in comparison to students of other ethnicities. This paradox is influenced by various factors that affect disclosure following an on-campus assault amongst African American females. It is hypothesized that the low disclosure rate of sexual traumatization within the African American community (Ullman & Filipas, 2001) extends to the African American female student population. Both disclosure and help-seeking are integral components of recovery, however despite the importance of help seeking following a sexual assault, the barriers to disclosure amongst African American female students are numerous and multifaceted. Culturally bound - historical and contemporary - variables that prevent disclosure include stereotypes of African American femininity and sexuality (Tillman, Bryant-Davis, Smith, & Marks, 2010); racism, oppression, and intergenerational trauma (Bryant-Davis & Ocampo, 2006); an unspoken fidelity towards African American male perpetrators based on their chronicled history of false accusations and treatment in the criminal justice system (Tillman et al., 2010); systematic mistrust (e.g., medical, legal, police) due to poor experiences and or fear of revictimization (Washington, 2001); and the “Strong Black Woman” stereotype (Donovan & Williams, 2002). Though no empirical evidence supports differential psychological symptomatology post sexual assault between ethnic groups, one study found that African American female student assault survivors, who experienced a previous sexual trauma, were more apt to experience self-blame, a deleterious correlate of low self-esteem (Tilman et al., 2010), in comparison to White female college students (Neville, Heppner, Oh, Spainerman, & Clark, 2004). This poster represents a critical review of literature pertaining to sexual assault on college campuses for African American female survivors and will examine prevalence, effects, barriers to disclosure, and recovery strategies. Policy implications and methods of restorative justice for African American student survivors will also be explored. References Bryant-Davis, T., & Ocampo, C. (2006). A therapeutic approach to the treatment of racist-incident-based trauma. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 6, 1-22. Donovan, R. & Williams, M. (2002). Living at the intersection: The effects of racism and sexism on Black rape survivors. Women & Therapy, 25, 95-105. Neville, H., Heppner, M., Oh, E., Spainerman, L., & Clark, M. (2004). General and culturally specific factors influencing Black and White rape survivors’ self-esteem. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 83-94. Tillman, S., Bryant-Davis, T., Smith, K., & Marks, A. (2010). Shattering silence: Exploring barriers to disclosure for African American sexual assault survivors.Trauma, violence, & abuse, 11(2), 59-70. Ullman, S. E., & Filipas, H. H. (2001). Predictors of PTSD symptom severity and social reactions in sexual assault victims. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14, 369-389. Washington, P. A. (2001). Disclosure patterns of Black female sexual assault survivors. Violence Against Women, 7, 1254-1283.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Redwood

3:45pm

The Experience of Filing a Sexual Assault Report After Being Raped: A Report by U.S. Navy Women Veterans
Sexual assaults are a serious problem that affect millions of Americans (RAINN, 2011; UCR, 2009), and it is estimated that they occur in higher numbers among U.S. military personnel (Hankin et al., 1999; Sadle et al., 2003; Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000). In addition, only an estimated 20 percent of sexual assaults are ever reported (Ellison, 2011). The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of U.S. Navy women who experienced rape during their time in service in order to gain a greater understanding of both the limitations and strengths of the DOD’s current policies and procedures regarding sexual assault. There were nine participants in this study, all of whom experienced a rape during active duty in the U.S. Navy and filed a subsequent sexual assault report. This study found that U.S. Navy sexual assault victims encounter a number of difficulties that affect their mental health, careers, and trust in the military after they have reported a sexual assault. This study also found that participants had many recommendations for the DOD that may offer improvement of current policies and procedures. Due to the paucity of research on this topic, this study helps to define both the strengths and limitations within the Department of Defense’s sexual assault policies and procedures. These results may assist the Department of Defense, clinicians, and family members of sexual assault victims by providing greater understanding of areas of need and difficulties commonly encountered by military sexual assault victims.  


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Redwood

3:45pm

Women Who Resort To Violence in Intimate Relationships
In cases of domestic violence, some research findings suggest that men and women are equally violent toward intimate partners. However, the dynamics underlying intimate partner violence committed by men and women is frequently very different. Often, women who use violence do not exert force in a way as to assert power and control. Their behavior is often a way to protect themselves and a reaction to the abuse which they have experienced for years. As victimization comes to a head, women who resort to violence do so as a method to stay safe. In addition, the impact of violence committed by men leads to more severe consequences for the women they abuse. However, differences between the two scenarios are often not considered within the legal system, leading to arrests and convictions for women who are primarily battered women who use violent behavior as a result of the violence perpetrated against them rather than in an effort to control their partners. The number of women arrested does not reflect the true existence of women as primary aggressors, but rather a crack in the criminal justice system. The following paper will discuss research that investigates women who resort to violence in domestic relationships and the prevalence of this in recent years. Additionally, the differences between men and women’s use of interpersonal violence will be explored. It is hypothesized that women are more negatively impacted by domestic abuse than men. This paper proposes to explore explanations regarding intimate partner violence committed by women and gendered reactions to women who resort to violence. In summary, a review of the literature on women who resort to violence will help health care professionals understand what motivates a woman to use interpersonal violence.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Redwood

3:45pm

“Role-play”; Hyper-gender ideology and woman’s dating violence perpetration and victimization
Intimate partner violence (IPV), including physical, psychological, and sexual abuse of one’s partner, is a common and substantial problem in our society. Research has documented various risk (e.g., accepting attitudes) and protective (e.g., self-esteem) factors for IPV perpetration and victimization. Because society typically expects women and men to behave in different ways (e.g., women are not supposed to be violent) (e.g., McHugh et al., 2005), hypergender ideology (also known as gender-role ideology), or an adherence to traditional gender roles has been shown to be related to IPV perpetration and victimization. Using a sample of 17-61-year-olds, Fizpatrick et al. (2004) found that gender-role ideology was related to women’s physical and psychological IPV perpetration and victimization. However, not only did Fitzpatrick et al.’s (2004) study include a wide age range of participants that may have influenced their results, but they also neglected to include sexual IPV in their study. Thus, the goal of the current study was to investigate the relationship between hypergender ideology and physical, psychological, and sexual IPV victimization and perpetration among college-aged young adults (i.e., aged 18-30), as this age group has a heightened risk of victimization and perpetration (e.g., Fisher et al., 2000). This study surveyed 335 women from a New England university who had been in a relationship in the past year. They were questioned on their experiences of IPV victimization and perpetration, as well as the extent to which they displayed hypergender ideology. We found that high levels of hypergender ideology were related to women’s physical IPV victimization, as well as their sexual and physical IPV perpetration. These results show that adhering to traditional gender roles may have implications for women’s use and receipt of partner aggression. Furthermore, these findings highlight the importance of education on the implications of adhering to gender roles in IPV prevention.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Redwood