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*Note* This scheduling program was not designed by folks who do a lot with APA Style and unfortunately it defaults to listing authors in alphabetical order. We cannot fix this for this online schedule, but the author orders are posted in the order submitted in the printed program available via pdf here.

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Poster [clear filter]
Saturday, March 7
 

3:45pm

Broken Lives and Living Memories: Trauma Among Female Lithuanian Survivors of Soviet Political Deportations
The proposed poster presentation will focus on the women survivors of Soviet period genocide by exploring the lived experiences of these individuals through phenomenological interviews. The 1939 annexation of the Lithuania brought profound political, economic, and cultural changes, including political repressions, due to Soviet efforts to rapidly transform the country into a communist republic (Kuodyte, 2005). Because of the Soviet government measures against individuals accused of anti-Soviet and anti-communist actions, nearly 120,000 Lithuanians were deported to labor and concentration camps between1940 and 1953. The camps were spread out throughout vast territories of Russia reaching as far as the far north of Siberia and Kazakhstan (Courtois et al., 1999; Kuodyte, 2005). Separation of families, chronic starvation, harsh and inhumane labor and concentration camp conditions were common experiences of individuals acquitted of anti-communist activities (Kuodyte, 2005). A few existing research studies on Soviet political repressions of Lithuanians focused on psychological effects of Soviet and Nazi repression (Gailiene & Kazlauskas, 2005), communication patterns among Lithuanian survivors and their children (Vaskeliene, Kazlauskas, Gailiene, & Domanskaite-Gota, 2011), and quantitative assessment of long term psychological effects of Soviet repression in Lithuania (Kazlauskas & Gailiene, 2005). However, studies on trauma associated with Soviet repressions are still lacking, partially due to existing denial and ambivalence associated with the crimes of communism (Gailiene & Kazlauskas, 2005). Considering the paucity of scholarly studies on the experiences of Lithuanian survivors of Soviet labor and concentration camps, the present qualitative study sought to contribute to the literature addressing psychological effects of Soviet penal system and increase awareness into psychological impact of collective trauma. Additionally, the study highlighted the survivors’ perception and lived experience of collective trauma of political repressions. This poster presentation will present the results of an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) of survivors of Soviet political repressions with a special focus on female survivors. Six participants were interviewed out of which four were females, and data was analyzed following the guidelines set forth by IPA methodology (Smith & Osborn, 2008). The results of the study highlight the lived experiences of individuals who survived Soviet political repressions and the meaning they attach to the experience of their collective trauma. This poster will present unique experiences of female survivors and their role in the resistance of the political oppression. Unlike Holocaust, the impact of Soviet political repressions and associated collective trauma has only recently become the focus of scholarly research (Gailiene & Kazlauskas, 2005). Thus, viewers of this poster will not only be informed of the collective trauma implications from survivors’ perspectives but also gain greater awareness into psychological effects of political repressions on females and the ways they negotiated their identities amidst political repression.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Redwood

3:45pm

How Parents Process Gender and Violence with Children through Mindfulness
The purpose of this project was to explore how parents use attitudes and values in alignment with Mindfulness (Brach, 2004; Kabbat-Zinn & Kabbat-Zinn, 1997; Naht Hahn, 1999, 2006) to process the phenomena of gender and violence with their children, and how conveying those attitudes influence their child’s understanding of gender and violence. We engaged the following research questions: 1) How do parents experience the phenomenon of processing gender and violence with their children? 2) How do parents use attitudes and values in alignment with Mindfulness to nurture their child’s ability to navigate these phenomena? A small body of research has explored the efficacy of Mindfulness parenting practices (Bögels, Lehtonen, & Restifo, 2010; Duncan, Coatsworth, & Greenburg, 2009; Harnett & Dawe, 2012) but there is scant research investigating how parents use values and attitudes associated with Mindfulness to process gender and/or violence with their children (Singh, et al., 2006). Our study design was grounded in a feminist phenomenological approach (Fisher, 2000; Sprague, & Kobrynowicz, 2006). For data collection we conducted semi-structured individual interviews with a cross-sectional, purposive sample of five fathers, eight mothers (Patton, 1990). The data analysis consisted of In-Vivo and Value coding, from which the researchers developed categories and themes to illustrate the findings (Charmaz, 2006; Saldaña, 2013). Two main categories emerged from the data: witnessing and boundaries. We used the terms witnessing and boundaries to illustrate how the parents used Mindfulness to process gender and violence with their children. We found clinical, policy, and research implications from our research. One recommendation for clinical practice is to focus on the values and attitudes parents use to process gender and violence with their children as part of a risk and protective factor assessment


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Redwood

3:45pm

Mediators of Distress Following Sexual Assault
Previous research has greatly contributed to the general knowledge surrounding trauma prevalence across populations, showing that a majority of people have experienced at least one traumatic event in their lifetime (Frazier, 2011). Specifically, sexual assault has been identified as a commonly experienced traumatic event that puts survivors at a higher risk for distress when compared to almost any other traumatic event (Breslau et al., 1998; Kessler et al., 1995). It is unclear, however, exactly what factors contribute to higher levels of distress following sexual assault than other traumatic events. Thus, the current study compared those who had experienced sexual assault to those who had not experienced sexual assault to assess factors that might explain why sexual assault is associated with a high risk for distress. The sample for this study included 1,528 undergraduate students, with 224 students reporting sexual assault. In this short-term longitudinal study, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) was used as the distress outcome variable in analyses. We selected possible mediation variables including self-esteem, positive personal relationships, and number of interpersonal traumas experienced. These variables were selected based upon both theoretical rationales and significant correlations between exposure to sexual assault and the distress. Following the process laid out by Frazier, Tix and Barron (2004), we conducted a mediation analysis. Multiple mediation results showed that all three mediators significantly altered the relationship between sexual assault exposure and the distress scores. Results indicated that sexual assault may be associated with more overall distress because sexual assault survivors tend to experience more interpersonal traumatic events, have less positive personal relationships, and report lower self-esteem. An understanding of such factors that mediate distress will help to better inform interventions for survivors of trauma. Specifically, we believe that it will be paramount to better investigate the relationship between additional interpersonal traumatic events and sexual assault.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Redwood

3:45pm

Predictors of Tolerant Attitudes Toward Intimate Partner Violence
Intimate relationships are often a source of comfort and security. Ironically, for many individuals these same relationships can be a source of fear and violence. As such, it is worthwhile to invest scholarly research into examining how these supposed loving bonds can go awry. Although an extensive amount of research has focused on both individual and societal factors implicated in the perpetration of intimate partner violence, less attention has been given to studying variables that may be associated with victimization. The current research was interested in examining whether attachment style, particularly fear of abandonment, as well as self-esteem and internalized attitudes toward women are meaningful predictors of tolerant attitudes towards intimate partner violence. Specifically, it was predicted that women who score high on measures of both fear of abandonment and internalization of traditional attitudes towards women, as well as those who score low on a measure of self-esteem, would be likely to report tolerant attitudes toward intimate partner violence. 94 female Carleton University students between the ages of 17 and 25 were recruited from the Carleton participant pool using the online SONA sign-up system. Each participant completed a questionnaire online at a secure site (Qualtrics) that took approximately 15 minutes to complete. The questionnaire included measures that assessed how participants scored on each of these variables. As predicted, regression analyses found that fear of abandonment was a marginally significant predictor of tolerant attitudes toward intimate partner violence, particularly for sexual violence. Self-esteem and internalization of traditional attitudes toward women did not appear to be meaningful predictors. The implications of this research, as well as important future directions, are explored in depth.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Redwood

3:45pm

School and Community Characteristics Related to Dating Violence Victimization Among High School Youth
Dating violence (DV) victimization is a public health concern in the United States that impacts one in ten high school youth annually (Khan et al., 2014) and leads to a host of negative consequences for both victims and society (Banyard & Cross, 2008; Silverman, Raj, Mucci, & Hathaway, 2001). Thus, it is important that researchers examine factors that increase risk and protective factors for experiencing DV as a victim. This type of research can be leveraged to create evidence-based prevention and intervention efforts. To date, researchers have primarily focused on individual (e.g., attitudes toward violence) and relational (e.g., marital satisfaction) factors as correlates and predictors of DV victimization and perpetration experiences (e.g., McKenry, Julian, & Gavazzi, 1995; Stith, & Farley, 1993). Far less research has examined school and community characteristics that may serve as risk or protective factors for DV experiences, which is critical to creating effective multi-level prevention and intervention efforts. The researchers examined school and community characteristics related to dating violence (DV) victimization among high school youth (N = 25,693; 49.2% boys and 50.8% girls) using data obtained from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey in New Hampshire and U.S. Census data. Controlling for relevant demographic variables (e.g., age, gender, race), physical DV victimization was related to higher school-level poverty rates and youth feeling low levels of importance to their community. Sexual DV victimization was related to youth feeling low levels of importance to their community as well as participating in community groups. These findings highlight the importance of examining risk and protective factors for DV victimization at the outer realms of the social ecology. Further, prevention and intervention efforts would likely be enhanced by considering community and school factors that impact risk for DV among DV victims.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Redwood

3:45pm

Sexual Violence, Coping, and Empowerment Among Chicana/Latina Survivors: A Dissertation Proposal
Rates of rape are significantly high; at least 1 in every 5 women and 1 in every 71 men have been raped at some time in their life (Black et. al., 2011). Rates of sexual victimization are also high among U.S. ethnic minority groups (Caetano, Field, Miller, & Lipsky, 2009). One of the few studies to focus on sexual violence among Latina women found that 1 in 6 experienced sexual victimization in her lifetime (Cuevas & Sabina, 2010). Latinas also experience rape and sexual violence at the US/Mexico border, which is often described as militarized border rapes due to the “power” associated with the border itself (Falcon, 2007). Regarding this particular population, few studies investigate coping and resiliency following sexual assault for Latinas. Previous research that has been conducted has shown the detriments of sexual violence on mental health; however, little research is known about the Latina/o population overcoming and coping with sexual violence and rape. The purpose of this future study is to explore the relationship between sexual assault and coping and the impact the relationship has on the overall resiliency and empowerment among Chicana/Latina women within a feminist framework. Additionally, this study aims to gain a deeper understanding of the recovery process of participants who have experienced sexual assault (particularly at the US/Mexico border or en route to the U.S.) and the coping mechanisms that emerge as a result of those experiences. A collaborative partnership with a rape crisis agency has been established for data collection. The purposes of this poster are to present a review of the literature regarding sexual violence and coping among Chicana/Latina survivors and receive feedback for proposed methodology for a dissertation study. Feedback from this poster will be utilized and integrated into a final dissertation proposal.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Redwood

3:45pm

The Dynamics of Sexual Victimization of African American Female College Students
African American females are statistically underrepresented on most college campuses, but are at greater risk of sexual assault in comparison to students of other ethnicities. This paradox is influenced by various factors that affect disclosure following an on-campus assault amongst African American females. It is hypothesized that the low disclosure rate of sexual traumatization within the African American community (Ullman & Filipas, 2001) extends to the African American female student population. Both disclosure and help-seeking are integral components of recovery, however despite the importance of help seeking following a sexual assault, the barriers to disclosure amongst African American female students are numerous and multifaceted. Culturally bound - historical and contemporary - variables that prevent disclosure include stereotypes of African American femininity and sexuality (Tillman, Bryant-Davis, Smith, & Marks, 2010); racism, oppression, and intergenerational trauma (Bryant-Davis & Ocampo, 2006); an unspoken fidelity towards African American male perpetrators based on their chronicled history of false accusations and treatment in the criminal justice system (Tillman et al., 2010); systematic mistrust (e.g., medical, legal, police) due to poor experiences and or fear of revictimization (Washington, 2001); and the “Strong Black Woman” stereotype (Donovan & Williams, 2002). Though no empirical evidence supports differential psychological symptomatology post sexual assault between ethnic groups, one study found that African American female student assault survivors, who experienced a previous sexual trauma, were more apt to experience self-blame, a deleterious correlate of low self-esteem (Tilman et al., 2010), in comparison to White female college students (Neville, Heppner, Oh, Spainerman, & Clark, 2004). This poster represents a critical review of literature pertaining to sexual assault on college campuses for African American female survivors and will examine prevalence, effects, barriers to disclosure, and recovery strategies. Policy implications and methods of restorative justice for African American student survivors will also be explored. References Bryant-Davis, T., & Ocampo, C. (2006). A therapeutic approach to the treatment of racist-incident-based trauma. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 6, 1-22. Donovan, R. & Williams, M. (2002). Living at the intersection: The effects of racism and sexism on Black rape survivors. Women & Therapy, 25, 95-105. Neville, H., Heppner, M., Oh, E., Spainerman, L., & Clark, M. (2004). General and culturally specific factors influencing Black and White rape survivors’ self-esteem. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 83-94. Tillman, S., Bryant-Davis, T., Smith, K., & Marks, A. (2010). Shattering silence: Exploring barriers to disclosure for African American sexual assault survivors.Trauma, violence, & abuse, 11(2), 59-70. Ullman, S. E., & Filipas, H. H. (2001). Predictors of PTSD symptom severity and social reactions in sexual assault victims. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14, 369-389. Washington, P. A. (2001). Disclosure patterns of Black female sexual assault survivors. Violence Against Women, 7, 1254-1283.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Redwood

3:45pm

The Experience of Filing a Sexual Assault Report After Being Raped: A Report by U.S. Navy Women Veterans
Sexual assaults are a serious problem that affect millions of Americans (RAINN, 2011; UCR, 2009), and it is estimated that they occur in higher numbers among U.S. military personnel (Hankin et al., 1999; Sadle et al., 2003; Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000). In addition, only an estimated 20 percent of sexual assaults are ever reported (Ellison, 2011). The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of U.S. Navy women who experienced rape during their time in service in order to gain a greater understanding of both the limitations and strengths of the DOD’s current policies and procedures regarding sexual assault. There were nine participants in this study, all of whom experienced a rape during active duty in the U.S. Navy and filed a subsequent sexual assault report. This study found that U.S. Navy sexual assault victims encounter a number of difficulties that affect their mental health, careers, and trust in the military after they have reported a sexual assault. This study also found that participants had many recommendations for the DOD that may offer improvement of current policies and procedures. Due to the paucity of research on this topic, this study helps to define both the strengths and limitations within the Department of Defense’s sexual assault policies and procedures. These results may assist the Department of Defense, clinicians, and family members of sexual assault victims by providing greater understanding of areas of need and difficulties commonly encountered by military sexual assault victims.  


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Redwood

3:45pm

Women Who Resort To Violence in Intimate Relationships
In cases of domestic violence, some research findings suggest that men and women are equally violent toward intimate partners. However, the dynamics underlying intimate partner violence committed by men and women is frequently very different. Often, women who use violence do not exert force in a way as to assert power and control. Their behavior is often a way to protect themselves and a reaction to the abuse which they have experienced for years. As victimization comes to a head, women who resort to violence do so as a method to stay safe. In addition, the impact of violence committed by men leads to more severe consequences for the women they abuse. However, differences between the two scenarios are often not considered within the legal system, leading to arrests and convictions for women who are primarily battered women who use violent behavior as a result of the violence perpetrated against them rather than in an effort to control their partners. The number of women arrested does not reflect the true existence of women as primary aggressors, but rather a crack in the criminal justice system. The following paper will discuss research that investigates women who resort to violence in domestic relationships and the prevalence of this in recent years. Additionally, the differences between men and women’s use of interpersonal violence will be explored. It is hypothesized that women are more negatively impacted by domestic abuse than men. This paper proposes to explore explanations regarding intimate partner violence committed by women and gendered reactions to women who resort to violence. In summary, a review of the literature on women who resort to violence will help health care professionals understand what motivates a woman to use interpersonal violence.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Redwood

3:45pm

“Role-play”; Hyper-gender ideology and woman’s dating violence perpetration and victimization
Intimate partner violence (IPV), including physical, psychological, and sexual abuse of one’s partner, is a common and substantial problem in our society. Research has documented various risk (e.g., accepting attitudes) and protective (e.g., self-esteem) factors for IPV perpetration and victimization. Because society typically expects women and men to behave in different ways (e.g., women are not supposed to be violent) (e.g., McHugh et al., 2005), hypergender ideology (also known as gender-role ideology), or an adherence to traditional gender roles has been shown to be related to IPV perpetration and victimization. Using a sample of 17-61-year-olds, Fizpatrick et al. (2004) found that gender-role ideology was related to women’s physical and psychological IPV perpetration and victimization. However, not only did Fitzpatrick et al.’s (2004) study include a wide age range of participants that may have influenced their results, but they also neglected to include sexual IPV in their study. Thus, the goal of the current study was to investigate the relationship between hypergender ideology and physical, psychological, and sexual IPV victimization and perpetration among college-aged young adults (i.e., aged 18-30), as this age group has a heightened risk of victimization and perpetration (e.g., Fisher et al., 2000). This study surveyed 335 women from a New England university who had been in a relationship in the past year. They were questioned on their experiences of IPV victimization and perpetration, as well as the extent to which they displayed hypergender ideology. We found that high levels of hypergender ideology were related to women’s physical IPV victimization, as well as their sexual and physical IPV perpetration. These results show that adhering to traditional gender roles may have implications for women’s use and receipt of partner aggression. Furthermore, these findings highlight the importance of education on the implications of adhering to gender roles in IPV prevention.


Saturday March 7, 2015 3:45pm - 5:00pm
Redwood