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*Note* This scheduling program was not designed by folks who do a lot with APA Style and unfortunately it defaults to listing authors in alphabetical order. We cannot fix this for this online schedule, but the author orders are posted in the order submitted in the printed program available via pdf here.

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Poster [clear filter]
Saturday, March 7
 

10:45am

Can Emotional Intelligence, Coping Style, and SPonsorship Predict Sobriety Through a 12-Step Program?
This study aims to predict whether or not a person will obtain sponsorship through the 12-step program based on Emotional Intelligence (EI) and coping style. The study also aims to predict whether quality of relationship with sponsor, along with EI and coping style, can predict alcohol and substance use outcomes. This is an important area of research because the existing literature support the notion that avoidant and poor interpersonal coping, low EI, and lack of sponsorship are associated with relapse for people trying to abstain from drugs and alcohol. Therefore, it is important to examine whether these traits make it more difficult to have a relationship with a sponsor and if, in turn, it becomes more difficult to stay sober without this relationship. The literature on sponsorship is sparse and those articles that do exist do not examine differences that may occur from sponsor to sponsor or within the sponsor-sponsee relationship. It is also important to examine whether EI, avoidant coping, and interpersonal coping skills directly relate to abstinence goals. This study will employ multiple regression analyses with EI, interpersonal coping, and avoidant coping acting as predictor variables and frequency of contact with sponsor acting as a moderator variable. A separate analysis will be run to determine if quality of relationship with sponsor can predict alcohol and substance use outcomes, with quality of relationship with sponsor acting as a predictor variable. All participants must be at least 18 years of age and meet the criteria for alcohol or substance abuse or dependence via self-report. Participants must also have been sponsored at some point, although current sponsorship is not necessary. This study also aims to create a reliable measure that will examine the quality of relationship with sponsor through a 12-step program.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Embracing the Mother: The importance of ecopsychology in counseling psychology doctoral training programs for social and restorative justice.
The American Psychological Association mandates providing culturally competent training, and counseling psychology training programs have embraced a leadership role in focusing on social justice as a “fifth force” (Smith, Constantine, Dunn, Dinehart, & Montoya, 2006; Miller & Sendrowitz, 2011; Ratts & Hutchins, 2009). Ecopsychology can help in developing culturally competent psychologists by providing additional cultural context related to client relationships with nature, as well as addressing ecological social injustices that negatively impact mental health such as proximity to toxic industries (Sicotte & Swanson, 2007). Ecopsychology examines human relationships with the environment, and the degradation of the environment, which impacts human mental health and mental health treatment provided by counseling psychologists and trainees. A lack of research related to the incorporation of ecopsychology into counseling psychology training programs could possibly indicate that training programs have yet to provide training in ecopsychology or offer ecopsychology courses. The purpose of this study was to assess inclusion of ecopsychology in APA-accredited counseling psychology doctoral programs, as well as attitudes, familiarity, and interests toward ecopsychology. As ecopsychology is a recently developing area of study, research is needed to understand its presence in counseling psychology (Roszak, 1992). This assessment helps identify the current role of ecopsychology in counseling psychology social justice training and inform future directions for increased inclusion. Suggestions for training, therapy, and community engagement are examined as well.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Feminism, Relationship Satisfaction, and Communication: Can Feminism and Romance Coexist?
Many people are reluctant to endorse feminist beliefs or to identify as feminists because of the social stigma attached to feminism. Feminist women are often criticized as ugly, aggressive, and man hating (Banziger & Hooker, 1979; Buschman & Lenart, 1996; Goldberg, Gottesdiener & Abramson, 1975; Griffin, 1989; Kamen, 1991; Rudman & Fairchild, 2007). Heterosexual women in particular are reluctant to embrace the label because of the implications such negative attributes could have in their relationships with men. Feminism, however, has been found to have positive effects for individuals and for interpersonal relationships. In particular, feminism has been associated with satisfaction in heterosexual relationships (Hurt et al., 2007; Rudman & Phelan, 2007; Saunders & Kashubeck-West, 2006; Yakushko, 2007; Yoder et al., 2007). This study was designed to explore the role of feminism in heterosexual relationships by assessing participants’ and their partners’ feminist beliefs and identities, and correlating them with scores on the Relationship Satisfaction Scale (McKibbin, Bates, Shackelford, Haken, LaMunyon, 2010), the Primary Communication Inventory (Navran, 1967), and the Sexual Communication Apprehension Scale (Babin, 2012). Overall, it was found that liberal feminist beliefs are particularly influential in heterosexual relationships and related to increased satisfaction and communication, whereas conservative beliefs show the opposite trend. On the other hand, radical feminism, and other types of feminism that similarly focus on societal structures, is related negatively to relationship variables. The effects of gender, experience of sexual harassment, and experience of sexual assault on willingness to endorse feminist beliefs are also evaluated. Although this study indicates that feminism’s role in romantic relationships is complex, it suggests that there are some aspects of feminism that both men and women would be wise to embrace.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Getting Men through the Door: Masculinity and Working with a Female Therapist
As the number of women in the mental health professions has increased, so has the likelihood that men seeking therapy will be seen by women therapists (Johnson, 2005). Few studies have examined men’s therapist gender preferences or the impact of men’s adherence to traditional masculine ideology on their willingness to attend and engage in therapy with women therapists. This study explored the relationship between men’s adherence to traditional masculine norms, their attitudes toward therapy, and their perceived competency of a woman therapist. Using the Masculinity Attitudes, Stress and Conformity (MASC) Questionnaire (Nabavi & Green, 2004), 319 men reported attitudinal and behavioral conformity to traditional masculine norms, as well as the degree of stress they experienced from adhering to these norms. They also reported their attitudes toward seeking psychotherapy. Participants then watched a 10-minute vignette of a female therapist conducting therapy with a male client and evaluated the therapist’s competency. Results found the more that men endorsed traditional masculine norms, and reported that their behavior conformed to these norms, the less likely they were to rate women therapists as competent. However, the more they experienced stress about their adherence to masculine norms, the higher they rated their likelihood to seek therapy and consider women therapists competent. Clinical implications suggest men who adhere to traditional masculine norms are less likely to address mental health issues, because of their reluctance to seek help or work with women therapist. However, increased stress caused by adherence to these norms lessens this reluctance. Continuing to systemically address problems caused by strict norm adherence, and opening men up to alternative masculine norms, is essential for their well-being.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Recent Immigrant Therapists: Lived Experiences, Divergent Voices
As immigration and globalization continue to alter the ethnocultural landscape in the United States of America, it becomes increasingly important to understand how these phenomena impact psychology, and specifically the psychotherapeutic situation, from both the therapist’s and patient’s perspectives. To date, there have been very few qualitative inquiries into the experience of being a non-native or recent immigrant psychotherapist practicing in the United States of America with predominantly native clients (Iwamasa, 1997; Nezu, 2010). For the purposes of our study, “non-native” was defined as not born in the USA and self-identified as a member of a cultural or ethnic minority group, and “native” was defined as born in the USA and self-identified as a member of a cultural or ethnic majority group. In the interest of exploring this increasingly relevant area of psychological study in greater depth and breadth, we interviewed eight non-native psychotherapists hailing from eight different non-American backgrounds using a semi-structured interview approach, the results of which we collaboratively interpreted using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA; Smith, Flowers, & Larkin, 2009). Through this interpretive method, we identified four major themes that were central to the experience of non-native psychotherapists practicing with native-born patients in the United States: (1) awareness of differences between self and patients, (2) manifestations and impacts of power on the psychotherapeutic relationship, (3) the impact of differences on therapists’ identity, and (4) from separateness to cultivating belongingness in clinical work. Proposed poster presentation will elucidate further the results of the study as well as highlight implications for social justice and social action in psychology.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

The Benefits of “Rewriting” Life Events: Counterfactual Trees as a Therapeutic Tool
When thinking about past events, individuals commonly construct “what if” scenarios. Such imagined alternatives, or counterfactuals, take two main forms, upward (e.g., life could have been better) or downward (e.g., life could have been worse; Wong, Hasselhuhn, & Kray, 2012). Research suggests that, while the construction of upward counterfactuals can be related to negative affect and feelings of regret (Boninger, Gleicher, & Strathman, 1994), it is also related to future problem solving and the motivation to do things differently in the future. On the other hand, downward counterfactual thinking is related to enhanced meaning-making and positive emotions (e.g., Kray et, al., 2010; Ruodrlova & Prokopcakova, 2010). Surprisingly, except for a few studies examining the relationship between counterfactual thinking and well-being among women who have been raped (Branscombe et al., 2003) or who have had recurrent miscarriages (Callander et al, 2007), most research in this area has utilized experimental methods in laboratory settings. Our paper will build upon this work to describe how the construction of counterfactual narratives in a therapeutic setting can empower women to derive greater meaning from their experiences and learn from the past. Specifically, we will describe how clients can benefit from constructing counterfactual trees (i.e., unstructured diagrams of alternative outcomes) that explore the diverse ways in which meaningful events could have turned out differently. This will include a discussion of how women construct life narratives, fate perceptions, and locus of control. We will end with consideration of counterfactual narratives as a form of restorative justice for victims, perpetrators, and communities.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

The Experience of Working With Native American Mothers with Postpartum Depression
Postpartum Depression (PPD) occurs in 10-20% of mothers globally; cultural attributions about PPD differ. This study used qualitative, phenomenological methodology, interviewing six dominant culture caregivers, to investigate how Native American women in the Southwestern United States understand the transition to motherhood and caregivers’ experiences working with the mothers. Results indicate that many Native American women experience multiple life stressors, often PPD risk factors: poverty, substance abuse, teen pregnancy, sexual abuse, incarceration, gang activity, and domestic violence. Mothers are often overwhelmed and do not reflect on the meaning of motherhood. It is an expected life event. Results indicate that Native Americans define motherhood in broad, fluid terms. If a biological mother cannot care for her child, family may appoint a woman as the child’s mother. Most women accept the responsibility but the transition can be difficult. Helping both birth mothers and socially appointed mothers requires a broader perspective than the PPD diagnosis. Historically, Native American children were forcibly removed from their families and placed in boarding schools. The resultant loss of identity, family connections, access to traditional teachings, and exposure to trauma, have had lasting effects. Results indicate that the boarding school years continue to directly impact motherhood and parenting. Participants described a need for self-awareness about judgments and assumptions, and patience in rapport building. Consistency is key to building trust. Clients who miss appointments, the multiple needs of families, and challenges of systems work, create difficulties that may lead to burn out. Native American mothers may benefit from connecting to traditional elders and to other mothers, creating a circle of support. Advocacy and referrals can address life stressors. Direct exploration of historical trauma may reduce self-blame and build hope. Caregivers need self-awareness and good self-care to reduce burn out. Dominant culture caregivers can promote social justice for Native American people.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

The Phenomenological Investigation of Women’s Experiences in an Extramarital Affair
Infidelity is a culturally sensitive topic often viewed with an overarching shadow of secrecy and shame for the individuals involved. Betrayal is estimated to be one of the most substantial threats to marriage in addition to being considered immensely complicated to treat in couples counseling (Atkins, Baucom, & Jacobson, 2001; Jeanfreau, Jurich, Mong, 2014; Leeker & Carlozzi, 2014; Mark, Janssen, & Milhausen, 2011). Statistically, a significant portion of society is affected by infidelity. Studies by Ciarocco, Echevarria, and Lewandowski (2012) and Sharpe, Walters, and Goren (2013) estimate 30%-60% of individuals will be unfaithful in their marriage. Furthermore, the statistics vary among genders. The number of men who reported being unfaithful was 33% to 75%; while women reported infidelity rates of 26% to 70% (Drigotas & Barta, 2001; Jeanfreau, et al., 2014; Orzeck & Lung, 2005; Sharpe, et al., 2013). The possible reasons for the wide statistical variability can be attributed to the secret nature of the relationships, the limited research due to the anonymity of “the other woman,” and the possible ramifications of discovery for all individuals involved. A taboo regarding this topic has existed throughout history resulting in insufficient examination of causes explaining why single women become involved with married men (Richardson, 1979; Tuch, 2002). This poster will provide the results of a phenomenological study of lived experiences of five women’s journey as “the other woman” in an extramarital affair. Utilizing Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (Smith, 2010) and building on a pilot study, I will seek to provide contextually rich and participant-focused information about ways women themselves understand their relational patterns. The goals of this presentation are to provide evidence as to the function and motivation an affair has in “the other woman’s” life, identify commonalities in meanings ascribed to these experiences, describe relationship lessons learned, and explain how the relationship may affect women’s sense of self. Additionally, exploration of the women’s identification and transformation from a Jungian perspective will be addressed throughout the course of the relationship as they describe it. The presentation will seek to give voice to women, present their experiences from their own perspective in order to offer clinically relevant information.


Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood

10:45am

Treatment adherence for culturally adapted treatment for Latino adolescents
Substance abuse court-mandated treatment for Latino adolescents may provide an opportunity for restorative justice, especially if the treatment takes into consideration the culturally specific needs of Latino adolescents. Culturally adapted treatment is the term used to define treatments that meet culturally specific needs. The empirical development of culturally adapted treatment is still emerging, especially in the area of substance abuse treatment for adolescents. Treatment adherence research promotes further development of culturally adapted treatment, which ultimately better serves clients. Treatment adherence examines the mutual influence of therapist and clients on session content. As such, therapist delivery, client response, and interactions are considered part of treatment adherence. Ethnic identity is a primary developmental concern for adolescents. Relevant questions include: (a) How does my ethnic identity contribute to who I am? (b) To what extent do I belong and feel pride about my ethnic group? (c) How do I cope with racism and discrimination? Latino adolescents with healthy ethnic identity development tend to experience enhanced psychosocial outcomes. Prior research asserted the importance of ethnic identity and acculturation in culturally adapted treatment. Given this research, culturally adapted sessions were developed to address ethnic identity, acculturation, and racism. These culturally adapted sessions were purposively sampled for the current study. The current study aimed to examine the degree of treatment adherence in ethnic identity session of culturally adapted treatment. The research team qualitatively analyzed transcripts of 6 ethnic identity sessions with 30 Latino adolescents who were court-mandated for substance abuse treatment. Several components of treatment emerged, including: ethnic pride and stereotypes. In terms of ethnic pride, participants tended to (a) assertively self identify with an ethnic identity label and (b) minimize the impact of racism to demonstrate ethnic pride. In terms of stereotypes, participants tended to (a) be aware of stereotypes targeting Latinos and (b) assume that they were in Latino-only treatment due to stereotypes (i.e, Latinos have more drug problems). Qualitative results are interpreted in the context of treatment adherence. Recommendations for how to therapeutically address ethnic identity, acculturation, and racism with Latino adolescents are provided.

1st Author
AJ

Annika Johnson

Western Oregon University

Saturday March 7, 2015 10:45am - 12:00pm
Redwood